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Internetworked Enterprise

Internetworked Enterprise
Businesses are becoming internetworked enterprises. The Internet and Internet-like networks inside the enterprise (intranets), between an enterprise and its trading partners (extranets), and other types of networks have become the primary information technology infrastructure of many organizations. Telecommunications networks enable managers, end users, and their teams and workgroups to electronically exchange data and information anywhere in the world with other end users, customers, suppliers, and other organizations. By using such networks, companies can: •Coordinate their work activities •Manage their business operations and organizational resources •Compete successfully in today’s fast changing global economy Many organizations today could not survive without a variety of interconnected computer networks to service the information processing and communications needs. The success of the electronic commerce systems among business and their customers and suppliers and enterprise collaboration systems are all based on Internetworked enterprise. Electronic commerce or e-commerce has been defined as the ability to perform transactions involving the exchange of goods or services between two or more parties using electronic tools and technique. The explosion of E-commerce has created new phenomena in our lifestyle especially in shopping activities. Consumers can easily buy products or services like magazines and airlines tickets via Internet. An internetworked enterprise uses the internet, intranets, extranets and other networks to support every step of the commercial process. Enterprise Collaboration systems uses the groupware tools to support communication, coordination and collaboration among the members of networked teams and workgroups.

What is Internet
The Internet is the largest “network of networks” today, and the closest model we have to the information superhighway of tomorrow. According to the definition provided by Oxford dictionary, the Internet is an arrangement of connected computers, which lets the computer users all over the globe exchange data. The Internet is an extraordinary entertainment and learning tool that may be utilized in a number of modes to increase the ability of a user to collect information. The principal components of the Internet are the World Wide Web (WWW) and e-mail. With the passage of time, the Internet has become the most effective business tool in the contemporary world. It can be described as a global meeting place where people from every corner of the world can come simultaneously.

Characteristics of Internet
• Complex Network: With the simplified definition as a network of networks that comprises of over 150 million computers • World-wide acceptance • Used for :
– information searching and access – information interchange – commercial exchanges

Internet Infrastructure
• • Every computer that is connected to the Internet is part of a network, even the one in your home. For example, you may use a modem and dial a local number to connect to an Internet Service Provider(ISP). A computer or computer network is attached with the device called Modem(Short for modulator or demodulator) that converts the digital data coming from a computer into analog voice form. This converted voice form is transmitted to the local Internet Service Provider through telephone links where a modem converts it back into digital form. At work, you may be part of a local area network (LAN), but you most likely still connect to the Internet using an ISP that your company has contracted with. When you connect to your ISP, you become part of their network. The ISP may then connect to a larger network and become part of their network. The Internet is simply a network of networks. Internet Service Provider is the Organization ,which allows consumers to access internet services. The ISP is equipped with all the tools and the technology to provide you the internet services. Most large communications companies have their own dedicated backbones connecting various regions. In each region, the company has a Point of Presence (POP). The POP is a place for local users to access the company's network, often through a local phone number or dedicated line. The amazing thing here is that there is no overall controlling network. Instead, there are several high-level networks connecting to each other through Network Access Points or NAPs.

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A wide variety of entertainment including video games. 6) Services A variety of services are offered via Internet. however the development process is still going on to make it more dependable and quick.Advantages of Internet Following are the advantages provided by the Internet: • 1) Information The biggest benefit offered by the Internet is information. It has done extremely well in this field. 4) E-commerce E-commerce is the idea that is implemented for any form of commercial strategy or business transactions that entails transmission of data from one corner of the world to another. they become more expensive. chat room. Ecommerce has become a fantastic option through which you can shop anything. for example job searching. 3) Entertainment Internet functions as a popular medium of entertainment. we can contact a person who is physically present thousand miles away within the fraction of a second’s time. . When you avail these services offline. 5) Formation of communities Internet helps in formation of communities or forums. hotel reservations and consultation services etc. Here a number of people can participate in different types of debates and discussions. By sending an e-mail. news and others can be accessed through the Internet. 2) Communication The primary goal of the Internet is communication. online banking. movies. You can find any type of information on any subject with the help of the search engines like Yahoo and Google. buying movie tickets. express their views and gather valuable knowledge. music. It functions as a valuable resource of information.

giving you a lot of trouble. 3) Virus threat Virus is a program that interrupts the usual operation of your personal computer system. PCs linked to the Internet have high probability of virus attacks and as a result of this your hard disk can crash. there is high probability that your personal details like name. These activities are treated as illegal. . They are meaningless and they unnecessarily block the whole system. 2) Theft of personal details While using the Internet.Disadvantages of Internet • 1) Spamming: Spamming denotes distribution of unsolicited e-mails in large numbers. address and credit card number may be accessed by con artists and used for fraudulent purposes.

