Submitted to: Vasim Sir

Submitted by: Lini George Lokesh Gupta Farhan Qureshi Miti Patni Mona Makhijani Nandlal Kumar

What is Personality?
A general pattern of your behavior, including traits (which characterize you), and modes of adjustment. Traits
Any psychological characteristic you have. Behavior patterns that are consistent & characteristic & descriptive of you. Your unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, & behavior that continues over time & across situations. Included are: perceptual dispositions, consistencies in reactions, values, abilities, motives, defenses, temperament, identity, personal style, thoughts, feelings, & environmental relationships.

Personality. . .
. . . is defined as “the distinctive patterns of behavior, including thoughts, and emotions that characterize each individual’s adaptation to the situations of his or her life.” – The goal is to identify personality variables that distinguish large groups of people from each other. – Individual difference variables describe how one person varies from another in his or her distinctive patterns of behavior: include personality, self-concept, psychographic, and even demographic variables.

Personality has four essential characteristics:
• Behavior must show consistency over time. • Behavior should distinguish the person from others. • Personality characteristics are not rigidly connected to specific types of behavior. • Personality variables often moderate the effects of other variables on behavior.

The Nature of Personality
• Personality reflects individual differences • Personality is consistent and enduring • Personality can change

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

Oral Stage

How Personality Develops
for refusal excessive smoking.

Child lives & loves through its mouth.Taking Birth – 2 yrs. through the mouth is behavioral model for aquisitiveness. Holding on is behavioral model & pessimism. Fixation can lead to

Anal Stage
2 – 3 yrs.

Toilet training is important at this time. The manner in which the child is toilet trained is the model for generosity. Child learns to“give” (feces) in order toreceive something (approval). Anal Retentive & Anal expulsion fixations.

Phallic Stage

Male child wishes to control mother & get rid 3 – 6 yrs. of father (rival). Identifies with the opposite-sex control same-sex parent. Fixation leads to homosexuality.

parent to

How Personality Develops
Stage Description
Latency Repression of sexual feelings. Little interest is 6-12yrs Stage expressed in the opposite sex.They prefer the company of the same sex.Fixation can lead to celibacy. . HeteroThe repressed feelings for the opposite sex sexual or emerge with the natural flow of the hormones. Genital The person seeks a mate of the opposite sex Stage with which to live. 12+ yrs.

Personality determinants




Theories of Personality
There are major three theories of personality. They are: 1.Freudian Theory 2.Neo-Freudian Theory. 3.Trait Theory.

Freudian Theory
• This theory is given by Sigmund Freud. • It is a cornerstone of modern psychology.So it is also known as the psychoanalytic theory of personality.

This theory was built on the premise that unconscious needs or drives especially sexual and other biological drives are at the human motivation and personality. Freud constructed his theory on the basis of patient’s recollections of early childhood experiences, analysis of their dreams, and the specific nature of their mental and physical adjustment problems. It is based on the idea that adult behaviour is a reflection of childhood experiences.

Freud proposed that personality is made up of three parts:
– Id
• Our primitive instincts or drives

– Superego
• Our urge to ‘do what is right’ – achieving perfection

– Ego
• The ‘balance’ between the id and the superego

Application of Freud’s ideas in marketing:
– Appeal to underlying motivations and drives, e.g.: • Underlying sexual connotations in ads • Show glamorous people using the product appealing to social acceptance of the product rather than its practical uses – Communicate message that anxiety may be reduced with the use of a particular product/service

Neo-Freudian Theory
-Several of Freud’s colleagues disagreed with his contention that personality is primarily instinctual and sexual in nature. -Instead Neo-Freudians believed that social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality.

Horney,one of the Neo Freudian proposed that individuals be classified into three personality groups : 1. Complaint individuals are those who
move towards others.(they desire to be loved,wanted and appreciated)

2. Aggressive individuals are those who

move against others.(they desire to excel and win admiration) move from others.(they desire independence,self-reliance,self sufficiency,individualism and freedom from obligations)

3. Detached individuals are those who

Trait Theory
-The orientation of trait theory is primarily quantitative or empirical. -It focuses on the measurement of personality in terms of specific psychological characteristics, called traits. -Trait is defined as “any distinguishing , relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another.”

Marketing practitioners are interested in those personality traits which influences the consumer behavior because such knowledge enables them to better understand consumers and to segment and target those consumers who are likely to respond positively to their products or services.

