You are on page 1of 154

AP U.S.

History, February 19th Yes we still have some questions


Any late Chapter 31? Chapter 32 due Friday, Chapter 33 is due Tuesday Todays Enduring Understanding: We DID make the world safe for Democracy! Today in your INB: Left Side, Pg. 79 Unintended Consequences, Right Side, Pg. 80, The War That Changed America.
Questions to be answered
How did U.S. involvement in the war effect the U.S. economy How does the U.S. pay for the war What sacrifices are made by U.S. Citizens How does the war affect the condition of Women and African Americans Wilsons 14 points????
to answer from Friday and yesterday

Belgian troops, with their dog carts

German propaganda postcard explaining (extenuating) collatoral damage ("atrocities")

Belgium, 1914: Soldiers try to cross road under fire

Collective reprisals against Belgian civilians

What happens to an unlawful enemy combatant:" The German army denies her the legal protections afforded a Prisoner of War French Propaganda Poster

Belgians as human shields French propaganda postcard

Machine Guns (large scale), Tanks, Aircraft Chemical Weapons Trench Warfare Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Civilians considered Legitimate Targets Mass Propaganda 10 Million Casualties

1st World War in history


Great War or War to End all War

Not called WWI until after WWII


Total war

Involved 60 nations and 6 continents

Cost of War
$400 billion $10 million dollars an hour 16 million deaths First war of the Industrial Revolution New Weapons vs old tactics of fighting

Stalemate
By September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, a situation in which neither side is able to gain an advantage. When a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris, both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty no mans land. Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage.

Trench Warfare

No Mans Land

The Trenches

Omnipresent wetness

The annual rainfall the first 3 years of the war was several inches above normal.

Overpowering stench

Raw Sewage Rotting Corpses (human and animal) Gunpowder

Really big rats

They were big from eating the corpses, they went for the eyes first.

Modern Warfare

Neither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WW I. Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy. As morale fell, the lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur. The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.

Old Tactics

Cavalry Charge

Infantry Charge

Machine Guns
machineguns are not important General Sir Douglas Haig

The British took 60,000 casualties (20,000 dead) in the first day at the Battle of the Somme; most casualties were from German machine-gun fire, General Sir Douglas Haig was in command.

Aircraft

Fighters
Originally used for reconnaissance and harassment until Garros develops propeller shielding, and then Fokker invents the interruptible gear (1915), after that they are used to establish air superiority, they have some effect at the Battle of Verdun.

British Spad

British Sopwith Triplane

German Focker

Strategic Bombing
Originally used for harassment on the front, but effective tactics are developed for strategic bombing on the battlefield, also used as a terror weapon against cities.

Airships
Used for observation by both sides, and as a terror weapon by the Germans.

Artillery (bigger, better, and lots of it)


Austrian Gun

British Rail gun

The German Paris Gun had a range of 80 miles

French Schneider was the largest gun of the war, the projectile weighed 3100 pounds

Naval Power
British Home Fleet

German Fleet High Seas Fleet

Submarines
German Commerce Submarine

German Attack Submarine

Tanks (1st generation)


Very heavy and under powered at first, some use steam powered, first used at the Battle of the Somme with some success.

Tanks (2nd Generation)

After initial success, it is decided that lighter is better for the trenches, tanks go into mass production

Chemical Warfare (1st Generation)


Chlorine gas first used by the Germans at the Second Battle of Ypres in April 1915, the attack is a success but the Germans werent prepared to exploit the breakthrough, after this gas is mainly a terror/psychological weapon,

Chemical Agents Used:

Chlorine Gas

Phosgene Gas
Mustard Gas

Chemical Warfare (2nd Generation)

Chemical Protective Gear

None at the beginning of the war, troops had to improvise,

Lucky for us we have these urine soaked rags to protect us!

Uniforms that made a person stand out on the battlefield quickly changed to something that gave a person a degree of camouflage, there were no steel helmets at the beginning of the war.

Trench-foot

War is Hell

French POWs

A colorized photograph shows French soldiers in bright red and blue uniforms much like those worn by the French army in 1830, the colors of a perfect target.

The War of movement (August- Sept., 1914)

War in a ditch

The trenches werent part of some grand strategy. They were just a natural reaction by the soldiers to escape the pieces of metal flying overhead. At first they were simple ditches such as seen here. Later they developed into sophisticated systems with multiple layers of defense and dugouts 40 feet deep to escape the especially intense bombardments before an enemy offensive.

Below: Using a periscope to safely watch the enemy Left: French trench on the Meuse River

Left: German mail call. Letters from home seemed like messages from a different world. Below: Distributing cigarettes on the Western Front. A nasty habit, but it calms nerves during the stress of combat.

The war had its incongruous elements and even absurdities, such as these French soldiers harvesting grain.

and this elephant pulling equipment in a trench

There were many ways trench life could kill you. You could freeze in the winter or die from pneumonia during the spring rains. You could stand in the muck without changing your shoes or socks for months and contract a fungus infection called trenchfoot which would kill you unless the infected limb was amputated. Or, with plenty of infectious diseases thriving in that squalor, you could just get sick and die.

