• Contamination cannot detected by touch, sight or smell • Keeping hyd system clean and well maintained can cut maintenance costs by more than 50% • 80% of hyd maintenance costs are caused by contamination,leakage and use of wrong fluid • Contamination can be solid, liquid, metallic, fibrous, oxidation ,sludge or water • If you can feel, see or smell anything in drained oil, the system may already be ruined

Contamination causes hyd system to fail in 2 ways • Slow way: Degradation failure. It is gradual wear of parts in system which again become contaminants. • Fast Way: Catastrophic failure. Total break down of the system

Contamination comes in 5 sources • Built into the system • System generated • Externally infiltrated • Induced • Escaped.

Built in contaminants: • Weld splatter • Core sand • Paint flakes • Metal from installed fittings • Plus other items that get into the system during manufacturing

System generated contaminants : • Metal scrapings from the friction of moving surfaces in pumps,motors, valves ,fibre particles from filters,carbon & varnish from overheated oil. These contaminants lead to degradation failure.

Externally infiltrated contaminants • Dust, grease & other matter that get into the system past the rod seals,valve stems,pump or motor shaft seals • Dust carried by air into the reservoir vented to the atmosphere

Induced contaminants • Microscopic bits of metal when fittings are tightened or loosened • Rags, lints or threads left behind • Teflon tape if used in excess • New oil from barrel Induced contamination can be reduced to a minimum with utmost care during servicing

Escaped contaminants • Trapped contaminants in poor quality filters released into the system.

• Most harmful contaminants are normally between 5 microns & 15 microns • ISO code is the preferred method of reporting quantity of contaminants. • ISO code number corresponds to contamination level pertaining to two sizes. • The first scale number refers to larger than 5 microns and the second number larger than 15 microns particle.

Contamination ISO 4406 contaminant code
Number of particles per 100 mls Number of particles per 100 mls
Range More than Upto and including Range More than Upto and including number number 12 2000 4000 24 8000000 16000000 11 1000 2000 23 4000000 8000000 10 500 1000 22 2000000 4000000 9 250 500 21 1000000 2000000 8 130 250 20 500000 1000000 7 64 130 19 250000 500000 6 32 64 18 130000 250000 5 16 32 17 64000 130000 4 8 16 16 32000 64000 3 4 8 15 16000 32000 2 2 4 14 8000 16000 1 1 2 13 4000 8000 ISO code 15/12 NAS-6

Contamination ISO / NAS comparison chart
BIS 5540/4 ISO/DIS 4406 Code
*11/8 *12/9 *13/10 *14/11 *15/12 *16/13 *17/14 *18/15 *19/16 *20/17 *23/17

NAS 1638 Class
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Suggested acceptable contamination level : NAS-6 , ISO-16/13


• • • • • • • • •

Flow meter Temperature gun Temperature stickers Tachometer Pressure test kit Contaminant testing equipment Sampling bottles Flushing unit Caps and plugs


DO’S AND DON’T’S FOR HYDRAULIC SYSTEM Hydraulic components are precision devices. Careless handling of them or other parts of the system can result in malfunctioning or failure. To avoid creating problems when installing or repairing hydraulic components,follow these tips. DO’S 1.Clean away the dirt in and around the equipment before removing the hydraulic components.

2.Cap off all disconnected lines and open ports of pumps,motors & valves. 3..Protect the working area from grinding dust ,machining chips & wind driven dusts. 4.Work only on metal or hard finished bench tops which are easy to clean. 5.Handle parts carefully to avoid nicks & burrs. 6.Use lint free cloths to wipe parts. 7.Use smooth burr less tools especially when working with rings. 8.Lubricate all sliding parts during assembly.

8.Cover sharp grooves and threads when installing ‘O’ rings & other seals. 9.Discard all used ‘O’ rings & other seals to avoid reuse. 10.Make sure that the seals are correct size. 11.Examine all prematurely worn-out/failed parts for clues as to the cause of failure. 12.Test the overhauled devices before fitment. 13.Use only the genuine parts. 14.Keep all the levers in neutral before starting the machine. 15.Change the filter elements as soon as the clog indicator indicates clogging or the recommended hours are elapsed.

