Lesson 6

Principles in selection and use of instructional materials

Importance of using Instructional Materials

Principles of using instructional materials

Types of instructional materials

What are instructional materials?
These are materials that are used to aid in the transference of information from one to another.
Example: a teacher may use instructional materials to aid in include: Power Point presentations (visual aids) Books Articles Materials for project development the list can go on and on.

When do we used instructional materials?
You use instructional materials when you teach something.

Examples of instructional materials might be books, worksheets, samples of items you are teaching about, pictures of things you are teaching about, CDs with music from places you are teaching about, audio CDs with samples of a language you are teaching, charts and graphs which give visual information about something you are teaching about.

Helps students make sense of information

For learners have a clear view of what is being taught.

Importance of instructional materials

Creation of effective, meaningful lessons
Improve the delivery of instruction

Instructional Materials serve as the channel between the teacher and the students in delivering the instruction.

To encourage your student in their lesson and get their attention

Principles of selection and use of instructional materials
1. All instructional materials are aids to instruction. They do not replace the teacher. 2. Choose the instructional material that best suits your instructional objectives. Decide what you want to accomplish and then employ the tools that are most likely to achieve results. Do not let the media that is available to you determine how or what you will teach. 3. If possible, use a variety of tools. Using videos, computers, overheads and the chalkboard not only keeps students’ interest but also responds to the needs of those who receive information in different ways.

Principles of selection and use of instructional materials (cont.)
4. Check out your instructional materials before class starts to be sure it is working properly. Nothing is more frustrating to you or to your students in the process of the instruction than to find that the overhead projector, for instance, does not work in the process of instruction.

Principles of selection and use of instructional materials (cont.)
5. For results, abide by the general utilization guide on the use of media given below:

 Learn how to use the instructional material. Before using it, make sure you know how to manipulate it to obtain the desired product. Listen to the record or view the film ahead. Check the correct size and complete parts of real objects, photographs or models to be presented.  Prepare introductory remarks, question or initial comments you may need.  Provide a conducive environment; arrange the chairs, tables and the equipment and materials. Provide sufficient lightning and ventilation.  Explain the objective of the lesson.  Stress what is to be watched or listened to carefully.  State what they will be expected to do with the information they will learn. Discussion or a test may follow.  There is need to summarize or review the experience. Prepare measures that can assess their gains based on the objectives.

Classification of Instructional Materials

Audiovisual Materials
Audiovisual education is educational instruction which uses sight and hearing to stimulate and enhance a learning experience.

Non-Projected Materials

These visual supporters are not very technological but are the very basic stuff that has been used in classrooms for years.

Projected Materials

defined as media formats in which pictures shown upon a screen by the use of a certain type of machine..

Hardware and Software
Software. Computer Instructions or data, anything that can be stored electronically.
Hardware is one that is tangible. The storage devices (Hard disk, CD’s etc.,), mouse, keyboard CPU and display devices (Monitor).

Types of Instructional Materials

Chalkboard

This includes not only those with flat and wide surfaces but also the portable types which can be moved or even serve as dividers. Using chalk, it is a convenient writing area where illustrations can instantly be drawn even during a discussion. An eraser can easily keep it clean and ready for continuous use.

Advantages
It is easily available It is inexpensive and easily installed

It can accommodate so, much writing space and easy to clean. Topics can be listed, deleted or revised to a final form. It is convenient to use both for formally prepared lessons and for spontaneous sessions
The attention of the class can be easily be held and focused, its usually located in front of the room

Disadvantages
Lessons or writings on the chalkboards are only for days use’s, hence temporary and cannot be saved
Chalks dust makes the area messy Writing makes one turn his back to the audience

Realia/Real Object

Solid, physical objects that can be brought into a classroom to be examined.

Advantages
Real objects are easily available everywhere
Examining real objects create concrete learning experiences for the learner. Real specimens can be handled and observed throughout

They are inexpensive
Children are familiar with the real materials and their interest can easily be focused

Disadvantages
Some live animals and plants are potentially hazards
Objects like circuit and heat source could be dangerous

Some are expensive
Problems regarding storage and retrieval may arise

Models

Models are scaled replicas of real objects. When the real things cannot be used due to their size either too larger or too small, replicas are used.

Advantages
Models provide motivation and enhance learning.
Oversized objects can be reduces in size and can be studied in the classroom. Some models can be purchased from commercials firms The parts can be built as to scale and can be appearing exactly like the real object.

Disadvantages

Purchase of models can be costly

If models are built as to scale, it could be time consuming.

Books

Textbooks and all kinds of books are also classified as media or sub-strategies. They contain information, pictures and graphics.

Advantages
Books are well-written. They present accurate facts and details.
They serve as permanent sources of information. Owning books assures one with available information when needed.

They are reusable Student can control their own pace of learning by using books at a convenient time. Books which present color, action and beautiful sceneries are enjoyed and reread a number of times

Disadvantages
Books on special contents can be expensive for some.

