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• Introduction and history

•Properties of laser •Types of laser •Uses of laser •Application of laser

• ACRONYM FOR Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation • A laser is a device that produces and amplifies light by stimulated emission. It can produce light in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. • 1960: Theodore Maimen develops first laser (ruby with 694 nm wavelength.

• 1961: Neodymium-doped (Nd): glass laser.
• 1964: Nd:YAG and argon ion (Ar).

• 1965: CO2 laser.

• Charles H. Townes – Coherent Microwave Oscillator – MASER – 1951 – With Arthur L.Schawlow (Bell Labs) – LASER • Theodore Maiman 1960 – Hughes Research – Ruby laser – PRL rejected paper! • Ali Javan 1960 – 1.15 micrometer He-Ne Laser – First gas laser – First continuous beam laser – Later: Bell Labs 633 nm version • Visible, stable, coherent

• Lasers are used in many things that we come across in our daily lives. Because lasers have the property of being highly directional and focused, they find many types of applications. Let us now see their uses and applications in various fields…..

• A photon released from an excited atom might interact with another similarly excited atom. • This results in the second atom releasing its photon, which is identical in every respect to the first photon. • This phenomenon is called stimulated emission of radiation. • The two photons have the same direction of travel, and are in phase.

Ordinary light versus laser light
• Radiation from conventional light source is emitted over a wide range of wavelengths, or spectrum • The light intensity close to the source is very high. • The loss of intensity is due to the divergent nature of the conventional radiation

• In contrast, the laser produces a beam with a very narrow divergence. • Light leaves the source with a high degree of collimation. • As the beam travels in space, the directionality is maintained over a long distance. As a result, high beam intensity is also maintained over a long distance.

Different types of lasers
• Four types of material are used: • Solid-- Nd:YAG laser, • Gas– Helium Neon (HeNe) laser, CO2,Argon and Krypton Gas laser.

• Liquid—Organic dye laser.( rhodamin 6G , disodium fluorescein) • Semiconductors– Gallium-Arsenide-Diode laser • Excited dimer(Eximer Laser)-- Argon fluoride (193 nm) and Krypton fluoride (248 nm)


• CONTINUOUS :The laser is continuously pumped and emits light continuously • PULSE: In the superpulse mode, laser energy is delivered with each peak over an extremely short period of a few nanoseconds. The peaks are interspersed with rest periods when no exposure occurs, allowing time for tissues to cool down • Q-SWITCHED: Allows a high build-up of energy within the tube. This is then released over a very short duration of a few nanoseconds, reaching an enormous peak power.

Uses in various fields
• Lasers in the Medical Field • Lasers in Electronics • Lasers in Entertainment

Lasers in the Medical Field
• Lasers in eye surgery • Laser in ulcer removal • Lasers to remove port wine stains, that is removing red marks (caused by RBC’s) without damaging skin surface.

Lasers in electronics
• Compact Disk Players: The lasers read the information stored in the CD’s and coverts them into rocking music • Supermarket Scanners

Lasers in entertainment
• Laser Shows: Different sizes, types, and colors of lasers are used in combination with each other, to create patterns, figures, pictures, and designs that make up many kinds of laser shows. This form of art is very beautiful and looks almost magical. Such laser shows are typically held in domes where the laser beam can be seen most effectively. Class 1 type of laser is typically used as these have no harmful effects on contact.

Properties of laser light

• Monochromatic: A single pure colour emitted by a single wavelength. • Collimated : A beam in which all, or almost all, the photons are travelling in the same ‘parallel direction’ • Coherent: Waves produced by a laser travel through space in phase. The property of being in phase is called coherence and is responsible for the strength and intensity of the beam between different points in the field.

QUERIES ?............