Semi-solid Metal (SSM) Processing – A New Approach to Metal Casting

By Dr. Muhammad Kamran

Introduction
 Discovered at MIT
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in 1971 During study of hot tearing of steel during solidification Modeled by Sn-15Pb alloy using Coeutte Rheometer

 Semi-solid Metal Processing
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Non-dendritic structure Solid-liquid region Suitable fraction solid

 Property exploited is

Rheology
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Steady state rheology (Rheology) Transient state rheology (Pseudoplasticity) Time dependent rheology (Thixotropy)
Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. Muhammad Kamran 2

April 30, 2009

Muhammad Kamran 3 . 2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr.Evolution to Non-dendritic Microstructure  Under Forced Convection  Fragmentation of primary dendrites by  Root melting of secondary dendritic arms  Bending and shearing of secondary denritic arms  Bending and root melting of secondary arms  Fragments of primary dendrites grow into globular grains under forced convection April 30.

2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. Muhammad Kamran 4 .Evolution to Non-dendritic Microstructure  Partial melting and Iso-thermal holding    Low temperature eutectic phase melts in semi-solid range Highly stressed grain boundaries favours wetting of grains with liquid Grain become globular to reduce curvature and liquidsolid interface energy April 30.

Introduction  Characteristics of Slurry Sheared semi-solid slurry shows apparent viscosity similar to machine oil  SSM Processing exploits T Conventional solidification Semi-solid Processing Liquid + Solid Solidification mechanism in the solid-liquid range i. 2009 Liquid Solid Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr.e. Time 5 . Muhammad Kamran Composition. nucleation and growth mechanisms April 30.

April 30.Alloy Characteristics  Solidification range  Low melting point phase/eutectic phase  Temperature Sensitivity of solid fraction  Castability  Potential for aging etc. Muhammad Kamran Fraction Solid Processing Range Temperature 6 . 2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr.

Al. 2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. Muhammad Kamran 7 .  Rheocasting  Shearing the liquid while cooling from liquid to liquid – solid range and casting a net-shape product  Thixocasting  Shearing a partially melted suitable precursor in semisolid range  Compocasting  Shearing a miscible or immiscible mixture of composite in the solid-liquid range April 30.Introduction  Classification suggested by Flemings et.

April 30. Muhammad Kamran 8 .Evolution to Non-dendritic Microstructure  Other Mechanisms    Grain refinement Spray forming and sintering Ultrasonic vibrations etc. 2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr.

2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. Muhammad Kamran 9 .Processing Techniques  Techniques for feed stock  Techniques for Finished Product April 30.

Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr.Semi-solid Metal Processing Techniques  Techniques for non-dendritic Feedstock        Mechanical Stirring Megnatohydrodynamic (MHD) Stirring Stress Induced and melt Activated (SIMA) Process Spray Forming Liquidus Casting Ultrasonic treatment Grain refienment etc. Muhammad Kamran 10 April 30. 2009 .

Muhammad Kamran 11 April 30.Semi-solid Metal Processing Techniques  Mechanical Stirring  Developed at MIT  Stirring of liquid alloy while controlled cooling in the semisolid range using auger. 2009 . impeller or paddle  Batch type or continuous process  For Rheocasting and Thixocasting Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr.

Semi-solid Metal Processing Techniques  Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Stirring   Patented by Alumax Inc. Muhammad Kamran 12 . 2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. Vigorous stirring by rotating magnetic field within the mould Normally for producing feedstock for thixocasting Disintegrated fine dendrites which convert to globular grains on partial melting    Most widely used process April 30.

Muhammad Kamran 13 April 30.Semi-solid Metal Processing Techniques  Stress Induced and Melt Activated (SIMA) Process  Severe deformation of precursor results in residual stresses  On heating recrystallisation occurs  On partial melting low melting point phase becomes liquid  High residual stress favours wetting of grain boundaries  Higher curvature and liquid-solid interface energy favours globular grain morphology  Longer holding time favours coarsening and agglomeration which deteriorate semisolidprocessability Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. 2009 .

Semi-solid Metal Processing Techniques  Liquidus Casting  Pouring of melt at near-liqudus temperature  Higher rate of Nucleation favouring fine grain size  On partial melting fine grains transform to globular grains  Grain Refinement  Promote heterogeneous nucleation   Finer grain size Grains transform to globular on partial melting Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. Muhammad Kamran 14 April 30. 2009 .

2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. April 30. Muhammad Kamran 15 .Semi-solid Metal Processing Techniques  Techniques for Net-shape Product     Rheocasting Thixoforming Thixomoulding Rheomoulding etc.

2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr.Semi-solid Metal Processing Techniques  Rheocasting  Non-dendritic ally slurry obtained from shearing while cooling from liquid state Mechanical stirring MHD Stirring New Rheocasting (NRC)    April 30. Muhammad Kamran 16 .

Semi-solid Metal Processing Techniques  Thixocasting  Partial melting of suitable feedstock     Mechanical stirring MHD stirring SIMA process Spray forming   Thixocasting Thixoforging Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. Muhammad Kamran 17 April 30. 2009 .

Semi-solid Metal Processing Techniques  Thixomoulding®  Simultaneous heating and shearing of solid feedstock in a chamber by rotating barrel  Designed for Mg alloy  Controlled atmosphere  Similar to injection moulding April 30. Muhammad Kamran 18 . 2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr.

Semi-solid Metal Processing Techniques  Rheomoulding    Vigorous Shearing of liquid alloy using screw type drive while cooling Similar to Injection moulding Suitable even for immiscible alloy formation and processing  Twin Screw Rheomoulding (TSRM) process is an upgradation Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. Muhammad Kamran 19 April 30. 2009 .

Commercial features  Advantages       Energy efficient Production rate compete that for pressure die casting Smooth die filling with no air entrapment favouring product soundness Lower processing temperature Lower Impact to the die Reduced solidification shrinkage Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. 2009 . Muhammad Kamran 20 April 30.

Commercial features  Disadvantages    Relatively higher feedstock material cost Precise control of operating condition is required. Liquid segregation may occur as a result of non-uniform heating April 30. 2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. Muhammad Kamran 21 .

2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. air conditioner compressor housing etc. Muhammad Kamran 22 .Commercial features  Potential Applications  Replacement of permanent mould parts to eliminate machining and finishing  Pressure tight parts such as master brake cylinders. brake drums.  High strength parts such as engine mounts.  Forged parts requiring excessive tooling April 30. gear shift levers etc. fuel rails.  Wear resistant parts made from hypereutectic alloys such as compressor piston. tie rods etc.

Commercial features  Current Applications/Products Hydraulic Brake Valve Automobile Wheels April 30. 2009 Brake master Cylinder Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. Muhammad Kamran 23 .

Commercial features Door Pillars for Audi Control arms for Steering Fiat Engine bracket Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr. 2009 24 . Muhammad Kamran April 30.

2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr.Future Developments  Process development  Mechanism of formation of non-dendritic structure  Alloy development  Simulation studies of process  Viable process for steel and Cast Iron April 30. Muhammad Kamran 25 .

Muhammad Kamran 26 . 2009 Semi-solid Metal processing by Dr.Thank You for Your Patience April 30.