These traits are as follows:
Consumer dogmatism innovativeness Need Optimum for uniqueness Stimulation level Social character

Sensation seeking

Variety-novelty seeking

The effects of these traits on the consumer behavior is mentioned as below:
1.consumer innovativeness This measure of personality trait provide important insight into the nature and boundaries of a consumer’s willingness to innovate.

2. Dogmatism Dogmatism is a personality trait that measures the degree of rigidity towards the unfamiliar and towards information that is contrary to their own established beliefs. 3. Social Character This personality trait has its origin in sociological research, which focuses on identification and classification of individuals into socio-cultural types.

4. Need for Uniqueness For these people conformity to others expectations or standards, either in appearance or in their possessions , is something to be avoided. 5. Optimum Situation Level In these study marketer study that how variations in individual needs for stimulation may be related to consumer behavior.

6. Sensation Seeking It is the trait characterized by the need for varied,novel and complex sensations and experience, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences. 7. Variety-Novelty Seeking This trait explains the exploratory purchase behavior, vicarious exploration and use innovativeness behavior of the consumer.

Table 5.10 The Personality-like Associations of Colors
• America’s favored color • IBM holds the title to blue • Associated with club soda • Men seek products packaged in blue • Houses painted blue are avoided • Low-calorie, skim milk • Coffee in a blue can perceived as “mild”


Commands respect, authority


Caution, novelty, temporary, warmth

• Eyes register it faster • Coffee in yellow can perceived as “weak” • Stops traffic • Sells a house • Good work environment • Associated with vegetables and chewing gum • Canada Dry ginger ale sales increased when it changed sugar-free package from red to green and white

Secure, natural, relaxed or easyGREEN going, living things

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

Factors Influencing Personality & Consumer Behavior
Cultural Personal Culture Social Class Social Reference Groups Family Roles & Status Personal Age & Life-Cycle Stage Occupation Economic Situation Lifestyle Values &SelfConcept Psychological Motivation Perception Learning Beliefs & Attitudes

Cultural Influence
• Personal Influence -Personal Opinion - Word of mouth • Culture Culture refers to the values,ideas,articrafts & other meaningful symbols that help individuals communicate,intrepret, & evaluate as members of society. • Social Class Social Class are divisions within the society that comprise individuals sharing similar values,interests & behaviors.

Social Factors
Reference Groups Reference group is any person or group of people that significantly influence an individual’s behavior


Family is the primary decision making unit with a complex and varying pattern of roles & functions .The values of the family ,their beliefs ,attitude influence your buying & personal values.

Roles & Status

Role =Expected activities Status = Esteem given to role by society

Personal factors
• Age & Life cycle stage
The behavior , choice & personality get affected by the age factor.Difference in all the three can be noticed at different stages of life.

• Occupation
Profession or business being carried out to earn the livelihood.

• Economic Situation
It includes income,financial condition,credit worthiness of a person etc.

Lifestyle & Psychographics
Lifestyle is a summary defined as patterns in which people live & spend time & money reflecting a person’s -

• Activities • Interests • Opinions

Psychographics is an operational technique to measure .The psychographics is often used interchangeably with AIO measures.The AIO components are-


An action such as shopping in store,or talking on telephone.

The degree of exitement that accompanies both special & continuing attention to an object,event or topic.

It describes intrepretations,expectations & evaluations such as beliefs about other people’s intentions or anticipations concerning future events.

Values & Self Concept
Values Values represent beliefs about life & acceptable behavior.Values repesent three universal requirements of human existence:Biological needs,requisites of coordinated social interaction & demands for group survival & functioning. •Social Values Define normal behavior for a society or a group •Personal Values Define normal behavior for an individual

Self Concept
Self Concept is ‘what we think of ourselves’.It is often influenced by the reactions of others whose value we share or opinions we respect.

Psychological Factors



Beliefs & Attitude

Motivation is an energising force that causes behavior that satisfies a need!

Perceptions vary from person to person. Different people perceive different things about the same situation. The meanings might change for a certain person. One might change one's perspective or simply make things mean something else.

It is the process by which experience leads changes in knowledge & behavior.

Beliefs & Attitude
What is an Attitude?
-What we Like & Dislike -Beliefs about the object -Emotions or feelings about the object -Behavioral attention towards the object -overall expressive orientation towards the object

Thank You

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