Revision 1: April 2011


Engineering Ceramics

Definition Ceramics are inorganic, non-metallic materials processed or consolidated at high temperatures

Revision 1: April 2011


Microstructural Features Of A Crystalline Ceramic Grain boundaries where 2 crystals meet Grains (crystals) of the ceramic Pores left by processing (1 to 1000 m) Microcracks caused by thermal or mechanical stress Particles or grains of a second phase (in alloys) Revision 1: April 2011 3 .

This is largely due to the operation of the strong covalent bonds between atoms in their crystal structures • Low ductility. . • High compressive strength. • Low tensile strength.General Properties Of Ceramics • High hardness. Revision 1: April 2011 4 . • High brittleness. • High abrasion resistance. .Due to the presence of micro-cracks.

Low electrical conductivity.General Properties Of Ceramics – cont’ • • • • • • Extremely stiff and rigid. High chemical (corrosion) resistance. High melting or degradation temperature. Revision 1: April 2011 5 . Low coefficient of expansion. High resistance to oxidation.

 For other temperatures.General Properties Of Ceramics – cont’d • Low density/high specific compressive strength even at elevated temperature (600oC – 1600oC) with little creep. the following materials are more cost-effective:  22oC – 300oC (Polymers)  22oC – 600oC (Metals / alloys) Revision 1: April 2011 6 .

Comparison Of The Hardness Of Ceramics To Other Materials Revision 1: April 2011 7 .

Comparison Of Metals With Ceramic Materials Metals Crystal structure Metallic bond Good electrical conductivity Opaque Uniform atoms High tensile strength Low shear strength Ceramics Crystal structure Ionic/covalent bond Poor conductivity Transparent (in thin sections) Different-sized atoms Poor tensile strength High shear strength 8 Revision 1: April 2011 .

Comparison Of Metals With Ceramic Materials – cont’d Metals Good ductility Plastic flow Impact strength Non porous Relatively high weight Moderate hardness High density None Poor impact strength Initial high porosity Lower weight Extreme hardness Initial low density Revision 1: April 2011 Ceramics Poor ductility (brittle) 9 .

Applications Of Common Ceramics Revision 1: April 2011 10 .

Cross section of assembled automotive spark plug showing position of ceramic insulator (in red) Revision 1: April 2011 11 .

Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics Cemented Carbide Knives Alumina Wear Tiles Revision 1: April 2011 12 .

Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics – cont’d Boron Carbide Abrasive Blasting Nozzle Chromia Wire Guide Revision 1: April 2011 13 .

Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics – cont’d Cemented Carbide Die Alumina Web Guide Revision 1: April 2011 14 .

Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics – cont’d Alumina Shaft Sleeve Cemented Carbide Tool Insert Revision 1: April 2011 15 .

Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics – cont’d Chromium Oxide Slurry Pump Liner Revision 1: April 2011 16 .

rather brittle.  Ceramics generally have high melting points. Thus. poor resistance to thermal and mechanical shock.and shock-resistant.  Produced by powder metallurgy method. a useful combination of properties (metals and ceramics) is achieved.  Metals are temperature. Revision 1: April 2011 17 .Cermets are combinations of metals and one or more ceramic phases. reasonably strong at high temperature. lack strength and rigidity at high temperature.Properties And Applications Of Cermets • Cermets .

However. better compressive strength and creep resistance at high temperatures. they are relatively brittle: due high proportion of ceramic. Revision 1: April 2011 18 .Properties Of Cermets • Cermets have considerable rigidity. • Cermets have good tensile strength combined with stiffness and rigidity when reinforced with fibres or metal rods as in the case of reinforced concrete.

Properties Of Ceramics – cont’d • Cermets have good ductility and toughness at high temperatures but lack strength and creep resistance. Metal content is high (65 to 75%) Revision 1: April 2011 19 .

20 Magnesia Nickel Flame sprayed heat resistant coating Revision 1: April 2011 . alloy steel and inconel to raise the working temperature by about 80oC. Good resistance to impact. Applicable to stainless steel.Applications Of Cermets Particle Material Flake sliver or copper Bond Graphite Structural Type Laminated Characteristic & Use Current brushes –low friction Alumina (70%) Chromium (30%) Bonded particles Very suitable for high temperature service.

thermal shockresistance and resistance to oxidation is necessary.70%) Molybdenum boride Bond Iron (30 – 60%) Structural Type Bonded particles Characteristic & Use Turbine blades Nickel Bonded particles Cutting tool for machining titanium. Bonded particles In aircraft engines where refractoriness. Cutting tools for materials including masonry. Titanium carbide Various alloys containing Mo. Al and Cr.Applications Of Cermets – cont’d Particle Material Alumina (40% . Tungsten or titanium carbide Cobalt Bonded particles Revision 1: April 2011 . glass and metal forming 21 dies.

Tensile strength of diamond is about 69 GN/m2 The melting temperature is 4350oC and is the highest of all the materials.Properties And Applications Of Industrial Diamonds  Properties     Diamond is the hardest ceramic material (Knoop = 7000) Modulus of elasticity is also the highest of the ceramic materials (E = 1000 GN/m2) and it is about 5 times that of most steels. Revision 1: April 2011 22 .

Properties And Applications Of Industrial Diamonds – cont’d • Applications: Cutting Grinding Polishing Lapping Diamond grinding wheel Diamond cutters Lapping process Diamond polishing Revision 1: April 2011 23 .

Revision 1: April 2011 24 .