Prerequisites
MsD
A. Modeling the Real World
To create a model is to translate reallife
situations into mathematical statements.
Examples:
1. The water bill in a certain subdivision is
computed as follows : a flat rate of
PhP 25.00 and PhP 1.50 for every cubic meter
used. The cubic meter used is the difference
between the present and the last months
meter readings. Suppose the reading last
month was 300 c.m. and the reading this
month is 350c.m., how much is the water bill
for household A?
If W represents the water bill,
P = the present months reading and
L = last months reading, then
W = 25.00 + 1.50 per cubic meter x (P L).
Hence, the water bill of household A is
W = PhP25.00 + PhP1.50/c.m. (350c.m.
300c.m.)
= PhP 25.00 + PhP1.50/c.m.(50 c.m.)
= PhP 25.00 + PhP 75.00
= PhP 100.00
Thus the water bill for this month is PhP 100.00
2. The student organization is preparing a
tarpaulin to promote their incoming activity.
After much canvassing, they found the cheapest
rate for the printing of tarpaulin : PhP15.00 per
square feet. They plan to post a tarpaulin that
measures 5 ft. in length and 3 ft. in width. How
much will the group pay for the tarpaulin?
First, compute for the area of the tarpaulin.
The area of a rectangle, which is obviously
the shape of the tarpaulin is Area = Length
x Width.
Area = 5 ft. x 3 ft. = 15 sq. ft.
To compute the cost,
Cost =( PhP 15.00/sq.ft) x 15 sq. ft.
= PhP 225.00
Thus, the group will have to pay
PhP 225.00 for the tarpaulin.
Other examples :
1. Compute the total amount of tuition
and fees of Student A if he plans to take
15 units, assuming that the tuition fee
is 1000 pesos per unit and the
miscellaneous fee is 5250 pesos. How
many units can he enroll in if he only has
PhP 15,000 ?
2. What is the grade point average of Student A
if he got the following grades last semester ?
Algebra (3 units) = 3.50
P.E. (2 units) = 3.75
Laboratory (1 unit) = 2.0
Physics lecture (3 unit) = 2.25
3. Suppose Student B got the following
scores : Long quiz 1 = 52, Long quiz 2 =
59, Problem set = 60. What should she get
in the prelim exam in order to pass the class
during the prelim period?
B. Real Numbers
The set of real numbers is comprised
of the set of rational (Q) and irrational
numbers (Q). A rational number is
a number that can be expressed as a
ratio a/b where a and b are integers.
Repeating but nonterminating numbers
such as .3333 (or 1/3) and
nonrepeating and terminating numbers
such as .75 (or ) are examples of
these.
Nonterminating and nonrepeating
decimals such as 3.14159. . . (pie)
cannot be expressed as a ratio and
thus are called as irrational numbers.
Under the set of rational numbers are integers
and fractions (nonintegers). Belonging to the
set of integers are negative numbers and whole
numbers. Zero (0) and the counting numbers
(1, 2, ) are called whole numbers.
1. Properties of Real Numbers
Let a, b and c be real numbers. Then the
following are true:
a. Commutative property
a + b = b + a ex : 2 + 8 = 8 + 2
ab = ba ex : 2 x 8 = 8 x 2
Note : from hereon, a b may be written as ab
or a(b)
b. Distributive property
a(b + c) = ab + ac
ex : 4(3 + 9) = 4(3) + 4(9)
c. Associative property
(a+b) + c = a + (b + c)
ex : (5+3) + 34 = 5 + (3 + 34)
(ab)c = a(bc)
ex : (3x6)5 = 3(6 x5)
d. Identity element of Addition : a + 0 = a
ex : 45 + 0 = 45
Identity element of Multiplication : a(1) =a
ex : 3(1) = 3
e. Existence of Additive Inverse: a+ (a) = 0
ex : 23 + (23) = 0
Existence of Multiplicative Inverse : a (1/a)=1
ex : 4(1/4) = 1
f. Closure
a + b is also a real number
ab is also a real number
ex : 4(5) = 20, which is a real number
also
? Is subtraction under the set of Real
numbers commutative?
? Do we have closure property under the set
of rational numbers ? Set of irrational
numbers?
