MECH 401

Mechanical Design Applications
Dr. M. O’Malley– Master Notes
Spring 2008
Dr. D. M. McStravick
Rice University
 Reading
 Chapter 6
 Homework
 HW 4 available, due 2-7
 Tests
 Fundamentals Exam will be in class on 2-21


Nature of fatigue failure
 Starts with a crack
 Usually at a stress concentration
 Crack propagates until the material fractures
suddenly
 Fatigue failure is typically sudden and
complete, and doesn‟t give warning
Fatigue Failure Examples

 Various Fatigue Crack Surfaces [Text fig. 6-2]
 Bolt Fatigue Failure [Text fig. 6-1]
 Drive Shaft [Text fig. 6-3]
 AISI 8640 Pin [Text fig. 6-4]
 Steam Hammer Piston Rod [Text fig. 6-6]
 Jacob Neu chair failure (in this classroom)
Fatigue Example 1
Fatigue Failure Example

Fatigue Failure Example
Fatigue Failure Example

Stamping Fatigue Failure Example

Schematic of Various Fatigue Failure


Jim Neu Chair Failure (Pedestal)
Fatigue Failure of Chair Shaft
Seat Fatigue Failure
Fatigue
 Fatigue strength and endurance limit
 Estimating FS and EL
 Modifying factors

 Thus far we‟ve studied static failure of machine elements
 The second major class of component failure is due to dynamic loading
 Variable stresses
 Repeated stresses
 Alternating stresses
 Fluctuating stresses
 The ultimate strength of a material (S
u
) is the maximum stress a
material can sustain before failure assuming the load is applied only
once and held
 A material can also fail by being loaded repeatedly to a stress level that
is LESS than S
u

 Fatigue failure
More Fatigue Failure Examples (ASM)

More Fatigue Failure Examples (ASM)

More Fatigue Failure Examples

Approach to fatigue failure in analysis and
design
 Fatigue-life methods (6-3 to 6-6)
 Stress Life Method (Used in this course)
 Strain Life Method
 Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method
 Stress-life method (rest of chapter 6)
 Addresses high cycle Fatigue (>10
3
) Well
 Not Accurate for Low Cycle Fatigue (<10
3
)
The 3 major methods
 Stress-life
 Based on stress levels only
 Least accurate for low-cycle fatigue
 Most traditional
 Easiest to implement
 Ample supporting data
 Represents high-cycle applications adequately
 Strain-life
 More detailed analysis of plastic deformation at localized regions
 Good for low-cycle fatigue applications
 Some uncertainties exist in the results
 Linear-elastic fracture mechanics
 Assumes crack is already present and detected
 Predicts crack growth with respect to stress intensity
 Practical when applied to large structures in conjunction with computer
codes and periodic inspection
Fatigue analysis
 2 primary classifications of
fatigue
 Alternating – no DC component



 Fluctuating – non-zero DC
component
Analysis of alternating stresses
 As the number of cycles
increases, the fatigue strength
S
f
(the point of failure due to
fatigue loading) decreases
 For steel and titanium, this
fatigue strength is never less
than the endurance limit, S
e

 Our design criteria is:


 As the number of cycles
approaches infinity (N  ∞),
S
f
(N) = S
e
(for iron or Steel)
a
f
N S
o
q
'
=
) (
Method of calculating fatigue strength
 Seems like we should be able to use graphs
like this to calculate our fatigue strength if
we know the material and the number of
cycles
 We could use our factor of safety equation
as our design equation

 But there are a couple of problems with this
approach
 S-N information is difficult to obtain and thus is
much more scarce than o÷c information
 S-N diagram is created for a lab specimen
 Smooth
 Circular
 Ideal conditions
 Therefore, we need analytical methods for
estimating S
f
(N) and S
e

a
f
N S
o
q
'
=
) (
Terminology and notation
 Infinite life versus finite life
 Infinite life
 Implies N ∞
 Use endurance limit (S
e
) of material
 Lowest value for strength
 Finite life
 Implies we know a value of N (number of cycles)
 Use fatigue strength (S
f
) of the material (higher than S
e
)