Internet Services • • • • • • • • Email E-Chatting Video Conferencing E-Government E-Commerce E-News E-Recruitment E-Education .

governments. but it is only accessible to the inside the members of organizations. An intranet is an information portal designed specifically for the internal communications of small. help desk. Sales people and support staff Customer service. An intranet is protected by security measures such as passwords. communications. Users of intranets consists mainly of Members of the executive team. Managers and directors. enterprises. medium or large businesses. An intranet is a network inside an organization that uses Internet technologies to provide an Internet-like environment within the enterprise for information sharing. industries or financial institutions of any size or complexity. .Intranets Intranet is kind of computer network which is used by the businesses to work effectively and efficiently by using the internet protocols. collaboration and the support of business process. Some time the Intranet is used in contrast to the internet because Intranet network use the internet.. Accounting and order billing. it has the firewall so it cannot be accessed by the external people. etc. Intranets can be customdesigned to fit the exact needs of businesses no matter where they are situated. encryption and firewalls and thus can be accessed by authorized users through the Internet. The Intranet network is private network which is highly secured and safe.

And Partners . Security. universal access to view and use corporate and external data. voiceMail Systems Communicate and collaborate with e-mail. Web Publishing Existing Databases And Enterprise Applications Intranet Enterprise Information Portal F I R E W A L L Internet Extranet HTML. discussion forums. directory And traffic Customers. MS Office XML. Suppliers. publish and Share hypermedia documents Employees Intranet Portal Management Existing Hardware And Networks Centrally administer Clients .Role of Intranet Communication and Collaboration Existing E-mail. servers. Business Operations and management Secure . chat and conferencing. Java and Other Document Types Author.

An 2. Communication – The intranet must support various communication channels. Certain job roles require employees to visit clients. 6. such as information from the management team concerning strategic aspects of their organisation or collaboration amongst project teams and departments. 3. management and strategy It’s all well and good having this great intranet. and regular off-site meetings are becoming more common. These formal and informal methods of communication are equally important. Peer-to-Peer. then there’s still clear space for improvement. Hopeless search queries which do not render anything helpful can be both frustrating and inefficient. 5. Transparent governance. Bottom Up. 4. as not all employees perform tasks and activities at their desks. Search – An effective search function is important in building and maintaining trust with the corporate intranet. An open. who governs and controls this space and what the rules of engagement are.Characteristics of Intranet 1. A great intranet must facilitate all communication routes: Top Down. Access flexibility – Accessibility by either a laptop or desktop is no longer acceptable. .Executor of business transactions A great intranet is a place of action and should be a part of business processes. Therefore flexibility in accessing their intranet on mobile devices and tablets should facilitate and not compromise their ability to perform tasks on their intranet. but the intranet is a critical one. but if no one knows the strategy. Peer-to-Peer An enterprise has a host of communication channels available. Therefore essential to have an in-depth look at the communication tools on offer. multi-way communication vehicle: Top Down. Bottom Up.

Improves Productivity. Eliminates latency of information. • • • .Advantages of Intranet • Easy and Economical System of communication--Intranet is an easy. The concept of collective expertise can be given a concrete shape with the help of Intranet. economical and fast system of communication within the enterprise. Replaces Grapevine-Intranet replaces grapevine as it permits inter employee communication with more transparency and free expression of views. It also helps in reducing travel time as the communication between people in the business enterprise can be more frequent and less expensive. the manager can spend more time in analysing information and not in seeking information and waiting for its delivery. participate in discussions and contribute answers to thorny problems of the company. It enables employees at various levels to pose problems/questions.Intranet helps in eliminating the latency of information in the enterprise and makes the flow of information need-driven than availability-driven. With Intranet.It improves productivity of the manager. particularly when the persons desiring to communicate are located far away from each other. It offers opportunities to keep every concerned individual informed irrespective of the location.

