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Learning

A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience

How do we learn?

Association

We connect events that occur in sequence

Why does Dentist = Pain?

Simple Learning
Withdraws it’s gill when squirted with water

Aplysia
(Sea Snail)

Electric shock after squirting water - withdrawel response becomes stronger

Associative Learning!

Habituation

Associative Learning Past becomes associated with immediate future Event 1 Squirt Event 2 Tail Shock Conditioning Process of learning associations .

Types of Conditioning Classical Process of associating two stimuli Lightening Operant Process of associating a response & its consequence Pulling candy machine lever Delivery of candy bar Thunder .

Types of Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observation “Forget the mind…” Psychology should based on observable behavior John B. Watson Behaviorism .

What were dogs thinking or feeling? Ivan Pavlov .Classical Conditioning Short Biography 20 years studying digestive system 30 years studying learning 1904 Nobel Prize in Medicine Noticed that dogs would drool in anticipation of food.

Classical Conditioning What were dogs thinking or feeling? Pointless! Examine the phenomenon more objectively using Experiments! Ivan Pavlov .

.g.Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Will the dog learn to associate the arrival of food with a neutral stimulus (e. a bell)? .

drool in response to food (not learned) UCS .food (triggers drool reflex) CR .drool in response to sound of bell (learned) CS .Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Conditioned Stimulus Terms UCR .sound of bell (triggers drool reflex) .

.Five Major Conditioning Processes Acquisition .learned ability to distinguish between the CS and other stimuli . a similar sounding bell) Discrimination .decrease in CR without CS Spontaneous Recovery .initial learning of the response (Is Before better than After?) Extinction .reappearance of the CR after some time period Generalization .g.tendency to respond to similar CS (e.

Pavlov & Cognitive Processes .

Biological Predispositions .

Applications of Classical Conditioning Is human behavior nothing more than a bunch of conditioned behaviors? Case of “Little Albert” UCS Loud Noise John Watson UCR Fear CR Fear CS White Rat .

. furry objects. Little Albert is never heard from again. Epilogue Albert’s mother pulls him from the study and they disappear.Applications of Classical Conditioning Case of “Little Albert” Five days later Albert shows generalization to other white.

Better Applications of Classical Conditioning Treatment of Phobias Rats Snakes Enclosed Places Open Places Dirt Walrus .

.g.associating different stimuli that the organism does not control Operant Conditioning .associating your behavior with its’ consequences (e. individuals are more likely to repeat rewarded behaviors . teaching a child to say “Please”) Using Operant Conditioning.Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning .

Different Types of Behavior Classical Respondant Behavior Behavior occurs as an automatic response to stimulus Operant Operant Behavior Action that operates on environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimulus Fear response to a white beard Saying “Please” versus to elicit praise .

Skinner Skinner elaborated on Thorndike’s Law of Effect “Rewarded behavior is likely to reoccur” B. Skinner (1904-1990) External influences. F. govern behavior. Thorndike . L.B. F. E. not internal thoughts & feelings.

Skinner’s Experiments Fave Subjects Fave Operatus Fave Procedure Rats & Pidgeons Skinner Box Shaping Shaping Guiding current behavior toward some desired behavior through successive approximations .

any event that increases the frequency of the preceding event Positive Reinforcers Introduce (+) stimulus (e.. electric shock) Reinforcers ALWAYS strengthen behavior! .g.Principles of Reinforcement Reinforcer . food) Negative Reinforcers Remove (-) stimulus (e..g.

getting food) Secondary Reinforcers Associated with primary reinforcers & learned (e..g.More Reinforcement Primary Reinforcers Innately satisfying.g. praise) Reinforcers ALWAYS strengthen behavior! .. Not learned (e.

g.g. paychecks) Reinforcers ALWAYS strengthen behavior! .Still More Reinforcement Immediate Reinforcement Reinforce immediately preceding behavior (e.. nicotine) Delayed Reinforcement Reinforcement at some point after behavior occurs (e..

Reinforcement Schedules Continuous .not every time behavior occurs (learning is slower but more resistant to extinction) .every time behavior occurs (rare) or Partial .

reinforce after ?? time .Partial Reinforcement (a pidgeon will peck 150.reinforce after ?? responses Time-Based Reinforcers Fixed Interval .reinforce every n responses Variable Ratio .reinforce after fixed time Variable Interval .000 times without reward) Behavior-Based Reinforcers Fixed Ratio .

merely suppressed (may reappear in other situations) • P does not guide toward acceptable behavior (doesn’t tell you what you should do) .Punishment Opposite of Reinforcement Attempts to decrease behavior by introducing an unpleasant punisher Problems With Punishment • Behavior is not forgotten .

Is There No Cognition? Can we think? Do we think? Rats can learn maze even without reinforcement Cognitive Maps Cog Map rats perform as well as Reinforced rats .

Applications of Operant Conditioning Need for more individualized instruction to shape behavior toward learning goal (CAI and ITS) Profit sharing & positive reinforcement for jobs well done Follow principles of positive reinforcement for better studying! .

Learning By Observation Albert Bandura & the Bobo doll Both (+) and (-) actions can be learned by observing others .