 Prime („) versus no prime
 Strength variable with a „ (S
e
‟)
 Implies that the value of that strength (endurance limit) applies to a LAB SPECIMEN in
controlled conditions
 Variables without a „ (S
e
, S
f
)
 Implies that the value of that strength applies to an actual case
 First we find the prime value for our situation (S
e
‟)
 Then we will modify this value to account for differences between a lab specimen and our
actual situation
 This will give us S
e
(depending on whether we are considering infinite life or finite life)
 Note that our design equation uses S
f
, so we won‟t be able to account for safety factors until
we have calculated S
e
‟ and S
e

a
f
N S
o
q
'
=
) (
a
e
S
o
q
'
=
Estimating S
e
’ – Steel and Iron
 For steels and irons, we can estimate the
endurance limit (S
e
‟) based on the ultimate
strength of the material (S
ut
)
 Steel
 S
e
‟ = 0.5 S
ut
for S
ut
< 200 ksi (1400 MPa)
= 100 ksi (700 MPa) for all other values of S
ut

 Iron
 S
e
‟ = 0.4(min S
ut
)f/ gray cast Iron S
ut
<60 ksi(400MPa)
= 24 ksi (160 MPa) for all other values of S
ut


Note: ASTM # for gray cast iron is the min S
ut
S-N Plot with Endurance Limit
a
e
S
o
q
'
=
a
f
N S
o
q
'
=
) (
a
e
S
o
q
'
=
Estimating S
e
’ – Aluminum and Copper
Alloys
 For aluminum and copper alloys, there is no endurance limit

 Eventually, these materials will fail due to repeated loading
 To come up with an “equivalent” endurance limit, designers
typically use the value of the fatigue strength (S
f
‟) at 10
8
cycles

 Aluminum alloys
 S
e
‟ (S
f
at 10
8
cycles) = 0.4 S
ut
for S
ut
< 48 ksi (330 MPa)
= 19 ksi (130 MPa) for all other values of S
ut

 Copper alloys
 S
e
‟ (S
f
at 10
8
cycles) = 0.4 S
ut
for S
ut
< 35 ksi (250 MPa)
= 14 ksi (100 MPa) for all other values of S
ut


Constructing an estimated S-N diagram
 Note that S
e
‟ is going to be our
material strength due to “infinite”
loading

 We can estimate an S-N diagram
and see the difference in fatigue
strength after repeated loading

 For steel and iron, note that the
fatigue strength (S‟
f
) is never less
than the endurance limit (S
e
‟)

 For aluminum and copper, note
that the fatigue strength (S‟
f
)
eventually goes to zero (failure!),
but we will use the value of S‟
f
at
10
8
cycles as our endurance limit
(S
e
‟) for these materials
Estimating the value of S
f

 When we are studying a case of
fatigue with a known number of cycles
(N), we need to calculate the fatigue
strength (S‟
f
)
 We have two S-N diagrams
 One for steel and iron
 One for aluminum and copper
 We will use these diagrams to come
up with equations for calculating S‟
f

for a known number of cycles
 Note: Book indicates that 0.9 is not
actually a constant, and uses the
variable f to donate this multiplier.
We will in general use 0.9 [so f=0.9]
Estimating S
f
(N)
 For steel and iron
 For f=0.9


 For aluminum and copper

( )
( ) ( ) b S a
S
S
b
aN N S
ut
e
ut
b
f
3 9 . 0 log log
9 . 0
log
3
1
'
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
'
÷ =
=
( )
( ) ( ) b S a
S
S
b
aN N S
ut
e
ut
b
f
3 9 . 0 log log
9 . 0
log
3
1
'
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
'
÷ =
=
For 10
3
< N < 10
6

For N < 10
8

Where S
e
‟ is the value of
S‟
f
at N = 10
8

5.7
Correction factors
 Now we have S
e
‟ (infinite life)
 We need to account for differences between the lab specimen and a real
specimen (material, manufacturing, environment, design)
 We use correction factors
 Strength reduction factors
 Marin modification factors
 These will account for differences between an ideal lab specimen and real life
 S
e
= k
a
k
b
k
c
k
d
k
e
k
f
Se‟
 k
a
– surface factor
 k
b
– size factor
 k
c
– load factor
 k
d
– temperature factor
 k
e
– reliability factor
 K
f
– miscellaneous-effects factor
 Modification factors have been found empirically and are described in section 6-9 of
Shigley-Mischke-Budynas (see examples)
 If calculating fatigue strength for finite life, (S
f
), use equations on previous slide