Disadvantages of Intranet • Security-One of the major disadvantages is the risk of security to the corporate information resource. The intranet exposes the corporate information resource to the risk of loss of privacy and even unauthorised alteration. The Intranet technology is still quite fragile and the risk of security and privacy of information on Intranet is higher.Ineffective use of the system can create the serious problems. Training. Other Disadvantages- • • • .Another fear that is being talked about these days is the danger of reduced face-to-face interaction between employees leading to impersonalisation of the enterprise. Less Face to Face Interaction .proper training is required for the staff or personnel to operate the systems with intranet .

Extranets are designed specifically to give external. • enable outsiders to work together with company’s employees... Suppliers and subcontractors. customers & other business partners • An extranet is somewhat very similar to an intranet. • open to selected suppliers. • Inter-organizational information system. Selected industry partners. . limited access to certain files of your computer systems to Certain large or priviledged customers.Extranet • Extranet is an Intranet for outside authorized users using same internet technology. etc.

business customers.Extranets connect the interconnected enterprises to consumers. suppliers and other business partners (Role of Extranet) Consumers Partners Consultants Contractors •Joint design •Outsourcing •Customer Self-Service •Online Sales and Marketing •Sales Force Automation •Build-to-Order products •Just-in-Time Ordering Internetworked Enterprise Suppliers and Distributers •Distributer management •SCM •Procurement Business Customers .

Extranets can help in improving relationships with main or potential customers by giving them correct. Timely access of the Required Information. Improved Relationship with business stakeholders. Fast and Quick Working-.Advantages of Extranet Improves Efficiency-Extranet helps in improve company efficiency and output by automating procedures that were done manually in the past. Automation can also decrease the scope of mistake. partners.Extranets permit company information to be analyzed at period suitable for business customers. suppliers. and other stake-holders. employees. All approved members thus have instant access to the most advanced information. precise and efficient information. updated and changed immediately on anextranet. Updated Information. This helps in cutting down the conference/meeting times and is also helpful when doing multinational business having with partners located in different countries and in different time zones.Work is done quickly as compared to past manual systems. .Information can be modified.

Reduce face to face interaction with clients and business partners. This can cause a lack of communication between employees.One of big problem is the protection of extranets when dealing with precious information.Disadvantages of Extranet • • Costly-Extranets can be costly to apply and maintain within an organization. clients and organization. System access should be controlled and checkedproperly to protect the system and information going into the incorrect hands. Security. • .Extranets can decrease personal face-to-face contact with clients and business partners.

etc. Between an organization and a supplier Geographical Distance Within an organization Entities Security Communication Users Employees Internal Risk Intra-Firm Users of intranets consists mainly of Members of the executive team. Extranet Extranet is an Intranet for outside authorized users using same internet technology. contractors. limited access to certain files of your computer systems to Certain large or priviledged customers. industries or financial institutions of any size or complexity Intranets can be custom-designed to fit the exact needs of businesses no matter where they are situated. Accounting and order billing... Suppliers and subcontractors. medium or large businesses. enterprises. . Suppliers and subcontractors. Selected industry partners. governments. Sales people Clients.subcontractors Risk from the parties involved Inter-Firm Certain large or priviledged customers. Selected industry partners.. Suppliers..Difference between Intranet and Extranet Point of Difference Definition Intranet An intranet is an information portal designed specifically for the internal communications of small. etc. Design Extranets are designed specifically to give external. Managers and directors.

Figure given below shows a simple conceptual model of a telecommunication network . exchange files. The computers on a network may be linked through cables. telephone lines.What is Network A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources (such as printers and CDs). Telecommunication Network Generally a communication network is an arrangement in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver over a channel consisting of some type of medium. or allow electronic communications. radio waves. satellites.which shows that it consists of five basic categories of components: .

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Key Telecommunications Network Component categories and examples .

Types of Telecommunications networks.Client/server and interorganizational networks . There are many different types of telecommunications networks. However. from an end user point of view. such as: 1. Internets.Wide area networks 2.Local area networks 3.Interconnected networks like the Internet. and extranets 4. there are only a few basic types.

