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Drive Test
Myson Engineering Systems
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Sr. No Activity Type


1 Benchmarking

Description
Drive for checking the difference between operators Drive test between difference operators for checking the RX Level, RX Quality, SQI, C/I, CSSR & DCR etc.

Cluster Drives

Rehoming Activity

Drive to newly Rhome sites to confirm the status either sites working properly.

Single Site DT

Drive newly Commissioned sites, swap sites to check the implemented parameters & Rx level, Rx Quality, SQI & C/I etc.

Optimization DT

Joint visit for hardware changes and confirm the status on the site, changes in azimuth, Electrical tilt, mechanical tilt, etc.

Reports & Analyze log files

Making reports for sites , cluster drives & Benchmarking

Work Process
Collect OMC Parameter Database RF Network Design Cell File (TEMS) And Dot Tab Site (MapInfo) Drive Test Measurements

Site Check

Coverage Dropped Calls Call Setup Success Handover Perf.


Analysis Programs

Verification of RF Network Design

Speech Quality SQI General Check

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Drive Test Tools


TEMS Phone
USB GPS for Rout

Laptop For Data collection TEMS Software & installation CD

Drive Test Tools


Data cables

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Laptop charger

Inverter for Laptop charging

Car for DT

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Following is the procedure and parameters that need to checked while performing Drive Test for a New Site.
1. Physical Verification, Alarm Verification, Frequency Plan Verification 2. CPC (Cell Parameter Check) 3. MOC (Mobile Originated Calls) 4. MTC (Mobile Terminated Calls Prepaid to Postpaid) 5. SMS (Short Messaging Service) 6. GPRS 7. EDGE 8. Intra Site Handover 9. Inter Site Handover 10. TRX Test 11. Idle Drive (Normal Drive & Frequency Lock Drive) 12. Dedicated Drive

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Physical Verification Physical Verification is carried out by verifying physical parameter of the New Site with the TSSR (Technical Site Survey Report) such as Address, Lat, Long, Building Height, Antenna Height, Antenna Type, Orientation, and Tilt. Alarm Verification Alarms are generated mainly due to number of reasons, and these needs to check before Drive is being carried out for the Site. Alarms are checked from the NOC (Network Operating Centre) and if found needs to be verified before drive being carried out. Frequency Plan Verification Frequency Plan can be verified from the NOC (Network Operating Centre) for BCCH and TCH frequencies being implemented as per the Site Integration Sheet sent to NOC (Network Operating Centre). Hardware Configuration Verification Hardware verification is performed to know the Site type, BTS Type, TRX Configuration, VSWR checking, Power measurement for each TRX.

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Given are the parameters that need to be checked while performing CPC. CGI (Cell Global Identity) consists if MCC+NCC+LAC+CI Cell GPRS Support GSM Band BCCH Frequency BSIC Mode Time Slot Channel Type Channel Mode Speech Codec Hopping Channel Hopping frequency MAIO HSN

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1.Time: It is system time of computer. 2.Cell name: It displays the name of the sector which is serving according to the cell file that is loaded in TEMS. 3.CGI : It stands for the Cell Global Identity which is unique for every sector of the site. It consists of MCC,MNC,LAC,CI. MCC: Mobile Country Code 0 999 MNC: Mobile Network Code 0 99 LAC : Location Area Code 0 -65535 CI: Cell Identity 0 65535 Cell GPRS Support: Tells sector is having GPRS or not. Values are Yes or No . Band : It tells in which Freq. Band mobile is operating e.g. GSM 900/ 1800. BCCH ARFCN: It tells by which BCCH is the mobile station getting served. TCH ARFCN: On which Traffic Freq. call is going on. BSIC (Base Station Identity Code) : It is combination of Network Color Code (NCC) (0 7) & Base Station Color Code (BCC) (0 7). e.g. 62. It is decoded by mobile on every Sync. Channel Message. Mode: It is shows in which state is mobile operating, Idle, Dedicated & Packet. Time slot: On which time slot of current TCH call is going on. Viz. time slot no. of TRX. Channel Type: Type of channel mobile is getting now. Like BCCH / SDCCH/8 + SACCH/C8 or CBCH / TCH/F +FACCH/F +SACCH/F. Channel Mode : Shows mode of coding like Speech Full Rate of Half Rate. Speech Codec: It shows FR for Full Rate, HR for Half Rate & EFR for Enhanced Full Rate. Ciphering Algorithm : It shows ciphering algorithm used by the system to protect data for privacy. E.g. Cipher by A5/2. Sub Channel Number: It is displayed at a time when mobile is on dedicated mode at time of call setup when it is getting SDCCH at that time it shows which SDCCH it is getting out of 8 available. E.g. 2. Hopping Channel : It shows that current sector is having hopping feature or not. Values are Yes or No. Hopping Frequencies : It displays no. of freq. on which mobile is allowed to hop. viz. MA List for hopping of that sector. Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO): It is the number which tells from which freq. from given MA list for sector hopping has to be started. E.g. 0 means sector will start from first freq. to hop. Hopping Sequence Number (HSN) : Indicates sequence in which frequencies are allowed to hop from the MA List. 0- 63. 0 for Cyclic Hopping, 1 63 random hopping sequences.

