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People and the Planet- topic 5

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5.2 How far can these issues be resolved sustainably?
5.2a) Cities have huge potential for reducing their ecofootprints

Look at the images, decide which you like the best and why and then which you like the least and why. Draw sketches of the 2 images and then annotate around them your reasons for liking or disliking the image

What makes cities unattractive to us?
Air Pollution
Congestion Shortage of housing

Noise pollution

Feeling unsafe

What makes cities have large Eco- footprints?

Difficulty in accessing services

High crime rates

Poor quality housing

Lots of importing of food and clothes

What can we do to reduce an Eco- footprint?
The 5 R’s • REDUCE- the things we use, energy, electricity, cars, goods, services, new clothes and food from far away • REUSE- everything we can, send clothes to charity shops, reuse bottles, use EBay to sell old furniture/ toys, go to swap shops for baby toys and clothes • RECYCLE- everything you can either by roadside collection or by visiting local recycling plant- you can recycle card, paper, glass, plastic, fabric • RENEW- use renewable energies, companies using cleaner fuels, wind or tidal power or cleaner coal. Insulate your home well to reduce heat and carbon loss, buy from sustainable sources wood/ leather etc • RESPECT- the environment and cultureslearn about your area and others who live in it
Task1) Of the 5 R’s which is the MOST important in the drive for sustainability? why? 2) Which of them do you think is easiest to get people to do? Why?

Curitiba- model city?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hRD3l3 rlMpo&feature=related Watch the video and make notes on:Where Curitiba is Why people like living there? What has been done to make it sustainable

Named Sustainable city/ place exampleCuritiba, Brazil

•Curitiba is a city of approximate ly 2.2m people situated in southeast Brazil.

Background
• Its 1940 population of 120,000 almost quadrupled by 1965 – since when it has more than trebled to its current size- 2.2 million. • Industrialisation and exponential growth meant the city was faced with the same environmental, social and economic problems of other LIC’s– unemployment, slums, pollution and congestion. • The factor which makes it stand out as a model of ‘voluntary sustainability' is the vision and efforts of its mayor Jaime Lerner. He and his government have achieved higher levels of quality of life for the residents of the city by creating a city 'more intelligent and humane'. • This is despite scarce urban resources. Curitiba's success has been largely dependent on the use of appropriate technology including the following:

• The transport plan is based on several axes crossing the city, which are high speed, one way, 3 lane roads, with one lane purely reserved for express buses • All bus lanes are interconnected trough 20 terminals • 70% of Curitibans used public transport-mainly buses

• There is a flat one fare for all journeys, which means poorer people living at city edges aren't disadvantaged • Buses are efficient (some run every 90 seconds) and stop at clear walled stops with turnstiles and wheelchair lifts. • Buses have no steps, instead extra wide doors and ramps automatically extend to the station as buses stop • Each bus only needs to stop for maximum 20 seconds because the ‘on’ off’ stage is very efficient. • The buses use alternatives fuels, NOT petrol or diesel, but hydrogen or natural gas which are not as bigger pollutants • The city uses 30% less fuel than other Brazilian cities of the same size

• Recycling two thirds of the city's daily waste is processed. Curitiba was awarded the highest environmental prize in 1990 by UNEP, and since its start in 1989 the recyclable waste scheme has accomplished the separation of 419,000 tons of recyclable waste – the equivalent of 1,200 20-storey buildings creating 280 square metres of trash each. • Low tech solutions An unusual use of more low-technology methods is the 21-million square metres of parks, woods, gardens and squares within the city. Such recreational facilities enhance the quality of life. • Most of Curitiba's parks, called linear parks, are located along river banks and in valley bottoms. They help prevent illegal occupation and shanty town growth and reduce misuse as landfill sites. The park lakes are used to hold back floods and function as water flow regulators during the rainy season. The environment itself is the ‘technology tool'.

• "Green areas" protected from future development were established in Curitiba, and a number of parks were dedicated to the city's different ethnic and immigrant groups. •

• • •

Regional administrations were established to decentralize government. •The 21st century has ushered in more improvements for Curitiba's 2.2 million people. With tourism becoming increasingly important to the local economy, Curitiba added a sightseeing bus line to its transit system. New job-training and small-business incubators run by the city help lower-income Curitibanos learn technical skills and launch new businesses. The city also recently began building a technology park to attract neweconomy businesses. And it is at the fore of Brazilian cities' investing in alternative fuel technologies. They build cheap, flat pack houses that are easy to move and put up The city is planned, EVERYTHING HAS A PLACE The city has less fast food restaurants than any other city

But is Curitiba still the ‘GREEN’ ideal?
• The city was the green ideal during the 80’s and won a UN prize BUT • Since it’s hey day the city has started to become overpopulated, over stretching the bus services and many report that recycling rates are falling Its main sustainable claim is its low pollution and Greenhouse Gas emission tag, as well as the lack of congestion in the city.

Questions1) 2) 3) 4) 5) What is the main cause of Curitiba’s success? Why is it possible for buses to only stop for short time at stops? Why could it be beneficial to use alternative fuels in buses? Why is Curitiba a model for other countries? What could London learn from a city like Curitiba?

Homework- Practice Question• Using examples, explain how cities are trying to reduce their eco- footprints (become more sustainable) (6 marks) • London, • Seoul, • Copenhagen, etc