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ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL

EQUATIONS WITH

CONSTANT COEFFICIENT

LAPLACE

Lets see

It’s easier to get the answer …

Table !

FSTPi, UTHM

Theorem 1 : Linearity

Characteristics of Laplace Transform

where | o and

are costants.

o | o = + )} ( ) ( {

2 1

t f t f

| + )} ( {

1

t f

)} ( {

2

t f

L

L L

Theorem 2 : First Shift

). ( )} ( { a s F t f e

at

÷ =

If {f (t)}= F(s), and a is a constant,

then

L

L

Example

Example

PROPERTIES OF INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

FSTPi, UTHM

n

t

n

n

n

ds

d

) 1 (÷

n

n

n

ds

d

) 1 (÷

Theorem 3 : Multiply with

If L {f (t)} = F(s), then for n = 1, 2, 3, ……..

L {

f (t)} =

L {f (t)}

F(s)

=

Example

Try this!

FSTPi, UTHM

) ( )} ( {

1

t f s F =

÷

1 ÷

1 ÷

=

INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION

Definition : Inverse Laplace Transform

If L {f (t)} = F(s), so L

L

is known as the operation of

inverse Laplace transform.

Note : L

1

L

Example

FSTPi, UTHM

How to apply these techniques in finding

Inverse Laplace transforms?

Step 1 Determine either the given function need these

techniques or not.

Step 2 Apply techniques of partial fraction or completing the

square.

Step 3 Find inverse Laplace transformation for the new

Function.

FSTPi, UTHM

METHOD OF PARTIAL FRACTION AND

COMPLETING THE SQUARE

Sometimes, we need to apply technique of partial fraction

and completing the square before we can proceed with

inverse Laplace transformation.

Partial fraction

1. Rational function --> Degree D (s) > N (s)

if not, doing long division first.

2. Factorize D (s) if possible.

3. Refer table of partial fraction.

( )

( )

N s

D s

Completing the square

Example:

2 2

2 2

6 8 ( 3) 1

2 3 ( 1) 2

s s s

s s s

÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷

÷ + ÷ ÷ +

FSTPi, UTHM

Partial Fraction

The denominator Partial fraction

ax b +

A

ax b +

2

( ) ax b +

1 2

2

( )

A A

ax b ax b

+

+ +

( )

r

ax b +

1 2

2

( ) ( )

r

r

A A A

ax b ax b ax b

+ + +

+ + +

2

ax bx c + +

2

Ax B

ax bx c

+

+ +

2 2

( ) ax bx c + +

1 1 2 2

2 2 2

( )

A x B A x B

ax bx c ax bx c

+ +

+

+ + + +

2

( )

r

ax bx c + +

1 1 2 2

2 2 2 2

( ) ( )

r r

r

A x B A x B A x B

ax bx c ax bx c ax bx c

+ + +

+ + +

+ + + + + +

FSTPi, UTHM

1 ÷

Determine L

Example :

Do you think the expression above easier to

get the answer from table?

See more detail ….

)

`

¹

¹

´

¦

÷ ÷

+

6

1 3

2

s s

s

FSTPi, UTHM

Application Laplace Transform to Solve

Nonhomogenous Deferential Equation

) ( )} ( { s Y t y =

L

) 0 ( ) ( )} ( { y s sY t y ÷ =

' L

) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) ( )} ( {

2

y y s s Y s t y

'

÷ ÷ =

' '

L

FSTPi, UTHM

Steps of solving :

• Take Laplace transform of both sides of the equation.

• Obtain the algebraic equation for Y(s).

= ) (x y

)} ( {

1

s Y

÷

= ) (t y

)} ( {

1

s Y

÷

• Solve for Y(s).

• Take the inverse Laplace transform to get :

L

or

L

FSTPi, UTHM

Solve

, 4 2 = ÷ y

dt

dy

given y(0) = 1. 1.

2.

t

e y

dt

dy

dt

y d

3

2

2

2 2 3 = + ÷ given y(0) = 5 and y’(0) = 7.

See more detail ….

See more detail ….

FSTPi, UTHM

LET’S TRY THIS!

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace

(1745-1827)

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