It uses multiplexers. Dedicated transoceanic cabling or satellite uplinks may be used to connect this type of global network. They also tend to use certain connectivity technologies. school. . A WAN is complicated. such as Florida. LANs are also typically owned. however. It is generally limited to a geographic area such as a writing lab. or home usually contains a single LAN. Two users a half-world apart with workstations equipped with microphones and a webcams might teleconference in real time.Types of Telecommunications networks. bridges. or building. primarily Ethernet and Token Ring. the United States. a WAN will not appear to be much different than a LAN. and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings. schools in Florida can communicate with places like Tokyo in a matter of seconds. and routers to connect local and metropolitan networks to global communications networks like the Internet. A networked office building. To users. or the world. though sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per room). without paying enormous phone bills. Using a WAN. controlled. In addition to operating in a limited space. school. Wide Area Network Wide Area Networks (WANs) connect networks in larger geographic areas. and managed by a single person or organization. A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance. Local Area Network A Local Area Network (LAN) is a network that is confined to a relatively small area.

Metropolitan limits are determined by local municipal corporations. government etc . the bigger the MAN. A MAN is typically owned an operated by a single entity such as a government body or large corporation. smaller the MAN. university. campus area network.Types of Telecommunications networks.) are almost entirely owned by the campus tenant / owner: an enterprise. Laudan and Jane P. the larger the city. A campus network. Its geographic scope falls between a WAN and LAN. Metropolitan Area Network A network spanning a physical area larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN. corporate area network or CAN is a computer network made up of an interconnection of local area networks (LANs) within a limited geographical area. Campus Area Network A network spanning multiple LANs but smaller than a MAN. Laudon define a metropolitan area network as: “ A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a large computer network that spans a metropolitan area or campus. such as on a university or local business campus. MANs provide Internet connectivity for LANs in a metropolitan region. The networking equipments (switches. and connect them to wider area networks like the Internet. the smaller a metro city. A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network in which two or more computers or communicating devices or networks which are geographically separated but in same metropolitan city and are connected to each other are said to be connected on MAN. Kenneth C.. such as a city. routers) and transmission media (optical fiber.

.Clients are interconnected by local area networks and share application processing with network servers.LANs may be interconnected to other LANs and wide area networks of client workstations and servers.Client/server networks Client/server networks have become the predominate information architecture of enterprise computing. Characteristics of a client/server network are: 1. which also manage the networks. 3. Computing power has rapidly become distributed and interconnected throughout many organizations by networked computer systems that take the form of client/server networks. 2.End user PC or NC workstations are the clients.

Through this pipe .Many organizations use Virtual Private Network to establish secure intranets and extranets.we can send and receive our data without anyone outside the pipe being able to see or access our transmissions . the Internet). VPNs would enable a company to use the Internet to establish secure intranets between its distant branch offices and the manufacturing plants. for example. For the time being .and other security features of its Internet and intranet connections Thus. Virtual private networks (VPN) provide an encrypted connection between a user's distributed sites over a public network (e.. By contrast. An example of a Virtual Private Network protected by network firewalls.A virtual Private network is a secure network that uses the Internet as its main backbone network but relies on network firewalls.we can think of a VPN as a pipe travelling through the Internet.g. Using this approach we can create a private network without incurring the high cost of a separate proprietory connection scheme. Virtual Private Network . a private network uses dedicated circuits and possibly encryption. and secure extranets between itself and its customers and suppliers. encryption.

Clicking on one of these user mames prompts the software to connect your PC to that user’s PC (making a peer to peer connection)and automatically transfers the file you want from his or her hard drive to yours. It then sends you alist of usernames that are activelinks to all such users.In this way .the software searches every online user and sends you a list of active file names related to your request .Peer to Peer Networks In a P2P network it creates a computing environment where end users computers connect. Peer-to-peer network is a powerful telecommunications networking tool for many business applications .P2P file sharing software connects your PC to a central server that contains a directory of all other users(peers) in the network .First the file sharing software in the P2P network connects your PC with one of the online users in the network . When you request a file .the software searches the directory for any other users who have that file and are online at that moment .Then an active link to your user name is transmitted from peer to peer to all the online users in the network that the first user (and the other online users ) encountered in previous sessions. and collaborate directly with each other via Internet or other telecommunications network links.Clicking on one of these automatically transfers the file from that user’s hard drive to yours. .active links to more and more peers spread throughout the network the more it is used. The Pure peer to peer networks architecture has no central directory or server . communicate. There can be two major models of peer to peer networking In the central server architecture .When you request a file . The emergence of peer-to-peer (P2P) networking technologies and applications is being hailed as a development that will revolutionize e-business and e-commerce and the Internet itself.

