MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS

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At the same time. CO2. IN LIGHT TO MODERATE EXERCISE. . the cardiac output (CO) rises from 5–6 L/min at rest to a maximum of 15–20 L/min during exercise. and lactate. In untrained subjects (UT). must soon be interrupted because the heart cannot achieve the required long-term performance.IN STRENUOUS EXERCISE. the heart rate soon levels out at a new constant level. and no fatigue occurs. VERY STRENUOUS EXERCISE. the muscle must rid itself of metabolic products such as H+. Muscle work therefore requires drastic cardiovascular and respiratory changes. on the other hand. the muscles require up to 500 times more O2 than when at rest.

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Both the respiratory rate (40–60 min -1 max. equivalent to 10% of the maximum cardiac output.) contribute to this increase.MUSCULAR BLOOD FLOW At the maximum work level. Hence. During physical exercise.5 L/min. and the tidal volume ( 2 L max.5 L/min to a maximum of 90 to 120 L/min. no more than 10 kg of muscle (<1/3 the total muscle mass) can be fully active at any one time. . the blood flow in 1 kg of active muscle rises to as much as 2. the ventilation (VE) increases from a resting value of 7.

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This may be desirable in athletes. and the plasma lactate concentration. for example. . to assess the results of training. or in patients undergoing rehabilitation therapy. The measured physical power (performance) is expressed in watts (W) or W/kg body weight (BW). respiration rate. Ergometry assesses the effects of exercise on physiological parameters such as O2 consumption (VO2).PHYSICAL FITNESS AND TRAINING The physical exercise capacity can be measured using simple yet standardized techniques of ergometry. heart rate.

The maximum O2 consumption (V O2max) is used to measure longer term aerobic exercise performance achieved through oxidation of glucose and free fatty acids. glycogen). Medium-term performance tests measure performance fueled by anaerobic glycolysis . .Short-term performance tests (10–30 s) measure performance achieved through the rapidly available energy reserves (creatine phosphate.

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Exercise must eventually be interrupted. Lactate concentrations above 4 mmol/L (anaerobic threshold) indicate that the performance limit will soon be reached. the aerobic mechanisms do not produce enough energy. This results in lactacidosis and a sharp increase in the plasma lactate concentration. not because of the increasing lactate concentration. Lactate concentrations of up to 2 mmol/L (aerobic threshold) can be tolerated for prolonged periods of exercise. so anaerobic metabolism must continue as a parallel energy source. .In strenuous exercise (roughly 2/3 the maximum physical capacity or more). but because of the increasing level of acidosis.

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Excessive physical exercise causes muscle soreness and stiffness. which leads to muscle swelling and pain. . The underlying cause is not lactic acid accumulation. is a sign of microinflammation. but sarcomere microtrauma. The muscle ache.

This is particularly quick to occur during postural work. Peripheral fatigue is caused by the exhaustion of energy reserves and the accumulation of metabolic products in the active muscle.MUSCLE FATIGUE Muscle fatigue may be peripheral or central. Central fatigue is characterized by work-related pain in the involved muscles and joints that prevents the continuation of physical exercise or decreased the individual’s motivation to continue the exercise. .