Endurance limit modifying factors
 Surface (k
a
)
 Accounts for different surface finishes
 Ground, machined, cold-drawn, hot-rolled, as-forged
 Size (k
b
)
 Different factors depending on loading
 Bending and torsion (see pg. 280)
 Axial (k
b
= 1)
 Loading (k
c
)
 Endurance limits differ with S
ut
based on fatigue loading (bending, axial, torsion)
 Temperature (k
d
)
 Accounts for effects of operating temperature (Not significant factor for T<250 C [482 F])
 Reliability (k
e
)
 Accounts for scatter of data from actual test results (note k
e
=1 gives only a 50% reliability)
 Miscellaneous-effects (k
f
)
 Accounts for reduction in endurance limit due to all other effects
 Reminder that these must be accounted for
 Residual stresses
 Corrosion
 etc
Surface Finish Effect on S
e

Temperature Effect on S
e

Reliability Factor, k
e

Steel Endurance Limit vs. Tensile Strength
Compressive Residual Stresses
Now what?
 Now that we know the strength of our part under
non-laboratory conditions…
 … how do we use it?
 Choose a failure criterion
 Predict failure
 Part will fail if:
 o‟ > S
f
(N)
 Factor of safety or Life of the part:
 q = S
f
(N) / o‟
 Where
 b = - 1/3 log (0.9 S
ut
/ S
e
) log (a) = log (0.9 S
ut
) - 3b
b
a
N
1
|
.
|

\
|
'
=
o
Example Homework Problem 6-9
 A solid rod cantilevered at one end. The rod is
0.8 m long and supports a completely
reversing transverse load at the other end of +/-
1 kN. The material is AISI 1045 hot-rolled
steel. If the rod must support this load for 10
4

cycles with a factor of safety of 1.5, what
dimension should the square cross section
have? Neglect any stress concentrations at the
support end and assume f= 0.9.

 Solution: -- See Board Work--
Stress concentration (SC) and fatigue failure
 Unlike with static loading, both ductile and
brittle materials are significantly affected by
stress concentrations for repeated loading
cases
 We use stress concentration factors to modify
the nominal stress
 SC factor is different for ductile and brittle
materials
SC factor – fatigue
 o = k
f
o
nom+
=

k
f
o
o


 t = k
fs
t
nom
= k
fs
t
o

 k
f
is a reduced value of k
T
and o
o
is the nominal
stress.
 k
f
called fatigue stress concentration factor
 Why reduced? Some materials are not fully sensitive
to the presence of notches (SC‟s) therefore,
depending on the material, we reduce the effect of
the SC

Fatigue SC factor
 k
f
= [1 + q(k
t
– 1)]
 k
fs
= [1 + q
shear
(k
ts
– 1)]
 k
t
or k
ts
and nominal stresses
 Table A-15 & 16 (pages 1006-1013 in Appendix)
 q and q
shear

 Notch sensitivity factor
 Find using figures 6-20 and 6-21 in book (Shigley) for steels
and aluminums
 Use q = 0.20 for cast iron
 Brittle materials have low sensitivity to notches
 As k
f
approaches k
t
, q increasing (sensitivity to notches, SC‟s)
 If k
f
~ 1, insensitive (q = 0)
 Property of the material
Example
 AISI 1020 as-rolled steel
 Machined finish
 Find F
max
for:
 q = 1.8
 Infinite life

 Design Equation:
 q = S
e
/ o‟
 S
e
because infinite life
Example, cont.
 q = S
e
/ o‟
 What do we need?
 S
e

 o‟
 Considerations?
 Infinite life, steel
 Modification factors
 Stress concentration (hole)
 Find o‟
nom
(without SC)




( ) ( )
F
F
h d b
P
A
P
nom
2083
10 12 60
=
÷
=
÷
= = ' o
Example, cont.
 Now add SC factor:



 From Fig. 6-20,
 r = 6 mm
 S
ut
= 448 MPa = 65.0 ksi
 q ~ 0.8


( ) | |
nom t nom f
k q k o o o ' ÷ + = ' = ' 1 1
Example, cont.
 From Fig. A-15-1,
 Unloaded hole
 d/b = 12/60 = 0.2
 k
t
~ 2.5
 q = 0.8
 k
t
= 2.5
 o‟
nom
= 2083 F