.The two major forms of Peer to Peer Network.

. Coaxial Cable c.a. Fiber-optic cable b. Twisted Pair wire a. b.

.These cables are made up of plastic or glass fibre core covered by a cladding of lower refractive index. 6. 1.Can carry digital signals.Speed of communications is 10.000 times faster than that of microwave and satellite systems.Provide increased speed and greater carrying capacity than coaxial cable and twisted-pair lines.Message security as fiber optics communications is very resistant to illegal data theft. use cables consisting of one or more hair-thin filaments of glass fiber wrapped in a protective jacket. taps can be easily detected. 3.Fiber Optics: Fiber optics.Provide substantial size and weight reductions 4...Relatively low cost 2. The signals in these cables are carried in the form of light . 5. as well as analog thus increase communications and capability.

Modems –A special device called modem (modulator/demodulator ) is used to carry out the process of modulation and demodulation(conversion of digital data to analog form and vice versa ).where analog signals are demodulated to digital form first by the modem there .and then the digital data is passed on to the sender computer.Telecommunications Processors • • Telecommunications Processors such as modems .multiplexers .the analog data is returned via telephone line to the sender computer end .switches and routers perform a variety of support functions between the computers and other devices in a telecommunications network. • .Digital signal generated at sender computer’s end is converted to analog form by modulator of the modem placed near it.The receiver computer processes the data.two modems are required .The analog signal is transmitted through telephone line and is converted to digital form by demodulator of the modem placed near receiver computer.and thjen the modem near it modulates the processed data to analog form . Hence when an analog facility is used for data communication between two digital devices (say two computers interconnected by a telephone line ).one near each device .

A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. using information in its routing table or routing policy.another multiplexer breaks the single large signal into the four original signals . A multiplexer is a communication process or that allows a single communication channel to carry simultaneous data transmission from many terminals. •ROUTER.and converts them into one data communication line or signal at the sending end . This creates an overlay internetwork. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node . the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination.we can have one line handle all eight telephone numbers (assuming we have an eight channel multiplexer).A router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks.For example . Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet.Then.using a digital multiplexer however.at the receiving end . it directs the packet to the next network on its journey.we could have eight individual lines come into the building –one for each telephone number .the multiplexer takes the signals from the four terminals and converts them into one large signal that is transmitted over one communication line. When a data packet comes in one of the lines.Multiplexer-A mutiplexer takes several data communication lines or signals .four separate communication lines would be required. For example if we need to have eight telephone numbers for a small business. Then.Without multiplexers .

the signals may be either in digital or analog form Analog signal : Transmitted power varies over a continuous range . such as any audio or video. usually through electric signals.light and radio waves. When data is propagated by means of electrical signals . the information. whereas telephone line carry analog signals. Digital signal: Sequence of voltage pulses represented in binary form Computer generated data signal is digital. is transformed into electric signals.Digital And Analog Signals • Analog and digital signals are used to transmit information. In both these technologies.Example sound. • • • • .

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Providing data security and privacy is also built into most communication software packages . Flow Control.Communication Protocols A protocol is a set of formal operating rules .It prevents access of data by unauthorized users.or conventions that govern a given process. Connection establishment and termination.These rules are designed to detecty error in messages and to ensure transmission of correct messages. 3.Routing is designed to find the most efficient path between source and destinations nodes of a message.Data Sequencing.It refers to breaking a long message into small packets of fixed size 2.addressing . 7.These rules define how connections are established .control. Roles of A communication Protocol 1.These rules are embedded in data communication software.procedures .A communication protocol also prevents a fast sender from flooding a slow receiver with data 5.These rules provide a method for orderly and efficient exchange of data between sender and receiver.or other information 4.these rules ensures that all nodes get a chance to use communication lines and other resources of a network based on priorities assigned to them. A communication or network protocol. 8.maintained and terminated when two nodes of a network want to communicate with each other.Precedence and order of transmission.Data Security. Data Routing. Data Formatting. Error Control. therefore describes rules that govern transmission of data over communication networks. 6.These rules define which bits or characters within a packet constitutes data . .