At one time, the search for information can be limited to one or two readers. Some students are not “readers”.

Charts

Charts may be in the form of maps, graphs, photographs and cut-outs. They may be prepared graphic devices or posters.

Advantages
Charts can be used over and over again
They can be moved easily from one place to another. Colored charts are more attractive Charts can be made by students

Disadvantages

(Printed) Charts cannot be show motion Big charts are burdensome to handle

Charts can be outdated

Bulletin Boards

A bulletin board is usually stationary on a wall or it can be movable. The surface is made of cork or soft wall boards for attachment of display items. Its contents may be used for the duration of unit being studied. The learning materials may be pictures, newspaper clippings, real objects or drawings.

Advantages
It can start a preview if the lesson to be presented as a way of motivating the students.

The attractive displays can add life and color to a drab room atmosphere. A display can allow a number of students to browse over its contents at the same time.

Disadvantages

A good one needs time to plan and execute. If hurried, the display may fail in conveying the message desired.

Mock-ups

A mock-up is a replica of an object that can be larger or smaller in scale. It is intended to show the essential parts which are made detachable.

Advantages
It can be constructed by the teacher since she knows which part should be emphasized. It is the way of focusing observations on the desired part to be studied as well as the functional relationship of the part.

Disadvantages
Its construction could be time-consuming Since the sizes are exaggerated, the students might be confused when face with the real objects.

It could be costly.

Pictures

These include flat, opaque and still pictures. Photographs or pictures clipped from newspapers and magazine are also used. The concepts to be taught could be introduced through pictures.

Advantages
Appropriate pictures that fit the objectives are easy to obtain. They are often free in the form of clippings. In a well chosen picture, the amount of information that can be conveyed is tremendous

They are more effective than oral or written statements.
They are reusable.

Disadvantages
Choosing the right picture can be a problem for some teacher. Handling pictures need so much care. Sometimes the correct size or prospective if scaled in a picture can cause confusion especially fit the children are not familiar to the object.

DOCUMENT CAMERAS

The document camera is a video camera mounted on a copy stand, pointed downward at documents, flat pictures, or graphics and small objects (like coins). The image may be projected onto a large screen within the room or it may be transmitted to distant sites via television.

Advantages

No projection required All students have equal view. Allows group viewing of student work.

Disadvantages
Bulky hardware

Monitor or projection required
Needs additional lighting

Overhead Transparencies and Overhead Projector (OHP)

By using the overhead projector, a transparency will can show pictures, diagrams and sketches at a time when they are needed in a discussion. Step-by-step instruction, enumerations or any sequenced illustration can easily be presented through transparencies.

Advantages
Transparencies can easily be prepared by teacher or the students. The teacher is able to maintain eye to eye contact while the transparency is on. Transparencies are reusable

OHP presentation can be used with large or small groups.
OHP is easy to operate

Disadvantages
The overhead projector may be costly for some. Moving it around needs as much care
When overhead, transparency can be damaged

Video/films

Films come in the form of 8mm and 16m type. Video tapes can be purchased or rented.

Advantages
Motion pictures easily motivate children. Movement or sequence of events can be shown clearly They are adaptable to large or small groups. Considering the number of times they can b used, they are relatively inexpensive.

Disadvantages
Choosing films with the exact content desired may be a problem Projection equipment might be expensive for some schools.
Mechanical and operational problem may arise with the projection equipment.

Audio recording

Audio recording include tapes, records and compact discs. Tapes may be in the form of teacher- recorded, student recorded or ready-made tapes that are commercially produced. Audio media is used by the teacher in connection with speech rehearsals, drama, musical presentation, radio and television broadcasting.

Advantages
Improve listening skills
Easy to operate

Safe way of storing information
Can be used in small or big groups

Best used to improve speech skills
Lessen distraction when used with headphones

Disadvantages

Extended use may bore students

Costly compared to actual oral presentation

PowerPoint Presentation

The most common and useful , accessible way to create and present visual aids.

Advantages
easy to create colorful, attractive designs using the standard templates and themes; easy to modify compared to other visual aids, such as charts, and easy to drag and drop slides to re-order presentation.
easy to present and maintain eye contact with a large group by simply advancing the slides with a keystroke, eliminating the need for handouts to follow the text.

Disadvantages
Teachers create slides so they have something to present rather than outlining, organizing, and focusing on the subject matter and the students.
the linear nature of PowerPoint slides forces the presenter to reduce complex subjects to a set of bullet items which are too weak to support decision-making or show the complexity of an issue.
You will need to have a computer and projection equipment in place to display the slides to the students.

Electronics Materials

A lot of electronic materials are now available for teaching-learning – CDs, DVDs, CD-ROMS and the internet. While these are developments in the field of educational technology, it does not mean that all there that came before like textbooks have become obsolete.

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