What are psychological disorders? Abnormal behavior patterns characterized by: disturbances in psychological functioning eccentricities or unusual actions socially unacceptable or violations of norms faulty perceptions of reality significant personal distress maladaptive or self-defeating danger to self or others .

Evolution of the concept……………… .

Stone Age Demonological View is born. Physical Phenomena have supernatural basis! Evidence of Trephining ..

Formed basis of MEDICAL MODEL! PLATO . Pioneers the concept of 4 Humors.―The Golden Age‖ Around 400BCE Hippocrates enters scene. Advocated naturalistic theory of human behavior.

• Covers 1000 years of European history • After Galen’s death.E. superstition and the idea of demonic possession dominate the cultural landscape.Medieval Period 500 C. cross waving. starvation. . beating and flogging.E. – 1450 C. • Treatment of choice for those afflicted: exorcism—included prayer. • Catholic church reinforces this myth.

. literature. why? Coincides with unprecedented fear of witches! 15th – late 17th centuries were especially frenzied Catholic church commissions Malleus Maleficarum Weird tests are applied to detect demonic possession or witchcraft—there was allegedly a difference Modern scholars argue that the mentally ill were misdiagnosed and/or forced to confess.Renaissance – 1400’s – Beginning of intellectual revival– arts. Ironic. and often killed. music.

Asylums late 15th and early 16th centuries • ―Madhouses‖ or Asylums were created • Medieval England generally accepted a naturalistic explanation for odd behavior • These government sponsored institutions gave refuge to the poor as well as disturbed. • Conditions were usually terrible and residents were treated as criminals and exploited like animals at a zoo. .

The Reform Movement late 18th and early 19th centuries • Frenchmen Pussin and Pinel advocated moral treatment • Inmates were typically viewed as dangerous.S. – Tuke in Europe . not as sick and in need of treatment • The idea of moral treatment spread: – Rush and Dix in U.

A Step Backward mid-late 19th century • Moral therapy fell victim to apathy • Abnormal behaviors were considered incurable • Mental institutions in U. • By 1950. • Condition deteriorated: straitjackets. were used.S. cribs. . etc. Pop. handcuffs. mental instit. straps. grew and gave little more than custodial care. Was ½ million.

Today • • • • • • • Fewer are in mental hospitals We have great outpatient facilities Public is more aware/educated Great medications for psychosis Government seems serious about support Clinicians and experimentalists work together We have a ―scientific method‖ .