The lower three layers (up to the network layer) are used when any message passes through the host computer. when the message arrives. Messages intended for this computer pass to the upper layers . OSI divides telecommunication into seven layers. at the other end. related functions. The main idea in OSI is that the process of communication between two end points in a telecommunication network can be divided into layers.The OSI Model OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is a standard description or "reference model" for how messages should be transmitted between any two points in a telecommunication network. The upper four layers are used whenever a message passes from or to a user. Each communicating user or program is at a computer equipped with these seven layers of function. The layers are in two groups. there will be a flow of data through each layer at one end down through the layers in that computer and. Its purpose is to guide product implementors so that their products will consistently work with other products. in a given message between users. another flow of data up through the layers in the receiving computer and ultimately to the end user or program. The reference model defines seven layers of functions that take place at each end of a communication. with each layer adding its own set of special. So.

This layer manages the end-to-end control (for example. Layer 2: The data-link layer. and any constraints on data syntax are identified. The network layer does routing and forwarding. determining whether all packets have arrived) and error-checking..The OSI Model • • The seven layers are: Layer 7: The application layer.. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier..) Layer 6: The presentation layer. quality of service is identified. coordinates. and terminates conversations. Layer 5: The session layer. Layer 4: The transport layer. and dialogs between the applications at each end.. although some applications may perform application layer functions.. Layer 1: The physical layer.. • • • • • • . usually part of an operating system.This layer sets up. (This layer is not the application itself.This is a layer.This layer provides synchronization for the physical level and does bitstuffing for strings of 1's in excess of 5.... Layer 3: The network layer. that converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another... It deals with session and connection coordination..This is the layer at which communication partners are identified...This layer handles the routing of the data (sending it in the right direction to the right destination on outgoing transmissions and receiving incoming transmissions at the packet level). user authentication and privacy are considered. exchanges. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management.This layer conveys the bit stream through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It ensures complete data transfer.

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The physical entities in the supply chain consist of suppliers. .Use of Extranet to streamline supply chain management • The supply chain according to Laudon and Laudon is a collection of physical entities linked together into processes that supply goods or services from source through consumption (2000). The following diagram demonstrates the flow of goods through the supply chain starting with the supplier and ending with the consumer. distributors. retail outlets. manufacturers. and consumers.

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Even seemingly innocuous programs such as special cursors can contain spyware. Malware includes viruses. as well as other data. and worms. Trojans.Explain Malware. Many users inadvertently download spyware or adware when downloading other programs. and otherwise conducts advertising on your computer (not to be confused with popup ads. which come from the websites that you visit). Malware is malicious software that is intended to do harm to your computer or software. your browsing and Internet usage habits. re-directs you to websites. Adware and Spyware Spyware is software that gathers information about you. Many popular peer to peer applications and other software packages include adware or spyware packages. . Adware is software that displays advertising banners.

Service Perspective: E-commerce is defines as a tool that addresses the desire of firms. consumers and management to cut service cost while improving the quality of goods/services and increasing the speed of service delivery. The explosion of E-commerce has created new phenomena in our lifestyle especially in shopping activities. Kalakota and Whintons in 1997 defined the term E-commerce from different perspectives.What do you mean by e commerce ? Differentiate it with ebusiness giving practical examples • Electronic commerce or e-commerce has been defined as the ability to perform transactions involving the exchange of goods or services between two or more parties using electronic tools and technique. Consumers can easily buy products or services like magazines and airlines tickets via Internet. Business Process Perspective: This says that E-commerce is the application of technology towards the automation of business transactions and work flow. These perspectives are: Communication Perspective: According to this perspective. computer networks or any other electronic mode of communication. product/services or payments over tele-communication channels. • • • • • . E-commerce is the delivery of information. Online Perspective: E-commerce provides the capability of buying and selling products and information on the internet and other online services.

