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APA CITATION STYLE

A Seminar on the Basics


Presented by Prof. Javen G. Babac Jr.

What is APA?
APA citation is a set of rules established by the American Psychological Association explaining how to document sources used in a research paper. Among the topics covered are: 1. structure of research 2. spelling rules 3. author-date reference style 4. construction of tables and graphs 5. Avoiding plagiarism 6. formatting of papers

What is Plagiarism?
To steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own : use (another's production) without crediting the source.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=ultimun

TWO FUNDAMENTAL TYPES OF APA CITATIONS


1. 2. CITATIONS IN THE TEXT CITATIONS IN THE REFERENCE LIST

In-Text Citations The Basics


No footnotes Author & date system Parenthesis used, if information is not in the text
e.g. A study (Bagley, 2008) said . . . In a study, Bagley (2008) said . . . In a 2008 study, Bagley said . . .

Page numbers for quotes or references to specific material

In-Text Citations Special Cases


No author: First few words of the title
e.g. (Vennard Students, 2008) when citing Vennard Students Voice Their Opinions

Multiple authors:
2 (Mathias and Van Kuiken, 2007) 3-5 (Mathias, Penn, & Van Kuiken, 2007) 2nd time (Mathias et al, 2007) 6+ (Mathias et al, 2007)

Short Quotations
Less than 40 words use . . . Cite, author, date, page
e.g. He stated that Vennard students believe that heavy loads of homework help increase the value of a course (Bagley, 2008, p. 132).

Final punctuation follows the parenthesis

Long Quotations
More Than 40 words block indent inch (placement of period) Parenthetical citation follows final punctuation.
e.g. Vennard students believe that heavy loads of homework help increase the value of a course. For that reason we will be asking all professors to double present assignments in all courses that they teach. This will ensure that Vennard graduates will feel confident in the value of their educational experience. (Bagley, 2008, p. 132)

Reference List The Basics


Contains all/only works cited in the body of the paper Alphabetized by the authors last name Capitalize only the first word of titles, but all major words in journal titles Italicize titles of books and journals, but not of articles

Reference List Basic Form


Author(s) + Date + Title + Publication Data Authors: list surnames and initials Date: set in parenthesis

Reference List - Books


Basic form: Author, I. (Year). Title of work: Subtitle. Location: Publisher. e.g. Bagley, R. W. (2008) What college students really want: Creating high quality courses. University Park, IA: Vennard College.

Reference List Books (2 authors)


Basic form: Author, I., & Author2, I. (Year). Title of work: Subtitle. Location: Publisher. e.g. Bagley, R. W., & Behrens, J. (2008) What college students really want: Creating high quality courses. University Park, IA: Vennard College.

Reference List Books (no author)


Basic form: Title of work: Subtitle. (Year). Location: Publisher.

e.g. What college students really want: Creating high quality courses. (2008) University Park, IA: Vennard College.

Reference List Books (editor)


Basic form: Author, I. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work: Subtitle. Location: Publisher. e.g. Bagley, R. W. (Ed.). (2008) What college students really want: Creating high quality courses. University Park, IA: Vennard College.

Reference List - Periodicals


Basic form: Author, I. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. e.g. Bagley, R. W. (2008, January). College students are crazy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 52(1), 78-93.

Reference List Newspaper Articles


Basic form: Author, I. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Periodical, pp.pages. e.g. Bagley, R. W. (2008, January 20). College students are crazy. Oskaloosa Herald, p.5.

Reference List Electronic Sources


Follow the rules for print as much as possible Add date retrieved and source Dont underline URL Omit final punctuation if reference ends with a URL Divide URLs before a . or after a / For exact reproductions of print sources include [Electronic version] after the title

Reference List - Webpage


Basic form: Author, I. (Date). Title of webpage. Retrieved Month day, year from URL Grant, L. (2005). College students expected to load up on gadgets. Retrieved January 30, 2008 from http://www.usatoday .com/tech/products/gear/2005 -08-16-college-gadgets_x.htm

Reference List Online Journal


Basic form: Author, I. (Date). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue). Retrieved Month day, year from URL

Chowdhury, M. (2006, Summer). Students personality traits and academic performance: A fivefactor model perspective. College Quarterly 9(3). Retrieved January 30, 2008 from http://www.senecac .on.ca/quarterly/2006-vol09num03-summer/chowdhury.html

Reference List Online Database


Basic form: Author, I. (Date). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. Retrieved Month day, year from Database. Wyatt, G., Saunders, D., & Selmer D. (2005, December). Academic preparation, effort and success: A comparison of student and faculty perceptions [Electronic version]. Educational Research Quarterly 29(2), 29-36. Retrieved January 30, 2008 from EBSCOhost Academic Search Premier database.