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Given are parameter need to be checked while performing MOC and MTC RX Level (-47 dbm to -110dbm) RX Quality (0 to 7) SQI (20 to 30) DTX HSN (Hopping Sequence Number) (0 to 63) MAIO Hopping Frequency C/ I Ratio (>15 dbm) C/ A Ratio (>12 dbm)

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RxLev : Receiving level in terms of dBm that mobile is receiving from the site. Range of -30 dBm to -110dBm. RxQual : Quality of voice which is measured on basis of BER. Range of RxQual 0 -7. FER : Frame Erasure Rate it represents the percentage of frames being dropped due to high number of non-corrected bit errors in the frame. It is indication of voice quality in network. BER Actual : Ratio of the number of bit errors to the total number of bits transmitted in a given time interval. BER is a measure for the voice quality in network.. Depending on BER RxQual is measured. E,g, BER 0 to 0.2 % corresponds to RxQual 0. Max. BER countable and useful is up to 12.8 % which corresponds to RxQual of max. 7. SQI : SQI is a more sophisticated measure which is dedicated to reflecting the quality of the speech (as opposed to radio environment conditions). This means that when optimizing the speech quality in your network, SQI is the best criterion to use. SQI is updated at 0.5 s intervals. It is computed on basis of BER and FER. For EFR 30, FR 21 & HR 17 are respectively ideal values. C/I : The carrier-over-interference ratio is the ratio between the signal strength of the current serving cell and the signal strength of undesired (interfering) signal components. It should be at least > 9 . MS Power Control Level: Displays range of power control from 0 to 8 depending upon network design. E.g. 0 means no power control and 1 means level that is defined by operator viz. 2 dBm less acc. DTX : Discontinuous transmission (DTX) is a mechanism allowing the radio transmitter to be switched off during speech pauses. This feature reduces the power consumption of the transmitter, which is important for MSs, and decreases the overall interference level on the radio channels affecting the capacity of the network.. TA : Value that the base station calculates from access bursts and sends to the mobile station (MS) enabling the MS to advance the timing of its transmissions to the BS so as to compensate for propagation delay. Value of 0 means MS in radius of 550mt. From BS. RL Timeout Counter (Cur) : This parameter define the maximum value of the radio link counter expressed in SACCH blocks. Range of 4 64 in step size of 4. it shows current value of RLT. Decrease by 1 but increase by 2. When it reaches zero it results in normal DROP Call. RL Timeout Counter (MAX) : This parameter define the maximum value of the radio link counter expressed in SACCH blocks. Range of 4 64 in step size of 4. it shows current value of RLT. Normally 16, 20, 24. MS Behavior Modified : This window shows current settings for the mobile station, for instance whether handover is disabled or multiband reporting enabled.

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This is performed to check whether GPRS is working on the Site. This is done by browsing a web page in browser of the phone. For GPRS to be checked it is Necessary to see that the handset is WAP, GPRS enabled.

Mode GPRS

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This is performed to check whether Edge is working on the Site. This is done by browsing a web page in browser of the phone. For Edge to be checked it is Necessary to see that the handset is WAP, EDGE enabled.