B2C e-commerce involves selling of goods and services to consumers or end users.com.Types of E-Commerce There are five major segments under the broader category of e-business. the most popular site is amazon. the interaction is between a consumer and the preferred business. This form of ecommerce is nothing but the cyber version of the good old auction houses. a website that is catching for the steel industry might have facility for buyers and sellers to list their requirements and post their products.com. It allows them to browse the product catalogue. For example. If anyone wants to sell anything. The buyer gets in touch with the seller through the Internet and the deal is crossed once the amount is finalised. in sites like e-Buy Bid or Buy. For example. . Consumer to Consumer E-commerce (C2C) Here interaction is between consumer to consumer. which is the first online bookseller which has proved a potential competitor to the traditional bricks and mortar booksellers such as Barrens and Noble.com which are auction sites. However. The problem to be recognized in this is to secure payment. all one has to do is post a message on the site. material and can choose from different suppliers. The opportunity for business to business e-commerce is even greater. one can virtually sell and buy any goods (either used or new ones). For example. In a B2B transaction. Baazi. select products or services and complete the order online. It helps them in quickly closing the transactions and the buyer can get quality. In a B2C transaction. giving details of the product and the expected price and wait for an interested customer to turn up and buy it. time and reliability. using encryption. Business to Consumers E-commerce (B2C) It is for the customers to buy stores from the web. the interaction is between businesses. quick response. the following are some popular e-commerce models used by companies engaged in ecommerce:Business to Business E-commerce (B2B) Business to business e-commerce is smart business. transaction integrity.

which allows prospective airline travellers. has been strategically redefining business. by empowering the customer. The requirement is that are all self-service with applications on the web that the employees can use themselves.Com. Customer care and support activities also hold ground. the consumer can then travel to the mentioned destination at his terms. Business to Employees E-commerce (B2E) This is concerned more with marketing a corporation's internal processes more efficiently.Consumer-to-Business E-commerce (C2B) E-commerce. An example of C2B model of e-commerce is the site Price line. tourists in need of hotel reservations etc. If an airline is willing to issue a ticket on the customers offered price. to visit its websites and indicate their preferred price for travel between any two cities. .

. supply management. accounting.Difference Between E commerce And E –Business •The terms e-business and e-commerce are now often seen and used interchangeably. In e-business. E-business is more about making great products. marketing. and by training their people to support customers from/with their web site. However. it is not limited to monetary transactions. and services with the Internet. brainstorming and giving quality service. procedures. eCommerce is the online selling component of a web site. E-commerce implies business transactions over the internet where the parties involve are either selling or buying. If the company had integrated their web site with their stores by providing access to their web site from within the store. they would be an eBusiness. You turn your company from a business into an eBusiness when you integrate your sales. •E-commerce principally involves money exchanges in the transactions. When the shirt arrives it is in the wrong size. The transactions conducted in e-commerce basically involve the transfer or handing over ownership and rights to products or services. and operations with your web site activities. All aspects in business are included like marketing. product design. eBusinesses do not consider the web site as a separate activity from their core businesses: The web site is integral to all activities at an eBusiness. by accepting exchanges for sales made online. when you go to the store you are told that they cannot take returns from their web site. However. they have different meanings. planning about product exposure and executing it. The following is an example of a company that has not yet become an eBusiness: You visit a retailer's web site and buy a shirt. The “e” prefix means “electronic” which connotes any activity or transaction done without any physical exchanges or contact. manufacturing. eBusiness is the integration of a company's activities including products. as it is broader. Many companies have an eCommerce site but are not yet an eBusiness. etc. Since the web site is not integrated with the rest of their business activities this company is not yet an eBusiness. You decide to return the shirt at the store's retail outlet instead of mailing it back to the vendor. An eBusiness uses the Internet as fully integrated channel for all business activities. though related.