17.Always fill hydraulic oil through a filter. 18.Whenever a pump/motor is replaced or oil is changed, fill the case of the pump/motor with clean oil. 19.Ensure that the reservoir is cleaned before filling the oil. 20.Use correct grade of oils as recommended in the manuals. 21.When draining the oil,drain oil from the oil cooler,suction manifold & supercharge manifold. 22.Whenever a electrically operated machine shifted from one bench to another,before starting the machine,ensure the correct phase sequence. Reverse rotation can cause pump failure. 23.Please keep the machine neat and tidy.

DON’T’S 1.Do not mix two different grade of oil. 2.Do not mix two different brands of oil even though their grades are same. 3.Do not clean & reuse the hydraulic oil filters. 4.Do not alter the relief valve settings. 5.Do not use cotton waste for cleaning. 6.Do not keep the machine idle for long periods.This will make the hydraulic valves sticky. 7.Do not tow the machine without ensuring the propel motors are disengaged or looped.

TROUBLE SHOOTINGHydraulic system 1.Before working on the hydraulic or pneumatic system,stop the machine . Allow the pressure to equalize or went it to final level. 2.Learn the flow diagrams to assist you in diagnosing problem. 3.Read the gauges in the control panel & readings to be noted,especially when trouble occurs. 4.If any hydraulic internal components fails ,the entire system to be checked for debris at low points,check points,check valves & flow restriction points.

1. Noisy pump operation

Where to start:
1.Check reservoir oil level. 2.Check pumps inlet pressure. 3.Check pump suction line for leaks. 4.Check pumps suction line for obstruction of flow. 5. Check oil viscosity. 6.Remove pump & look for debris or pump damage. 7.Verify pump alignment

2.Hydraulic system overheating

Where to start:
1.Check for obstructions and hot spots or pressure lines,especially relief valves,check valves,junctions & filters. 2. Check oil viscosity & lubricity. 3.Check oil level. 4.Check pumps & motors for overheating.

3. Pump not pumping oil.

Where to start:
1.Check pump rotation.( Rotates or not & direction of rotation) 2.Check inlet & discharge lines for obstruction or air leaks. 3. Check oil viscosity( May be too thick) 4.Inspect pump & drive shaft, including coupling for mechanical failures.

4.Hydraulic system pressure is low.

Where to start:
1.Check for leaks in the system. 2.Use a gauge to isolate the problem circuit,then check for the relief valve setting or stuck open.( May be due to dirt ) 3.Check for pump damage or improper operation. 4.Check control & flow valves for internal leakage or bypassing.

5.Erratic action of feed & rotation.

Where to start:
1.Check gauges to see if the hydraulic system is malfunctioning. 2.Check out relief valves. 3.One or more pumps may be malfunctioning. 4.Do not simultaneously use two valves of the same control valve bank. 5.Metal particles may be in the system. 6.Seal on rotary head motor may have failed. Check for oil spilling down side of seal & replace seal. 7.Check for air in the system.

6. No feed or rotation

Where to start:
1.Check to see if the motor is getting oil. 2.Check to see if the motor is rotating. 3.Check out flow circuit,especially if repairs have just been done.

PUMP External Leakage
• Seal failure • Damaged casting • Damaged or defective seal between housing & mounting cap or end cap. • Replace seal • Replace casting. • Replace seal.

PUMP Leakage at fittings
• Cracked or damaged fittings • Damaged or defective flange threads. • Damaged or defective ‘O’ ring seal • Replace fittings • Replace flanges. • Replace ‘O’ ring seal.

PUMP Loss in pump RPM under load
• Power source too small for pump being used. • Provide larger power source.

PUMP Pump not delivering oil
• Pump does not prime. • Wrong direction of shaft rotation • Tank oil level too low. • Fluid inlet line or suction strainer clogged or undersized. • Air leak in suction line. • Fluid viscosity too heavy to pick up prime. • Brocken pump shaft or internal parts.
• • • • Bleed air from system. Convert to correct direction of rotation. Add fluid to maintain level. Clean strainer.Capacity to be double size of pump volume.

• Arrest air leakage. • Use recommended grade of oil. • Replace damaged parts as per overhaul instructions.

PUMP Pump not developing pressure
• Relief valve setting too low. • Relief valve sticking open. • Free recirculation of fluid to tank being allowed. • Re-set relief valve. • Check for defective or malfunctioning valve. • Check directional control valve for open center or neutral position.Check for open bypass.