Mode EDGE

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Intra Handover is performed to check whether handover is taking place both ways on the Site. Handover is performed among all the Sectors of the Site.

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Inter site Handover is performed to check whether handover is taking place both ways on the Site with its adjacent neighbor. Handover needs to check mandatory for primary neighbor. Handover is performed with the entire defined neighbor's in the integration sheet.

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Idle Drive is performed in two fashion Normal Drive Frequency Lock Drive

Normal Drive
This is done to frame the potential area of the new site planned. It also helps us to get to know the important neighboring sites for which the handover has to take place. Frequency Lock Drive This is done by locking the BCCH frequency of the serving cell and performing the drive for the same cell unless the mobile enters into No Service Mode. This is usefull for making decision related to GSM antenna height, tilt, and orientation. Dedicated Drive

Dedicated drive is an important part of Drive Test. Here call is made to a test number and drive is done for the potential areas of the Site. During drive being carried out one has constantly monitor parameters such as RX Level, RX Quality, SQI, DTX, C/I Ratio, Hopping Channel, Neighbor list, TA (Timing Advance).

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Testing Live

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GSM Call Flow (GSM Originating Call)

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GSM Call Flow (GSM Originating Call)

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GSM Call Flow (GSM Originating Call)

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GSM Call Flow (GSM Originating Call)

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DT report Sample

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Site Checklist
Site Code Site Id City Latitude Longitude Site Type (1 to 6) LLR536 1959 LAHORE 31.473487 74.415446 3

RF Design

Antenna
Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3 Sector 4

Band
900 1800 900 1800 900 1800

Height (m)
20 20 22 22 20 20

Azimuth (Degree) 0 0 120 120 230 230

Mech Tilt (Degree)


0 0 0 0 0 0

Elect Tilt (Degree)


6 4 6 4 6 4

Antenna type
K742266 K742266 K742266 K742266 K742266 K742266

Band

Sector Sect A Sect B Sect C Sect D Sect A Sect B Sect C Sect D

BCCH 76 65 67

LAC 409 409 409

NCC 3 4 3

BCC 7 6 6

HSN 13 13 13

GSM 900

GSM 1800

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Site Drive Test Analysis


BCCH / TRX1 Band Sector Freq/Maio Sect A GSM 900 Sect B 76 65 Rx Lev -34 -34 Maio 0 2 Rx Lev -34 -34 TRX 2

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TRX 3 Maio Rx Lev Maio

TRX 4 Rx Lev

Sect C
Sect A GSM 1800 Sect B Sect C

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-34

-34
0 8 16 -34 -34 -34 2 10 18 -34 -34 -34

Site HO No. of Attempts Sector Calls Established Successful Calls Blocked Calls Dropped Calls 56 56 No. of Success

Sect A
Sect B Sect C

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16 16

16
16 16

0
0 0

0
0 0

SEC A HR Status PC Status Not Set Not Set

SEC B Not Set Not Set

SEC C Not Set Not Set

TA Restriction

255

255

255

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. Quality Plot Rx

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RX Level Plot

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DT Reports for Data


Radio Network Planning Site EDGE Verification Report Site ID: Site Type: Date: Site Configuration (GERNAL) LAYER STRATEGY BTSs BTS1 Cell / Segment Option1 Layer1 CSW, GPRS, EGPRS TRX3 BTS2 1800 TRX4 BAND 900 TRX2 TRXs TRX1 LLR536 GSM:2/2/2, DCS:2/2/2 10-Sep-08

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TSL0 CBCCH SDCCH TCH/F TCH/F

PSW TSL1 TSL2 TSL3 TSL4 TSL5 TSL6 TSL7 terr. SDCC TCH/ TCH/ Defaul Defaul Defaul Dedicate EGPRS H D D t t t d TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F TCH/F Defaul Defaul Defaul Dedicate GPRS t t t d

Cell Reselection (E-G-E) TEST

Static Downloading TEST

( 320 KB)

Sectors Sec-1 Sec-2 Sec-3

Yes a a a

No

Sectors Sec-1 Sec-2 Sec-3

Downloading time (Sec) 38.73 41.3 38.98

Avg Data rate (Kbps) 66.10 61.99 65.67

TA 0 0 0

C/I 35 35 35

PDP Context Activation Activation 20 Failure 0 Success rate 100%

Routing Area Update Area Update 0 Failure 0 Rate 100%

RLC EDGE Throughputs Minimum Throughtput UL (Kbps) 0.63 0.63 0.63 Peak Throughput 172.52 136.23 120.01

Sectors Sec-1 Sec-2 Sec-3

Peak Throughput

Minimum Throughtput DL (Kbps) 12.68 10.14 10.03

15.34 5.75 5.06

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Drive Test throughput Distribution .

