SECOND ORDER LINEAR

ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS WITH
CONSTANT COEFFICIENT
LAPLACE
Lets see
It’s easier to get the answer …
Table !
FSTPi, UTHM
Theorem 1 : Linearity

Characteristics of Laplace Transform



where | o and
are costants.
o | o = + )} ( ) ( {
2 1
t f t f
| + )} ( {
1
t f
)} ( {
2
t f
L
L L
Theorem 2 : First Shift



). ( )} ( { a s F t f e
at
÷ =
If {f (t)}= F(s), and a is a constant,
then
L
L
Example

Example

PROPERTIES OF INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORM
FSTPi, UTHM
n
t
n
n
n
ds
d
) 1 (÷
n
n
n
ds
d
) 1 (÷
Theorem 3 : Multiply with


If L {f (t)} = F(s), then for n = 1, 2, 3, ……..

L {
f (t)} =
L {f (t)}

F(s)

=

Example

Try this!
FSTPi, UTHM
) ( )} ( {
1
t f s F =
÷
1 ÷
1 ÷
=
INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION
Definition : Inverse Laplace Transform

If L {f (t)} = F(s), so L

L
is known as the operation of
inverse Laplace transform.

Note : L

1
L
Example

FSTPi, UTHM
How to apply these techniques in finding
Inverse Laplace transforms?
Step 1 Determine either the given function need these
techniques or not.
Step 2 Apply techniques of partial fraction or completing the
square.
Step 3 Find inverse Laplace transformation for the new
Function.

FSTPi, UTHM
METHOD OF PARTIAL FRACTION AND
COMPLETING THE SQUARE
Sometimes, we need to apply technique of partial fraction
and completing the square before we can proceed with
inverse Laplace transformation.
Partial fraction
1. Rational function --> Degree D (s) > N (s)

if not, doing long division first.
2. Factorize D (s) if possible.
3. Refer table of partial fraction.
( )
( )
N s
D s
Completing the square
Example:
2 2
2 2
6 8 ( 3) 1
2 3 ( 1) 2
s s s
s s s
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ + ÷ ÷ +
FSTPi, UTHM
Partial Fraction
The denominator Partial fraction
ax b +

A
ax b +

2
( ) ax b +

1 2
2
( )
A A
ax b ax b
+
+ +

( )
r
ax b +

1 2
2
( ) ( )
r
r
A A A
ax b ax b ax b
+ + +
+ + +

2
ax bx c + +

2
Ax B
ax bx c
+
+ +

2 2
( ) ax bx c + +

1 1 2 2
2 2 2
( )
A x B A x B
ax bx c ax bx c
+ +
+
+ + + +

2
( )
r
ax bx c + +

1 1 2 2
2 2 2 2
( ) ( )
r r
r
A x B A x B A x B
ax bx c ax bx c ax bx c
+ + +
+ + +
+ + + + + +


FSTPi, UTHM
1 ÷
Determine L
Example :
Do you think the expression above easier to
get the answer from table?
See more detail ….
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
+
6
1 3
2
s s
s
FSTPi, UTHM
Application Laplace Transform to Solve
Nonhomogenous Deferential Equation

) ( )} ( { s Y t y =
L
) 0 ( ) ( )} ( { y s sY t y ÷ =
' L
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) ( )} ( {
2
y y s s Y s t y
'
÷ ÷ =
' '
L
FSTPi, UTHM
Steps of solving :
• Take Laplace transform of both sides of the equation.
• Obtain the algebraic equation for Y(s).
= ) (x y
)} ( {
1
s Y
÷
= ) (t y
)} ( {
1
s Y
÷
• Solve for Y(s).
• Take the inverse Laplace transform to get :

L
or
L
FSTPi, UTHM
Solve
, 4 2 = ÷ y
dt
dy
given y(0) = 1. 1.
2.
t
e y
dt
dy
dt
y d
3
2
2
2 2 3 = + ÷ given y(0) = 5 and y’(0) = 7.
See more detail ….
See more detail ….
FSTPi, UTHM
LET’S TRY THIS!
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace
(1745-1827)