Then again, a shells shrapnel might only take part of you: an arm, a leg

.or your face.

such as this French veteran who was fitted with a mask to cover a face horribly disfigured by an artillery shell.

Then again, you might just go crazy. Unrelenting contact with the enemy only 100 yards away meant you could never let your guard down, because there was always some sniper waiting to make you pay for that one unguarded moment. Sooner or later, even the toughest soldier would crack, his nerves and psyche fried by the constant overload.

It was as if Dante had created a 10th circle of Hell just for you.& it seemed as if there was no way out.but one.

Otto Dix, Trench Suicide

French staff officers tried to explain that Verdun was of no strategic importance, but political pressure forced them to defend it at any cost.

THE BOMBARDMENT

Chlorine gas shells were used next. Since the gas was heavier than air, it would seep into the dugouts. If the defenders were ready and equipped, they could disperse the gas with sprayers

French gun crew with gas masks

.as did many animals...

Both Japan and China, seeing German colonies in East Asia as particularly vulnerable, declared war on Germany, each hoping to get its colonial possessions. The Treaty of Versailles favored the Japanese claim, thus adding to Chinese bitterness against the West. Right & below: Japanese troops deployed against Germans in E. Asia

Left: German troops defending their colonies in Africa Below: Steam powered transport proved extremely difficult in the dense foliage of German East Africa

A company of Askari troops on the march in German East Africa. Their German commander, Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, used some 20,000 such troops to hold off and elude British forces that eventually numbered 350,000. They were intensely loyal to von Lettow, excellent fighters, and proved more resistant to disease than the British, South African, and Indian troops the British used. Von Lettow held out until 11/25/1918, two weeks after the Armistice was signed.

Left: South African troops waiting to go to the Western Front Below: Maori warriors from New Zealand brought to the Western Front by Britain

French colonial troops brought to the Western front: Vietnamese troops near Versailles on their way to the trenches (left) & Troops from French Morocco (below)

Some of the 500,000 Indian troops who served Britain in World War I

American soldiers, eager to prove themselves, at first did not heed the advice of seasoned British and French veterans to be more careful. They paid dearly for it as 50,000 Americans died in action in 1918. An equal number died of sickness, mostly from the world-wide flu pandemic then raging. Below: An American aid station reflects the heavy casualties suffered by Americans in 1918.

An African-American unit, equipped with French helmets and weapons, mans a section of trench

Right: U.S. mules stubbornly hold up the progress of an ammunition convoy late in 1918 Below: A traffic jam of American supply wagons in the Meuse Argonne campaign, 1918. It was the influx of Americas massive war materiel as much as its soldiers that helped turn the tide of war.

German women searching for potato rinds as Germany starved from the British blockade, 1918

In late October, Germanys allies started collapsing like a house of cards: first Turkey (10/30), then Bulgaria (10/31), and then Austria (11/3). Below: Austrian delegates meet with Italians to sign an armistice taking Austria out of the war

Worn out by casualties in the trenches and starvation at home caused by the British blockade, Germans replace the Kaiser with a republic, hoping to get better terms for a peace (11/9/1918)

Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but..it was in Europe. US was officially NEUTRAL

US believed
It had the right to trade with the warring nations Warring nations must respect our neutrality

in the freedom of the seas


German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutrality

notes2

Effects of Allied blockade 1914, $70 million in trade with Central powers 1916, trade reduced to $1.3 million Allied trade Grew from $825 million to $3.2 billion in same time period WWI transformed the US from a debtor to a creditor nation

The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy. Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-Boats Germans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain.

U-Boats
Two types
small subs with a crew of 24
larger subs with a crew of 60 44 by 1918

By 1918, Germans had sunk 6,500 allied ships.

Lusitania ad

war zone

May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British.
Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of unrestricted submarine warfare. US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians

Lusitania

After the sinking of the Lusitania, public opinion of turns against Germany. Germany promised they would not sink anymore ships unless warning them first and providing safety for civilians. BUT, President Wilson was able keep us out of war .

Sussex Sunk: led to Sussex Pledge in March 1916. Germany promised not to sink anymore ships.
war zone

Berlin, January 19, 1917


On the first of February we intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.

If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with

zimmerman notes

with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman (Secretary of State)

zimmerman cartoon

When German submarines sank three American merchant ships in March 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war.

Close Ties with England and France

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare (Lusitania)

AntiGerman Propaganda

Reasons for U.S. Entry to WWI


Russian Revolution

Zimmerman Telegram

The right is more precious than peace

The world must be safe for democracy.


defend our trade freedom of the seas

AMERICA DECLARES WAR


A light drizzle fell on Washington on April 2, 1917, as senators, representatives, ambassadors, members of the Supreme Court, and other guests crowded into the Capital building to hear Wilson deliver his declaration of war
Wilson said, The world must be safe for democracy

Congress passed the resolution a few days later

I Dare you to come, 1917The Kaiser defies American rights, national honor, freedom of the seas and international law.

sandwich man

The US believed it had the right to trade with the warring nations and they would respect our neutrality.Didnt happen! The German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our freedom of the seas and neutrality.