( ) | |
( ) | | ( )
( ) F
F
k q
nom t
4583
2083 1 5 . 2 8 . 0 1
1 1
=
'
÷ + =
'
'
÷ + =
'
o
o
o o
Example, cont.
 Now, estimate S
e
 Steel:
 S
e
‟ = 0.5 S
ut
for S
ut
< 1400 MPa (eqn. 6-8)
700 MPa else
 AISI 1020 As-rolled
 S
ut
= 448 MPa
 S
e
‟ = 0.50(448) = 224 MPa

Constructing an estimated S-N diagram
 Note that S
e
‟ is going to be our
material strength due to “infinite”
loading

 We can estimate an S-N diagram
and see the difference in fatigue
strength after repeated loading

 For steel and iron, note that the
fatigue strength (S‟
f
) is never less
than the endurance limit (S‟
e
)

 For aluminum and copper, note
that the fatigue strength (S‟
f
)
eventually goes to zero (failure!),
but we will use the value of S‟
f
at
10
8
cycles as our endurance limit
(S‟
e
) for these materials
Correction factors
 Now we have S
e
‟ (infinite life)
 We need to account for differences between the lab specimen and a real
specimen (material, manufacturing, environment, design)
 We use correction factors
 Strength reduction factors
 Marin modification factors
 These will account for differences between an ideal lab specimen and real life
 S
e
= k
a
k
b
k
c
k
d
k
e
k
f
Se‟
 k
a
– surface factor
 k
b
– size factor
 k
c
– load factor
 k
d
– temperature factor
 k
e
– reliability factor
 K
f
– miscellaneous-effects factor
 Modification factors have been found empirically and are described in section 6-9 of
Shigley-Mischke-Budynas (see examples)
 If calculating fatigue strength for finite life, (S
f
), use equations on previous slide

Example, cont.
 Modification factors
 Surface: k
a
= aS
ut
b
(Eq. 6-19)
 a and b from Table 6-2
 Machined







 k
a
= (4.45)(448)
-0.265
= 0.88

Example, cont.
 Size: k
b

 Axial loading
 k
b
= 1 (Eq. 6-21)
 Load: k
c
 Axial loading
 k
c
= 0.85 (Eq. 6-26)

Example, cont.
 Temperature:
 k
d
= 1 (no info given)
 Reliability:
 k
e
= 1 (no info given)
 Miscellaneous:
 k
f
= 1

 Endurance limit:
 S
e
= k
a
k
b
k
c
k
d
k
e
k
f
Se‟ = (0.88)(0.85)(227) = 177 MPa

 Design Equation:

( )
( )
kN 4 . 21
8 . 1 4583
10 x 177
8 . 1
4583
177
6
= =
= =
'
=
F
F
MPa S
e
o
q
Fluctuating Fatigue Failures

Alternating vs. fluctuating
Alternating
Fluctuating
I
Mr
A
P
a
m
=
=
o
o
Alternating Stresses
 o
a
characterizes alternating stress
Fluctuating stresses
 Mean Stress


 Stress amplitude


 Together, o
m
and o
a

characterize fluctuating
stress
2
'
min max
o o
o
+
=
m
2
min max
'
o o
o
÷
=
a
Alternating vs. Fluctuating

Modified Goodman Diagram

Fluctuating Stresses in Compression and
Tension
Failure criterion for fluctuating loading
 Soderberg
 Modified Goodman
 Gerber
 ASME-elliptic
 Yielding

 Points above the line: failure
 Book uses Goodman primarily
 Straight line, therefore easy algebra
 Easily graphed, every time, for every problem
 Reveals subtleties of insight into fatigue problems
 Answers can be scaled from the diagrams as a check on the
algebra
Gerber Langer Plot for Fluctuating Stresses
Fluctuating stresses, cont.
 As with alternating stresses, fluctuating stresses have been
investigated in an empirical manner
 For o
m
< 0 (compressive mean stress)
 o
a
> S
f
Failure
 Same as with alternating stresses
 Or,

 Static Failure

 For o
m
> 0 (tensile mean stress)
 Modified Goodman criteria



 q < 1 Failure
) S (or
max uc yc a m
S > ÷ = o o o
q
o o 1
= +
ut
m
f
a
S S
Modified Goodman Langer Equations
Fluctuating stresses, cont.
 Relationship is easily
seen by plotting:
Goodman Line
(safe stress line)
Safe design region
(for arbitrary fluctuations
in o
m
and o
a
)
1 = +
ut
m
f
a
S S
o o
q
o o 1
= +
ut
m
f
a
S S
Note: o
m
+ o
a
= o
max


o
m
+ o
a
> S
yt
(static failure by yielding)
Important point: Part can fail because of fluctuations in either o
a
, o
m
, or both.
Design for prescribed variations in o
a
and o
m
to get a more exact solution.
Special cases of fluctuating stresses
 Case 1: o
m
fixed