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Drive Test C/I Distribution .

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EDGE Connection Stability

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EDGE RLC throughput coverage .

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EDGE Coding Scheme coverage .

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EDGE Coding Scheme Usage .

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Cluster Drive report

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RX LEVEL

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RX Quality

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SQI

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Event Plots

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Benchmarking Plots

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RX Level plot

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Rx Qual

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RX level

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Rx quality

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Events
CC Messages
CC Setup CC Call Confirmed CC Connect CC Alerting RR Messages RR Handover Command

Count
11 0 10 10

Count 43

RR Handover Complete
RR Handover Failure

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MM Messages MM Location Updating Request MM Location Updating Accept MM Location Updating Reject

Count 1 1 0

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Events
Formulae CSSR 1: CSSR 2: CCR 1: CCR 2: HSR: LUSR: Summary Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR) Call Completion Rate (CCR) Handover Success Rate (HSR) Location Update Success Rate (LUSR) 75.00% 66.67% 79.07% 100.00% 83.33% 80.00% (Calls Completed + Calls Dropped) / Call Attempts Outgoing and Incoming Call Setup / Call Attempts Calls Completed / Call Attempts Calls Completed / Calls Setup OK Handovers Successful / Handover Attempts Location Update Successful / Location Update Attempts

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Events
The Events Outgoing Call Starts Outgoing Call Setup OK Outgoing Call Setup Failure Incoming Call Starts Incoming Call Setup OK Incoming Call Setup Failure Call Completed Call Dropped Handover OK Handover Failure Location Update OK Location Update Failure Count 12 10 2 0 0 0 8 1 34 9 1 0

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Rx level Distribution
RxLevSub Distribution
12000 100% 90% 10000 80% 70% 8000 60% 6000 50%

40%
4000 30% 20%

2000
10% 0 -110 0% -106 -102 -98 -94 -90 -86 -82 -78 -74 -70 -66 -62 -58 -54 -50 -46 -42

dBm

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Rx Qual Distribution
RxQualSub Distribution
120000 100% 90% 100000 80% 70% 80000 60%

60000

50%

40% 40000
30% 20% 20000 10% 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0%

RxQual

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TA Distribution
TA Distribution
20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30%

4000
2000 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 63

20%
10% 0%

TA

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TEMS Log files & Analyze

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TEMS LOG-FILE ANALYSIS

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Requirements

To analyze a log-file, the analyzer must have a complete know how of the data collection.

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Things to Analyze
Although there are many things to note during the log-file analysis but they can be summarized under different topics: Coverage Analysis Quality Analysis Handover Analysis Drop Call Analysis

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Coverage Analysis

Coverage Analysis

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Doing coverage analysis from log-files usually we come across following problems: Low Rx_Level Lack of Dominant Server Sudden Decrease in Rx_Level Almost same Rx_Level Drop call due to Bad Coverage Access Failures

Low Rx_Level

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In areas where there are few sites and too many different types of terrain structures like hills or obstacles those stopping the line of sight to the broadcasting signal, there might be a lot of coverage holes or places with insufficient signal level.

Lack of Dominant Server

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Signals of more than one cell can be reaching a spot with low level causing ping pong handovers. This might happen because the MS is located on the cell borders and there is no any best server to keep the call.

Sudden Decrease in Rx_Level

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Tunnel Effect:
Engineer may notice sudden decrease on signal level when analyzing the log files. This will result in excessive number of handovers. Before suspecting anything else, check if the test was performed on a highway and that particular area was a tunnel or not. Signal level on the chart will make a curve rather than unstable changes. Tunnel effect will most likely result in ping pong handovers.