Real Number Line
Graphing Intervals
Real numbers may be represented in a
number line. The numbers to the left of 0 are
the negative numbers while those in the right are
the positive numbers. Given two distinct numbers
a and b, if a is to the left of b then a is less than
b. If a is to the right of b, then a is greater than
b.
Getting the intersection and union
a. [2, 7.5) (, 5]
b. [2, 7.5) (, 5]
Absolute value and distance
Let a be a real number. The
absolute value of a, denoted by a, is the
distance of a from 0.
Examples :
3.5 = 3.5 10 = 10 0 = 0
<
=
>
=
0 a if a
0 a if 0
0 a if a
 a 
a. Properties of absolute value
Note that the absolute value of a
product is equal to the product of their
absolute values. Example : 35 = 7 x
5 = 35
Also, the absolute value of a quotient is
the quotient of their absolute values. For
example ,
8
5
8
5
8
5
= =
b. Distance between points on the real line
Let a and b be two real numbers.
The distance between a and b, denoted by
d(a,b) is a  b. For example : The distance
between 7 and 21 is 7  21 = 14= 14.
Exercises : pp. 1920 : #s 1, 11, 13, 21, 23,
25,33, 41, 55, 57, 59, 69, 75, 77
C. Integer exponents
Let a and n be real numbers. By a
n
we mean
a
n
= aa a (n times)
We call a as the base and n as the exponent.
1. Zero and negative exponents. Note that
a
0
= 1 and a
n
= .
Example : 5
2
=
n
a
1
25
1
=
2
5
1
2. Laws of exponents. Let a, m and n be real
numbers.
a
m
a
n
= a
m+n
ex : x
2
x
5
= x
7
a
m
a
n
= a
m n
ex : x
2
x
5
= x
3
= 1/x
3
(a
m
)
n
= a
mn
ex : (x
2
)
5
= x
10
(ab)
n
= a
n
b
n
ex : (xy)
7
= x
7
y
7
(a/b)
n
= a
n
/b
n
ex : (x/y)
4
= x
4
/y
4
Exercises : pp. 2729 : #s 5, 7, 21, 29, 33,
41, 45, 49, 81, 83
D. Rational exponents and
radicals
1. Definition of n
th
root
Let n be a positive integer. The n
th
root of a is
equal to b, that is, if b
n
= a.
In , the number n is the index and a is the
radicand. The symbol is called the radical
sign.
Example : because (x
7
)
3
= x
21
b =
n
a
n
a
7
3
21
x = x
2. Properties of n
th
root
ex :
ex :
ex :
if n is odd ex :
= x if n is even ex :
n
n
n
y x = xy
2 3 6 3
xy = y x
n
n
n
y
x
=
y
x
4
2
3
12
6
y
x 2
=
y
x 8
mn
mn
x = x
2 = 64 = 64
6
3
x = x
n
n
2
3 3
) 2 ( =
2
4 4
) 2 ( =
Note that radicals may be added/subtracted only if
they have the same radicands and indeces. To
add/subtract them, simply add/subtract their
coefficients.
 = 
= 
=
4
32 4

4
2 3
4
2 3
4 4
2 2 4
4
2 3
4
2 ) 2 ( 4
4
2 3
4
2 5
Definition of rational exponents
By (a)
m/n
we mean (a
1/n
)
m
or (a
m
)
1/n
Ex 8
2/3
= (8
1/3
)
2
= 2
2
= 4
(16x
6
y
8
)
3/2
= ((16x
6
y
8
)
1/2
)
3
= (4x
3
y
4
)
3
= 64x
9
y
12
Using this, we can multiply and simplify the
following expression involving rational exponents :
or
2 / 1
x
3 / 1
)
2 / 3
x (
3 / 1
)
2
1
1
x (
3 / 1
))
2 / 1
x )( x ((
3
x x = =
+
= =
x
Rationalizing the denominator
To rationalize an expression means to remove
the radical sign in the denominator. To do this,
suppose that the exponent of the variable x in the
denominator is m/n, where m/n is a proper fraction.
Then multiply the numerator and the denominator
by x
(nm)/n
. Example, to rationalize
multiply by x
1/3
3 / 2
3
2
x
5
=
x
5
x
x 5
=
x
x 5
=
x
x
x
5
3 3 / 1
3 / 1
3 / 1
3 / 2