Filters and Harmonics

Filters and Harmonics

Undulations Per Revolution (UPR) Undulations Produced by Manufacturing Process

Filters and Harmonics

Undulations Per Revolution (UPR) UPR = Harmonics

A profile Showing a Dominant 8th and 60th Harmonic

Filters and Harmonics

What is an Harmonic?
1st Harmonic (Eccentricity) 0° 1 Harmonic Amplitude

360°

2nd Harmonic (Ovality)

1

2

360°

5th Harmonic

1

2

3

4

5

360°

Filters and Harmonics Harmonics Harmonic Amplitude Harmonic Amplitude A Roundness profile Showing a 3rd Harmonic The 3rd Harmonic Shown as a Waveform .

Filters and Harmonics Harmonics 1st Harmonic (Eccentricity) 90° Component centre 180° 0° Datum Axis 270° .

Filters and Harmonics Harmonics 2nd Harmonic (Ovality) 90° 180° 0° 270° .

Filters and Harmonics Harmonics 3rd Harmonic (Tri-Lobed) 90° 180° 0° 270° .

Filters and Harmonics Harmonics 90° 3rd Harmonic (Tri-Lobed) 180° 0° 270° Wheel Wheel Centreless Grinding .

Filters and Harmonics Harmonics 4th Harmonic Distortion on a Cylinder bore .

Filters and Harmonics Harmonics Higher Order Harmonics Produced by Machine Tool Chatter .

Filters and Harmonics Filters Filters are Used to Separate Different Harmonics .

Filters and Harmonics Filters Unfiltered Profile A profile Showing a Dominant 8th and 60th Harmonic .

Filters and Harmonics Filters Standard Filter Values 1-15 UPR 1-50 UPR 1-150 UPR 1-500 UPR .

Filters and Harmonics Filters 1-15 UPR Filter 60th Harmonic Has Been Removed .

Filters and Harmonics Filters 15-500 UPR Filter 8th Harmonic Has Been Removed .

Filters and Harmonics 2CR Filter Reduces the Amplitude of the Harmonic at the selected UPR Value by 25% .

Filters and Harmonics Characteristics of a 2CR Filter 1-50 UPR Filter .

Filters and Harmonics Characteristics of a 2CR Filter 15-500 UPR Filter .

Filters and Harmonics Effects of a 2CR Filter An Unfiltered Profile .

Filters and Harmonics Effects of a 2CR Filter 1-500 UPR .

Filters and Harmonics Effects of a 2CR Filter 1-150 UPR .

Filters and Harmonics Effects of a 2CR Filter 1-50 UPR .

Filters and Harmonics Effects of a 2CR Filter 1-15 UPR .

Filters and Harmonics Gaussian Filter Unfiltered profile Z Weighting Function Profile Filter Mean line X Harmonic Value Reduces the Amplitude of the Harmonic at the selected UPR Value by 50% .

Filters and Harmonics Characteristics of a Gaussian Filter 1-50 UPR Filter .

Filters and Harmonics Characteristics of a Gaussian Filter 15-500 UPR Filter .

Filters and Harmonics Filters Continued The Gaussian Filter Unfiltered Profile .

Filters and Harmonics Filters Continued The Gaussian Filter 1-500 UPR .

Filters and Harmonics Filters Continued The Gaussian Filter 1-150 UPR .

Filters and Harmonics Filters Continued The Gaussian Filter 1-50 UPR .

Filters and Harmonics Filters Continued The Gaussian Filter 1-15 UPR .

Filters and Harmonics Filters Continued Comparison of the Gaussian Filter and 2CR Filter 1-15 UPR 2CR Filter 1-15 UPR Gaussian Filter .

Filters and Harmonics Filters .Stylus Tip Diameter Tip Diameter Must Be Considered When Selecting Filters .

Filters and Harmonics Tip Diameter Selection / Filter Selection Part Diameter (mm) Circumferential Filter Cut-off (UPR) D<8 D < 8 < 25 25 < D < 80 80 < D < 250 250 < D 1-15 1-50 1-150 1-500 1-1500 The above table shows the recommended filter to use according to component size (ISO 12180-2) .

Filters and Harmonics Filter Selection UPR = d 0.8 Where: d = Part Diameter The formula shows the recommended filter to use according to component size (ISO 12181-2) .

Filters and Harmonics Tip Diameter Selection R= d 24 Where: R = Stylus Tip Radius d = Part Diameter See ISO 12180-2 for further information .

Filters and Harmonics Harmonic Analysis Wheel Eccentricity Component Grinding Wheel x 100 RPM 6000 RPM .

Filters and Harmonics Harmonic Analysis x 60:1 Speed Ratio Induces a 60th Harmonic .

Function of Measurement Measurement Set-up Error 2nd Harmonic .Function of Measurement or Manufacture Measurement Set-up Error or Machined out of Square 3rd to 7th Harmonic .Filters and Harmonics Harmonic Analysis 1st Harmonic .Function of Manufacture Instability of the Machining Process 15th Harmonic Upwards .Function of Material & Manufacture Reaction of Materials. Machine Chatter .Function of Manufacture Workpiece Holding Method 7th to 15th Harmonic .

Filters and Harmonics Harmonic Analysis Roller Bearing Assembly Surface with 16th Harmonic Race containing 16 Rollers .

85µm . Conc 0. Ecc 0.43µm.Filters and Harmonics Harmonics Amplitude Display RONt 1.54µm.

Ecc 0. Conc 0.54µm.43µm.Filters and Harmonics Harmonics Histogram Display RONt 1.85µm .

Filters and Harmonics Harmonic Analysis Different Profiles .Identical Roundness Roundness Index .