talk. including the inside of the cheeks. and palate. and sleep. Stomatitis can occur anywhere in the mouth. tongue. gums. lips. .Definition   Stomatitis. a general term for an inflamed and sore mouth. can disrupt a person's ability to eat.

sharing food. or playing in close contact with others who have an active herpes infection. . stomatitis may or may not be contagious.Transmission   Depending upon its cause. Herpes stomatitis is considered contagious. Children may be exposed through kissing. Aphthous stomatitis is not contagious. such as a cold sore .

different types affect children at different times.Demographycs   Though stomatitis may occur at any time during a child's growth. Aphthous stomatitis begins in childhood or adolescence. with peak onset in those aged ten to 19 years. . Children of higher socioeconomic status may be more affected than those who are from lower socioeconomic groups. Aphthous ulcers may be more common in females than males. Herpes stomatitis can occur anywhere between six months and five years of age but is most common in children one to two years old who have not been exposed to the herpes virus before.

The cause of aphthous stomatitis is unknown. which in turn leads to irritation. Chronic mouth breathing due to plugged nasal airways may cause dryness of the mouth tissues. The cause of herpes stomatitis is the herpes virus type 1 (not to be confused with genital herpes. although several factors are suspected. folic acid . or viral infections. In addition. food allergies . Cheek biting. They may occur with no identifiable cause. braces. There may be an inherited tendency to develop cancer sores and there may also be an immune system link. Cause and Symptoms  . Causes A number of factors can cause stomatitis. menstrual periods. which is caused by the herpes virus type 2 and is a sexually transmitted disease). or jagged teeth may persistently irritate the oral structures. they may be triggered by emotional stress. nutritional deficiencies of iron. or vitamin B12.

which may be irritated and bleed  pain in the mouth  drooling  difficulty swallowing  foul-smelling breath  . Symptoms Stomatitis is characterized by pain or discomfort in the mouth and the presence of open sores or ulcers in the mouth. and red around the edges. grayish white in the middle. often on the tongue or cheeks or roof of the mouth.3–40°C). which may precede the appearance of blisters and ulcers by one or two days  irritability and restlessness  blisters in the mouth. sometimes as high as 101–104°F (38. Herpes stomatitis may cause the following symptoms:  fever . which then pop and form ulcers (These ulcers are usually small [about one to five millimeters in diameter].)  swollen gums.

which is usually small (one to two millimeters to one centimeter in diameter) (The ulcers can be single or break out in clusters. then develop into an open ulcer. Aphthous stomatitis may cause the following symptoms: burning or tingling sensation in the mouth prior to the onset of other symptoms skin lesions on the mucous membranes of the mouth. and the center appears white or yellow with a fibrous texture. which begin as a red spot or bump.)  . The ulcers are painful. The border of the sore may be bright red.

can be addressed by a dentist or orthodontist. such as sharp teeth or braces. tacos. local cleansing and good oral hygiene is fundamental. Sharp-edged foods such as peanuts. A soft-bristled toothbrush should be used. and the teeth and gums should be brushed carefully.Treatments   The treatment of stomatitis is based upon the problem causing it. Local factors. and potato chips should be avoided. the child should rinse out his mouth with plain water after each meal. For all types. . If toothbrushing is too painful.

or lukewarm broth are easiest to drink.  . the doctor may prescribe an antiviral medication such as acyclovir which. the most important part of treatment is for parents to keep their child drinking as normally as possible. the doctor may use intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration . Citrus juices and spicy or salty foods should be avoided. by numbing the mouth.3°C) and to address pain. Sucking on a Popsicle or sherbet may be soothing. liquid flavored gelatin. However. like viscous lidocaine or topical anesthetics only last for a brief time and. Bland fluids such as apple juice. if given at the beginning of the outbreak. Antibiotics are of no help in treating herpes stomatitis. Acetaminophen may be used for temperatures over 101°F (38.Herpes stomatitis treatment  In herpes stomatitis. Medicines that numb the mouth. In the event of severe disease. if the case is particularly severe. may help clear things up faster. may cause your child to further injure damaged tissues without knowing it.

Aphthous stomatitis treatment  Medical treatment is usually not necessary for aphthous stomatitis. In this case medical evaluation and treatment may be indicated. Mild mouth washes such as salt water or over-the-counter mouthwashes may help.  . Over-the-counter topical medications applied to the ulcerated area may reduce discomfort and sooth the area. To prevent bacterial infections from developing. and topical or oral tetracycline may be given. Avoid hot or spicy foods to minimize discomfort. tetracycline is usually not prescribed for children until after all of their permanent teeth have erupted. However. parents should encourage their child to brush and floss teeth regularly. unless the ulcers are severe (larger than one centimeter or lasting longer than two weeks). as it can permanently discolor teeth that are still forming.

Alternative treatment   Placing a spent tea bag on a canker sore may provide comfort. . Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). is a potential cause of canker sores. In one study. most recurrent canker sores were eliminated just by avoiding SLS-containing toothpaste for three months. a component of some toothpastes.

or vitamin B12. as well as foods high in B vitamins . iron. buttermilk. Some doctors may recommend supplementation with folic acid.Nutritional concerns  Some physicians may recommend a variety of dietary measures to treat stomatitis.  . and yogurt. These may include eating cottage cheese.

Many mouth ulcers are benign and resolve without specific treatment.Prognosis   The prognosis for the resolution of stomatitis is based upon the cause of the problem. Oral acyclovir may speed up recovery. In the case of herpes stomatitis. Most children are minimally inconvenienced by aphthous stomatitis. complete recovery is expected within ten days without any medical intervention. because attacks are usually infrequent and only last a few days. .

there is no practical way to prevent herpes stomatitis. regular dental checkups. however. and  good dietary habits.Prevention  Stomatitis caused by irritants can be prevented by good oral hygiene. or playing in close contact with people who have an active herpes infection. sharing food. Because so many adults and children carry the herpes virus. and because they can pass it on even if they have no symptoms. Parents can. . discourage their child from kissing.

parents can insure that the child is taking the appropriate supplements and eating the recommended foods.  . If the doctor has determined that the child has a nutritional deficiency. even minor trauma. Avoiding stressful situations may also be beneficial. to the mouth. such as hard toothbrushes and rough foods. Canker sores may be minimized by teaching children to avoid trauma.

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