 Case 2: o
a
fixed
a
a
S
o
q =
m
m
S
o
q =
Special cases of fluctuating stresses
 Case 3: o
a
/ o
m
fixed




 Case 4: both vary arbitrarily
m
m
a
a
S S
o o
q = =
ut
m
f
a
S S
o o
q
+ =
1
Example
 Given:
 S
ut
= 1400 MPa
 S
yt
= 950 MPa
 Heat-treated (as-forged)
 F
mean
= 9.36 kN
 F
max
= 10.67 kN
 d/w = 0.133; d/h = 0.55
 Find:
 q for infinite life, assuming
F
mean
is constant
Example, cont.
 Find o
m
and o
a

( ) ( )
( )( )
( )( )
MPa 28
MPa 228
MPa 200
Nm 800 3 . 0 10 0.67x 1
4
1
4
1
2 2
Nm 702 3 . 0 10 x 36 . 9
4
1
4
1
2 2
m 009 . 0
2
m x10 16 . 3 18 10 75
12
1
12
1
12
1
max
max max
max
max
3
max
max
max
3
max
4 8 3 3 3
= ÷ =
= =
= =
= = =
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= = =
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= =
= ÷ = ÷ = =
=
÷
m a
m
m
m
m
m
I
y M
I
y M
L F
L F
M
L F
L F
M
h
y
h d w bh I
I
My
o o o
o
o
o
Stress Concentration Factor

Example, cont.
 Since this is uniaxial
loading,
 o
m
= 200 MPa
 o
a
= 28 MPa
 We need to take care of
the SC factors
 Su = 1400Mpa

k
t
~ 2.2 (Figure A15-2)
 q ~ 0.95 (Figure 7-20)
 k
f
= 2.14
( ) 1 1 ÷ + =
t f
k q k
nominal
( )( )
( )( ) MPa 428 200 14 . 2
MPa 60 28 14 . 2
= = = ' =
= = = ' =
nom
nom
m f m m
a f a a
k
k
o o o
o o o
Example, cont.
 Find strength
 Eqn. 7-8: S‟
e
= .504S
ut

 Modification factors
( )
86 . 0
24 . 1
808 . 0
mm 51 d 2.8
: 19) - (7 Equation
: Size
107 . 0
2
1
eq
=
=
=
s s
÷
b
eq b
eq
k
d k
hb d
MPa 1400 S since MPa 700 ~
ut
= '
e
S
201 . 0
995 . 0
271
: Surface
=
÷ =
=
=
a
b
ut a
k
b
a
aS k
25) - 7 (Eq. 1
Bending
: Load
=
c
k
( )( )( ) MPa 121 700 86 . 0 201 . 0 = =
e
S
Example, cont.
 Design criteria
 Goodman line:


 For arbitrary variation in
o
a
and o
m
,

n
S S
ut
m
e
a
/ 1 = +
o o
121
1400
1
1400 121
= +
m a
o o
25 . 1
1400
428
121
60 1
1
1400 121
=
+ =
= +
q
q
q
o o
m a
Example, cont.
 However, we know that
F
mean
= constant from
problem statement
 o
m
= constant
4 . 1
60
84
MPa 84
1
1400
428
121
1
= = =
=
= +
= +
a
a
a
a
ut
m
e
a
S
S
S
S S
S
o
q
o
Less conservative!
Combined loading and fatigue
 Size factor depends on loading
 SC factors also depend on loading
 Could be very complicated calculation to keep track of each load
case
 Assuming all stress components are completely reversing and
are always in time phase with each other,
1. For the strength, use the fully corrected endurance limit for
bending, S
e

2. Apply the appropriate fatigue SC factors to the torsional stress,
the bending stress, and the axial stress components
3. Multiply any alternating axial stress components by the factor
1/k
c,ax

4. Enter the resultant stresses into a Mohr‟s circle analysis to find
the principal stresses
5. Using the results of step 4, find the von Mises alternating stress
o
a

6. Compare o
a
‟ with S
a
to find the factor of safety
Additional details are in Section 6-14
More Fatigue Failure Examples