PUMP Noisy or erratic operation
• Air leak thro inlet or suction line. • Housing & mounting cap separation • Restricted or clogged inlet line. • Excessive pump RPM. • Worn vanes,cam rings,or port plates • Worn bearings. • Check air leak by pouring oil & listen for noise change. • Check bolts for proper torque. • Clean inlet line. • Provide correct power source. • Replace worn-out parts. • Replace worn out bearings

Control valve trouble shooting Sticking spool
• Excessive high oil temperature. • Dirt in oil. • Pipe fitting too tight. • Valve warped from mounting. • Excessive high pressure in valve. • Handle or linkage binding.

• Eliminate any restriction in pipe line or filter system. • Change oil & flush system. • Check torque . • Loosen valve & check. • Check pressure at inlet & working point. • Free the linkage. Page-1

Control valve Sticking spool
• Spacer bent. • Return spring damaged. • Spring or valve cap binding. • Valve thoroughly not warmed up. • Replace valve. • Replace faulty parts. • Loosen cap,recenter & retighten. • Allow time for system warm up.


Control Valve Leaking seals
• Paint on or under the seal. • Excessive back pressure. • Dirt under seal. • Scored spools. • Loose seal plates. • Cut or scored seal.
• Remove & clean as necessary. • Open or enlarge line to reservoir. • Remove & clean. • Replace valve. • Clean & tighten plates • Replace faulty parts.

Control valve Unable to move spool in or out
• Dirt in valve. • Spool cap full of oil. • Bind in linkage • Clean & flush out valve assembly. • Replace seals. • Free the linkage.

Control Valve Load drops when spool moves from neutral
• Dirt in check valve. • Scored check valvepoppet or seat. • Disassemble and clean check valve. • Replace poppet or lap poppet to seat.

Control valve Poor hydraulic system performance or failure.
• • • • • • Damaged pump. Dirt in relief valve. Relief valve damaged. Worn cylinders or motors. Load too heavy. Internal valve crack,spool not at full stroke. • Low oil in reservoir. • System filter clogged. • Line restricted.
• • • • • • • • • Check pressure & replace pump. Clean relief valve. Replace relief valve. Repair or replace damaged components. Reduce load. Replace valve.Check movement & linkages. Add oil to level. Replace filer elements. Check lines,clean or repair

Solenoid valve Sticking spool
• Dirt in system. • Distortion caused by the bolts being over torque. • Flow in excess of valve rating. • Pressure in excess of valve rating. • Electrical failure..
• Change oil & flush system. • Retorque tie bolts. • Limit flow through valve to the recommended. • Check relief valve setting. • Check wiring and solinoid.

Solenoid valve External leakage
• Damaged ‘O ‘ rings or quad rings. • Loose the tie bolts • Damaged solenoid. • Check for chipped packing and replace • Re-torque tie bolts • Replace damaged parts.

Solenoid valve Solenoid failure
• No current. • Damaged solenoid assembly • Short in solenoid. • Loss of solenoid force.. • .Check power source of at
least 85% of coil rating.

• Replace solenoid. • Replace coil. • Decrease time of solenoid energisation,decrease cycle rate.

Jack cylinder Jack cylinder slow or erratic
• Low hydraulic oil level. • Damaged main relief valve. • Damaged holding valve seals. • Bent cylinder rod.Sticking solenoid valve spool. • Damaged wiring to solenoid. • D.C.Valve switch sticking • Main hyd. Pump cavitation.
• Maintain proper level. • Repair or replace valve. • Replace holding valve seal. • Replace cylinder rod & seal • Repair or replace wiring. • Clean or replace switch. • Replace or tighten hose fittings.

Jack cylinder Jack cylinder retracts under load.
• Damaged piston seals. • Damaged holding valve seals • Damaged holding valve. • Scored cylinder barrel. • Cracked or damaged piston • Piston loose on piston rod • Damaged piston seals
• • • • • • • • Replace cylinder seal kit. Replace seals. Replace valve assembly. Repair or replace cylinder Repair or replace valve assembly. Replace piston & all seals. Replace seals & tighten locknuts. Replace all cylinder seals.

Jack cylinder Jack cylinder extends while machine is traveling.
• Scored cylinder bore. • Cracked or damaged piston. • Holding valve malfunctions. • Piston seal damage. • Replace jack cylinder. • Replace piston & seals • Replace holding valve • Replace all seals.

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