Almost Same Rx_Level

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The network needs big optimization work when there are too many cells having overlapping coverage. This will cause quality problems because of frequency reuse and immediate action to optimize cell coverage should be taken. Other cells else than the one that suppose to serve at that particular area should be coverage reduced by power reductions, down tilts or other configuration changes.

Drop Call due to Bad Coverage

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Call is dropped because of poor coverage. The signal level goes down below the minimum signal level that system could carry on. Remember this minimum level is much lower than RX Access Minimum Level.

Access Failures

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Access failures can happen because of low level below ACCMIN, bad quality or blocking in the target cell, or hardware failures. If you get a blocked call message during call setup, it is because the signal leveling the cell you are trying to make call setup is below ACCMIN which prevents MS to access the cell. ACCMIN is generally set to 104dBm depending on sensitivity level of equipments and is referred during call setup. A low value of ACCMIN means that the coverage in idle mode is improved at the expense of the risk of having an increased number of call setup failures.

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Quality Analysis

Quality Analysis

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While doing the quality analysis in a log-file, one comes across different cases: BER & FER Bad Quality due to Signal Strength (FER is BAD) Bad Quality due to Signal Strength (FER is OK) SQI Collusion of MA list causing low C/I Interference

BER & FER


BER Stands for Bit Error Rate FER stands for Frame Erasure Ratio

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The BER and FER caused by the radio network is the most important speech quality degradation factors. The BER and frame erasure ratio (FER) are dependent on a number of factors such as fading and interference. The degradation can be minimized by using the radio network features DTX, Power control and Frequency hopping.

Bad Quality due to signal strength (FER is BAD)

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As the signal strength drops down, the quality of the call becomes worse being effected by interference or fading or both. Consequently the system becomes weaker to handle the interference. Notice that not only Rx Quality is bad, but also FER is high. SQI is still within acceptable limits. Thats why we check all RX Quality, FER and SQI when analyzing interference problems. System will face bad RX Quality, drop calls and ping pong handovers in such environments.

Bad Quality due to signal strength (FER is OK)

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The difference of this case from the previous is only the difference in FER. Signal strength is also bad in this, but FER is still fine which means there is no obvious interference in the area. The area in this case should most probably be a flat area without any obstacles to create reflection and the site density should not be dense or reuse of frequencies is good to prevent any cochannel interference.

SQI

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SQI, Speech Quality Index is another expression when Quality is concerned. However, the RxQual measure is based on a simple transformation of the estimated average bit error rate, and two calls having the same RxQual ratings can be perceived as having quite different speech quality. One of the reasons for this is that there are other parameters than the bit error rate that affects the perceived speech quality. A short, very deep fading dip has a different effect on the speech than a constant low bit error level, even if the average rate is the same. The TEMS Speech Quality Index, which is an estimate of the perceived speech quality as experienced by the mobile user, is based on handover events and on the bit error and frame erasure distributions. Extensive listening tests on real GSM networks have been made to identify what type of error situations cause poor speech quality. By using the results from the listening tests and the full information about the errors and their distributions, it is possible to produce the TEMS Speech Quality Index. The Speech Quality Index is available every 0.5 second in TEMS and predicts the instant speech quality in a phone call/radiolink in realtime.

Collusion of MA list causing low C/I

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The collusion of frequencies with neighboring cells MAIO list frequencies become more significant with dropping signal level. To prevent this kind of interference, MAIO lists of neighboring cells should be properly planned or MAIO step could be used.

Interference

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There are two types interferences usually faced during the drive test: Co-Channel Interference Interference created by same frequencies is Co-Channel Interference. It is rarely faced in any network. Adjacent Channel Interference Interference created by adjacent frequencies is called Adjacent Channel Interference. There are few cases in any network regarding this kind of interference. Interference can cause harm to network by creating drop calls, bad quality patches, voice distortion etc.

Interference

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Hand Over Analysis

Hand Over Analysis

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Hand Over contributes to one of the main KPIs in any network. Four main kinds of handovers take place in the networks: Intra- Cell Handovers Intra-BSC Handovers Inter-BSC Handovers Inter-MSC Handovers All the above handovers do follow the HO algorithm. HO algorithm in different vendors systems or even in operators using the same equipment could be different. In TEMS following Layer-3 messages contribute to Handover.

