check.Total Quality Management (TQM) is a comprehensive and structured approach to organizational management that seeks to improve the quality of products and services through ongoing refinements in response to continuous feedback  TQM processes are divided into four sequential categories: plan. do. and act (thePDCA cycle)  .

  . Total employee involvement: All employees participate in working toward common goals Process-centered: A fundamental part of TQM is a focus on process thinking. Customer-focused: The customer ultimately determines the level of quality.

 Integrated system :an integrated system connects business improvement elements in an attempt to continually improve and exceed the expectations of customers. employees. and goals Continual improvement: A major thrust of TQM is continual process improvement. and other stakeholders. Strategic and systematic approach: A critical part of the management of quality is the strategic and systematic approach to achieving an organization’s vision. mission.   .

Communications: During times of organizational change. data on performance measures are necessary.  . as well as part of day-to-day operation communication play vital role. Fact-based decision making: In order to know how well an organization is performing.

 The TQM element approach: The TQM element approach takes key business processes and/or organizational units and uses the tools of TQM to foster improvements. individuals or teams visit organizations that have taken a leadership role in TQM and determine their processes and reasons for success   . The guru approach: The guru approach uses the teachings and writings of one or more of the leading quality thinkers as a guide against which to determine where the organization has deficiencies The organization model approach: In this approach.

 The Japanese total quality approach: Organizations using the Japanese total quality approach examine the detailed implementation techniques and strategies employed by Deming Prize–winning companies and use this experience to develop a long-range master plan for in-house use. an organization uses the criteria of a quality award.  . The award criteria approach: When using this model.

Total Quality HRM Approach Shared responsibility. Designed & adjusted by management – employee committee . Open books. productivity. Adequate quality to remain in business. customer & employee satisfaction and loyalty. Total quality management and continues improvement at and across every level. Limited to information on an as – needed basis for job performance. profitability. Commitment and rewards Increased quality. quality is secondary. feed back on job performance. Quality education. costs Quality Objective Business Information Sharing Education and Training Reward structure On-the-Job Training. Increased productivity. quality. multiple skill training. problem solving and group process. Management designed and administered. productivity. focus on labour.Traditional HRM Approach Philosophy Business Objective A fair day’s work for a fair day’s pay. share board information on profits.

 Performance Appraisals Job Design and Analysis Selection and Recruitment Training & Development Employee empowerment & Recognition      Teamwork .

 Customers complained of quality levels of Motorola products.37%. Solution : Six Sigma Quality Program  In 1985 .Problem :  Being forced to abandon product areas by Japanese suppliers of better and/or cheaper products.43% and in 1987 73% of the total training was devoted to quality . in 1986 .

"Design for Manufacturing“  It taught the engineers how to design a product virtually defect-free.In March 1987. all line and support managers as well as supervisors and workers. a new course was launched. including the senior executives.  Motorola has developed quality-related training programs for all levels within the company.  .

Total quality management is the responsibility of every employee. and it has to be accomplished in all aspects of action and work in the organization  Competitive markets .Motivating knowledge workers .One of the effects of a competitive market is to lower quality standards to a minimally acceptable level  .The performance of the workers could be improved and increased by proper motivation  Vastness of organization .

Lack of proper planning .  Lack of management commitment .The absence of a sound strategic plan has often contributed to ineffective quality improvement.A quality implementation program will succeed only if top management is fully committed towards the customer expectations  Communication barriers .The success of implementation of total quality management will critically depend on a successful communication exercise  .

to achieve total quality management every employee has to recognize that the job they are doing will be worth the effort and will lead to the achievement of total quality management. Lack of customer focus .Excess layers of management in the organization would quite often lead to duplication of duty and responsibility.   Lack of proper authority and leadership .organizations do not focus on the customer needs and tend to concentrate much on profit oriented objectives . This would make the employees of an organization to leave the quality implementation to be a management’s job. Employee satisfaction .