Measuring

Temperature with Thermocouples

Temperature Sensors

T E M P - C O N T R O L S Y T E M F O R A S T I R R E DTAN K H EAT E R
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TC p V I/P pt S TEAM Ps Tc S TI RRER TT M Ti w T c - T H E R MO C O U P L E T C - T E MP CO NTRO LLER T T - T E MP T R A N S MI T T E R I / P - I / P CO NVERTER T
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// P N E U M A T I C
CO NDENS ATE

SIGNAL

Applications Of Temp: Sensors
Control • Process Control • Battery Charging Monitoring • Portable Equipment • CPU Temperature • Battery Temperature • Ambient Temperature

Common Thermocouples .

TC Voltage O/p Extremes (mV) .

TC Voltage Vs Temp ΔV ≈ S ΔT .

K.S) .Thermocouple O/p Voltages (J.

Seebeck Coefficient Vs Temp .

J-Type Thermocouple .

CJC :TC Law of Intermediate Metals .

CJC: Inserting an Extra Lead in the Isothermal Region .

Classical Cold-Junction Compensation (CJC) .

.Classical Cold-Junction Compensation (CJC)….

anvn V= co + c1T + c2T2 + . VMEAS = VJ1 .CJC….VREF T= a0 + a1v + a2v2 ... cnTn ..

NIST Polynomial Coefficients for V-to-T .

V .NIST Polynomial Coefficients for T -to.

CJC: Implementation Techniques •Software compensation •Hardware compensation Reference junction temperature to be sensed with a direct-reading sensor .

CJC Software Implementation Direct Voltage Addition Method •Measure TREF •Convert to VREF •VJ1 = VMEAS + VREF • Convert VJ1 to T .

CJC Software Implementation…… Direct Temperature Addition Method •Measure VMEAS and TREF •Convert VMEAS to TMEAS •TTC = TMEAS + TREF .

CJC Signal Connections (Software) .

CJC Hardware Compensation .

CJC Hardware Compensation (Using Temperature Sensor) .

CJC Hardware Compensation (Using Temperature Sensor with ADC) .

CJC Software Vs Hardware compensation Software Hardware Less accurate Voltage Addition: more accurate Separate CJC CKT for Temperature Addition: each type Only fewer computational steps Fairly expensive .

Temperature Measurement Error .

Temperature Measurement Error •Total Error = Hot Junction Error + Cold Junction Error + Isothermal Bar Error .

1991 ( IEC 584-2 :1982 + A1 : 1989 ). .Thermocouple Tolerance Table to BS4937 Part 20.

.5°C..0.5°C and +.Thermocouple Tolerance Table to BS4937 Part 20. 1991 ( IEC 584-2 :1982 + A1 : 1989 )…. • Compensation cables have tolerances in between +.

Hot Junction Measurement Error • Linearization error – Linearization error = | T .T`| • Conversion error – Range – ADC Resolution Hot junction error = Linearization error + Conversion error .

• Thermistor error Cold Junction Error = Linearization Error + Conversion Error + Thermister Error .• Linearization error • Conversion error Cold Junction Measurement Error – Range – ADC Resolution – Error in the voltage/current source – Error due to components tolerance/stability .

Thermocouple Selection Criteria Operating Environment: • Operating temperature range • Process fluid (affects life / performance of TC) Sheath material Thermo well Cost/Performance Ratio: • Accuracy class Longevity: .

Thermocouple Selection Criteria…. Response Time: .

Response Time: .Thermocouple Selection Criteria….

junction Temperature Measurement .Cold .

Cold junction Temperature Measurement .

. 10 M. 10 k............. 2 Hz ..... and T Input signal range........Specifications These specifications are typical at 25 °C unless otherwise stated................. powered off or overload Bandwidth .... E...... 1 DIFF Input signals ..... R... powered on.. S.........................Thermocouples of types B. J... K....... Analog Input Number of input channels ......... N...... ±100 mV Input impedance.....

..... 250 nA max (assuming floating thermocouple) Common-mode rejection ratio ........... 110 dB min Output range................Amplifier Characteristics Open thermocouple detection current ... ±10 V max ...............

............... ±0.........................................................004% max Recommended warm-up time ...........Transfer Characteristics Gain...... ±5 µV max (post calibration) Offset stability................... ..6 µV/°C max Nonlinearity .......0005%/°C max Offset error ............ ±0........ ±0... 100 Gain error ..... 5 min .....................08% max Gain stability .............. ±0....

.4 °C max from 15 to 35 °C...75 °C max from 35 to 55 °C Output ..75 °C max from 0 to 15 °C ±0...91 V (0 °C) to 0.58 V (55 °C) ........ ±0..±0.Cold-Junction Sensor Sensor accuracy....1.

.. Maximum field wire gauge ....... 16 AWG ................ 10 M.........................Open Thermocouple Detection Pull-up resistor .............. Bias resistor..................... 10 M...........

Maximum Working Voltage Maximum working voltage = signal voltage + common-mode voltage Each input must remain within ±12 V of chassis ground. .

......2 ..........0 to 50 °C Storage temperature ..2................–20 to 70 °C Humidity.....Environmental Operating temperature ..............10 to 90% RH... noncondensing Maximum altitude................000 m Pollution Degree (indoor use only) ...................

.Electromagnetic Compatibility Emissions..................... .EN 55011 Class A at 10 m FCC Part 15A above 1 GHz Immunity .........EN 61326:1997 + A2:2001...

DAQ Measurement Accuracy .

TC Measurement Issues • • • • TC Wire Decalibration Insulation Resistance Failure TC Isolation Auto-Zero Correction/Calibrating System Offsets – Line-Cycle Noise Rejection • • • • Open TC Detection Errors Due to Open-TC Detection Ckt Galvanic Action Thermal Shunting .

Open Thermocouple Detection .

Insulation Resistance Failure .

Auto-Zero Correction .