Sys Info Type 5 Sys Info Type 6 Measurement Reports Handover Command Handover Access Handover Complete

Hand Over Analysis


TYPES OF HANDOVER
Power Budget Handover (value depends upon PGBT HO Margin) Level Handover (value set -95dBm for DL & -105dBm for UL) Quality Handover (value set to 3.2% to 6.4% for both DL & UL) Interference Handover (value set to -80dBm for both DL & UL) Umbrella Handover (value set to -80 to -90dBm & PGBT Margin to max.) MS distance Handover (value set to max. by default) Intra-Cell Handover Rapid Field Handover (value set to -110dBm by default) Directed Retry Handover

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Hand Over Analysis

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Reasons for handover failure could be unavailable time slots because of high traffic, congestion, low signal strength or bad quality on target cell. Handover can be failed because of hardware problems in target cells more likely TRX or time slot problems. Doing the HO analysis, one faces the following problems:

Late Handovers Ping-Pong Handovers Missing Neighbor Relation T3124 Expiry Neighbor Cell in another BSC/MSC

Late Handovers

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There will be such cases that you will notice handover process taking place a little late. There could be couple of reasons to that. First thing to check will be handover margins between the neighbors. If margins for level, quality or power budget handovers are not set correctly, handover will not take place at the right time. If margins are too much, handover will happen late, vice versa. If umbrella handover is enabled between two neighbors, you will notice that the small site will still keep the traffic although the level of umbrella cell id too much higher. This is due to HO Level Umbrella RX Level which is set to some definite level.

Ping-Pong Handovers
Ping-Pong Handovers take place due to following reasons: MS moving in Zig Zag direction between the cells. Incorrect HO Margins lack of dominancy Too many overlapping regions

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Missing Neighbor Relation

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If a handover is not performed to a neighbor cell that seems to be best server, there is a possibility of a missing neighbor relation. This will happen with sudden appearance of strong cell in the neighbor list just after a handover.

T3124 Expiry

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T3124 is the timer which is started when the Ho reference is sent in the HO access burst. HO failure is faced when this timer is expired which means that either the burst is not sent properly or not recognized at the other end.

Shown in the Additional Information Message in Mode Reports

Neighbor Cell in another BSC/MSC

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You will always observe handover problems in BSC borders, because neighbor relations in these cases need extra attention. When the neighbor is in another BSC, the neighbor needs to be defined as an external cell in neighboring BSC with correct CGI, BCCH, BSIC and power related parameters. This must also be like this on the other way to have a mutual neighbor relation. If the neighboring cell belongs to a different MSC, the cell needs to be defined as an outer cell in neighboring MSC with correct CGI and MSC name/address. This must also be like this on the other way to have a mutual neighbor relation.

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Drop Call Analysis

Drop Call Analysis

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If the radio link fails after the mobile sends the Service Connect Complete Message then it is considered a dropped call. General reasons for drop calls are as follows:

o Drop Call due to Low Signal Strength o Drop Call due to Bad RX Quality o Drop Call due to Nothappening Handover o Drop Call due to Interference

Drop Call due to Low Signal Level

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Low signal strength in any area can be a cause for the drop call. The signal level goes down below the minimum signal level that system could carry on. Remember this minimum level is much lower than RX Access Minimum Level to prevent ongoing call from dropping.

Drop Call due to Bad Rx quality

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Sometimes the level is good or in the satisfactory range but the call is dropped because of the degraded trend of Rx quality. The degradation in this case is caused by the ping pong handovers between different cells.

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Drop Call due to Not Happening Hand Over

Sometimes the call is dropped due to not happening hand over. This case is faced when there is problem in the neighbor definitions of any cell, BSC or any MSC. The MS moves on & the cells other than the serving cell are not properly defined as neighbors then the call will be dragged until it crosses the max TA value & the call is dropped.

Drop Call due to Interference

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One of the reasons for the drop calls is interference also. It might be cochannel & might be adjacent channel.

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Thanks