SUMIT KUMAR SHARMA

What is Network Cabling?
 Cable is the medium through which

information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs.  In the networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size.

The following sections discuss the types of cables used in networks

Cable

Coaxial Cable

Twisted pair cabling

Fiber optic cabling

Coaxial Cable
 Coaxial cabling has a

single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield

The two type of Coaxial cable are:-

Coaxial cable

Thin coaxial

Thick coaxial

Thin coaxial
 Thin coaxial cable is also referred to as

thinnet. 10Base2 refers to the specifications for thin coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 2 refers to the approximate maximum segment length being 200 meters. In actual fact the maximum segment length is 185 meters. Thin coaxial cable is popular in school networks, especially linear bus networks.

Thick coaxial
 Thick coaxial cable is also referred to as

thicknet. 10Base5 refers to the specifications for thick coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 5 refers to the maximum segment length being 500 meters.  Thick coaxial cable has an extra protective plastic cover that helps keep moisture away from the center conductor. This makes thick coaxial a great choice when running longer lengths in a linear bus network.

Disadvantage: One disadvantage of thick coaxial is that it

does not bend easily and is difficult to install.

Coaxial Cable Connectors
 The most common type of connector used

with coaxial cables is the Bayone-NeillConcelman or British Novell connector (BNC) connector . Different types of adapters are available for BNC connectors, including a Tconnector, barrel connector, and terminator.

Twisted pair cable

 Twisted Pair Cable uses copper wire as

Telecommunication Cable.  Twisting the copper wire reduces crosstalk and signal emissions.

The two type of twisted Pair Cable are;-

Twisted Pair Cable

UTP Cable

STP cable

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable
 UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to

extremely high-speed cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket .  The EIA/TIA (Electronic Industry Association/Telecommunication Industry Association) has established standards of UTP and rated five categories of wire. But now six or more categories of cables are invented.  Length of UTP Cable are 100 meters.

Categories of Unshielded Twisted Pair
 Category 1  Category 2  Category 3  Category 4  Category 5  Category 6

Category 1
 speed - up to 1 mbps  No. of wire – 2 pair  Connector – RJ 11  Carry – only voice  Used in – telephone industry

Category 2
 speed - up to 4 mbps  No. of wire – 4 pair  Connector – RJ 45  Carry – only voice & Data  Used in – Computer

Category 3
 speed - up to 16 mbps  No. of wire – 4 pair  Connector – RJ 45  Carry – only voice & Data  Used in – Computer

Category 4
 speed - up to 20 mbps  No. of wire – 4 pair  Connector – RJ 45  Carry – only voice & Data  Used in – Computer

Category 5
 speed - up to 100 mbps  No. of wire – 4 pair  Connector – RJ 45  Carry – only voice & Data  Used in – Computer

Category 6
 speed - up to 1 gbps  No. of wire – 4 pair  Connector – RJ 45  Carry – only voice , Data & multimedia  Used in – Computer

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable
 Shielded twisted pair (STP) is suitable for

environments with electrical interference. Shielded twisted pair is often used on networks using Token Ring topology.  Length of STP Cable are 220 meters.

Fiber Optic Cable
 Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core

surrounded by several layers of protective materials. It transmits light rather than electronic signals eliminating the problem of electrical interference.  Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. It also has the capability to carry information at vastly greater speeds. This capacity broadens communication possibilities to include services such as video conferencing and interactive services.  10BaseF refers to the specifications for fiber optic cable carrying Ethernet signals.

Fiber Optic Connector
• The most common connector used with fiber optic cable is an Straight Tip (ST) connector. It is barrel shaped, similar to a BNC connector. A newer connector, the Subscriber Connector (SC), is becoming more popular. It has a squared face and is easier to connect in a confined space.

The two type of Fiber optic cable are:-

Ethernet media connector Requirement:10 base2 50 ohm Coaxial thinnet 10 base 5 50 ohm Coaxial Thicknet 10 base T EIA / TIA Category 3.4.5.UTP, Two pair 100baseTX EIA / TIA Category 5 UTP, Two pair 100 base FX 62.5 / 125 Multimode fiber

Media

Maximum Segment Length topology Connentor

185 m (606.94 feet) Bus BNC

500 m (1640.4 feet)

100 m(328 ft)

100 m(328 ft)

400m (1812.3) Star Duplex media Interface ST &SC connector

Bus Attachment Unit interface (AUI)

Star RJ 45

Star RJ 45

Three type of cable are connect in the networks are: Straight Cable –It use to connect two different

devices. E.g.- Pc to switch , Pc to Hub, switch to Hub etc. E.g.- Pc to Pc, Switch to switch, Hub to Hub Etc.

 Cross Cable - it use to connect two same devices.
 (Note- pc to router are two male terminals . So it is cross cable.)

 Rollover Cable - it use to configure terminal like

Switch,Router .