The Yanks Are Coming!

pershing

General John J. Pershing, commanding general of the AEF. Referred to as the Doughboys and Yanks. 2 million in France by Sept. 1918

Council of National Defense


War Industries Board Bernard Baruch Food Administration Herbert Hoover Railroad Administration William McAdoo National War Labor Board William Howard Taft

War Industries Board


To build weapons for the war, US industry would undergo a massive change. From a peacetime industry to a war time industry.. Led by Bernard Baruch, the WIB set prices and determined what goods should be produced by private industry.

US Govt. controlled the economy


Contradiction?

War Industries Board

Food Administration: Herbert Hoover

heads effort to conserve food and boost agricultural output


US feeds the world from the farms and

ranches in the Great Plains Bread basket of the World


Liberty and victory gardens Meatless and wheatless days

U. S. Food Administration

National War Garden Commission

U. S. School Garden Army

U. S. Shipping Board

U. S. Fuel Administration

Results of This New Organization of the Economy

Is it a move towards socialism?


1. Unemployment virtually disappeared. 2. Expansion of big government.

3. Excessive govt. regulations in eco.


4. Some gross mismanagement --> overlapping jurisdictions.

5. Close cooperation between public and private sectors.


6. Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.

Committee on Public Information

Creel Committee, headed by George Creel, told Americans what the war was about and to publicize the American aims. Propaganda posters to get Americans to support the war effort.

Committee on Public Information

presidents actions

Selective Service Act


May of 1917, President Wilson and Congress pass into legislation a draft or conscription.
21 to 30 yrs. and later extended to 40 yrs. of age. Contradiction?
congress actions

1917 Selective Service Act

24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918.


2,810,296 drafted and served in WWI

3.7 million men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat)


Volunteers and draftees

400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units.

15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

congress actions

Financing the war:


Sale of war bonds.

Liberty and victory loans raised $21 billion.


Raised income taxes

congress actions

National Security vs. Civil Liberties

Espionage Act 1917


forbade actions that obstructed

recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military. ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail. fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.

Espionage & Sedition Act, 1918


Provided for up to $10,000 in fines and 20 years in prison for interfering with the war effort or using disloyal language. At least 1,597 persons were arrested, and 41 received prison sentences; newspapers criticizing the government lost mailing privileges.
Congress and President Wilson enacted this law to promote patriotism, nationalism and protect the National Security of the US during WWI.
congress actions

National Security vs. Civil Liberties Sedition Act 1918


It was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US Govt.,

the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the warwith intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.

In 1917 the United States was at War with Germany. WWI Charles Schenk, a member of the Socialist Party, handed out leaflets condemning the war and urging young men to resist the military draft. He was arrested and convicted for violating the Espionage and Sedition Act of 1917. Schenk took his case to the United States Supreme Court arguing that his constitutional right to freedom of speech had been violated.

Issue
Can free speech be censored or restricted during war time?

SC ruling: Disagreed with Schenk

Majority opinion
BUT, every act of speech must be judged according to the circumstances in which it was spoken. The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. "Words can be weapons . . .The question in every case is whether the words used in such circumstances are of such nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has the right to prevent."

Under normal circumstances, his actions would have been protected by 1st amendment

The country was at war, Schenk's freedom of speech was not protected.
SC ruling meant there were limits to freedom of speech in war time.

From the ruling, the Court established the "clear and present danger" principle to decide whether or not certain kinds of speech are protected.

league cartoon1

league cartoon1

league cartoon1

league cartoon1

19th Amendment: Womens Suffrage (1920) Women won the right to vote.Called the Susan B. Anthony amendment.

Vladamir Lenin

Czar Nicholas

Czar Nicholas and the Romanov Family would be overthrown by Lenin who eventually would start the first Communistic state

CAUSES
Food and fuel shortages Striking workers Terrible loses in WWI Czar was a weak ruler Marxist (communist) propaganda spread by Lenin

EFFECTS
King overthrown Russia pulls out of the war Russia becomes a

communistic country

Germany sends Zimmerman Note to Mexico

battle fronts

German offensive in the summer of 1918 battle fronts to capture Paris, France and win the war.
With the help of the U.S., the French and British were able to stop the German advance. Germans surrender and sign an armistice on Nov. 11, 1918 to end the war.

Nationalism
Countries proud of their heritage and culture Similar to patriotism Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country Germany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.

Militarism
European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world

Militarism & Arms Race


Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, British and Russia] in millions of dollars.

1870 94

1880 130

1890 154

1900 268

1910 289

1914 398

1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France Britain Russia Germany 10% 13% 39% 73%

By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3rd largest naval fleet in the world.

The Great White Fleet

Alliances
European nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power ..
Triple Alliance Central Powers
Germany Austria-Hungary Empire Bulgaria

Triple Entente Allied Powers


Great Britain France Russia