There are advantages and disadvantages to each approach. Often. but all the components of the package come together in a unified whole. as well as specific audiences that benefit from each. from document management to 3D modeling and image rendering. and fairly easy to run. A piece of application software or utility software A software suite or collection of related application or utility software. The components of a software package can do significantly different things. Some software packages will also include example files that can further illustrate how the other components of the package work. relatively easy to understand. but this is all done behind the scenes with minimal interaction and effort from that user. • • • • • • • . A software package is a group of programs which are bundled together to serve a common purpose. All-in-one software packages like these are available for many purposes. a user can download add-ons for them. • . Packages that encapsulate all their functionality into one large program are useful for most computer users. specialized executables for different purposes. At times. They are usually easy to install. Some software packages have one main program that encapsulates all the smaller programs. Software package may refer to: Package (package management system). a software package will also include the source code that built the executable programs as well as a variety of documentation for the programs themselves. while others take a more fragmented approach and have multiple small.What do you mean by software Packages? Describe six software packages in brief.

Word processors will normally have the following capabilities built into them: Spell checking Standard layouts for normal documents Have some characters appear in bold print.• • • • • • • • • • • Types of Software Packages 1.Spreadsheets.Databases. Two of the most common word processing programs are WordPerfect and Microsoft Word. Some of the most commonly used database programs are Microsoft Access and dBASE.Word processor -Word processing is usually what leads people to using a computer for their work. or the right side of the paper Save the document so it can be used again print the document. make text line up on the left side of the paper. • • • • • • • • • • • . 3.The spreadsheet packages are designed to use numbers and formulas to do calculations with ease. or underlined Center lines.Database programs are designed for these types of applications: Membership lists Student lists Grade reports Instructor schedules All of these have to be maintained so you can find what you need quickly and accurately. 2. Examples of spreadsheets include: Budgets Payrolls Grade Calculations Address Lists The most commonly used spreadsheet programs are Microsoft Excel and Lotus 123. italics.

To date. Other uses include: Slide Shows Repeating Computer Presentations on a computer monitor Using Sound and animation in slide shows The most recognized graphic presentation programs are Microsoft PowerPoint and Harvard Graphics. 5.• • • • • • • • • • • 4. and things world-wide.project discussion forums and joint web page development . no other planet has placed web pages on the web – but nothing should surprise you!The two most popular web browsers are Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer.Graphic presentations-The presentation programs can make giving presentations and using overheads easier. Advertise your company and special activities.Groupware is a software that helps workgroups and teams collaborate to accomplish group assignments.Web Browsers -Web Browsers provide an easy to surf the Internet.Groupware products rely on the internet and corporate intranets and extranets to make collaboration possible on a global scale by virtual teams located anywhere in the world.For example team members might use the Internet for global email. 6.Groupware is a category of general purpose application software that combines a variety of software features and functions to facilitate collaboration. Create your own web page to tell the world about you and your job.Groupware. Use search engines to find people. places.

If you have any hands-on experience on a computer. An operating system is an integrated system of programs that manages the operations of the CPU. . This emphasizes the fact that operating systems are the most indispensable components of the software interface between users and the hardware of their computer systems. It helps your application programs perform common operations such as accessing a network.What do you mean by operating system? Describe three operating systems in detail • . saving and retrieving files. controls the input/output and storage resources and activities of the computer system. and provides various support services as the computer executes the application programs of users. you know that the operating system must be loaded and activated before you can accomplish other tasks. and printing or displaying output. The primary purpose of an operating system is to maximize the productivity of a computer system by operating it in the most efficient manner. • The most important system software package for any computer is its operating system.entering data. An operating system minimizes the amount of human intervention required during processing.

instant messaging. and other application software. Mac OS X Actually based on a form of UNIX. multiuser. and many other features. powerful. midrange computers. along with an integrated Web browser. which support office software suites. Caldera. The Mac OS X version 10. and reliable UNIX-like operating system that is rapidly gaining market share from UNIX and Windows servers as a high-performance operating system for network servers and Web servers in both small and large networks. Linux is still being enhanced in this way. PC versions. .Three Operating Systems UNIX Originally developed by AT&T. Linux was developed as free or low-cost shareware or open-source software over the Internet in the 1990s by Linus Torvald of Finland and millions of programmers around the world. the Mac OS X is the latest operating system from Apple for the iMac and other Macintosh microcomputers. Web browsers. digital media player. search engine. network-managing operating system whose portability allows it to run on mainframes.2 Jaguar has an advanced graphical user interface and multitasking and multimedia capabilities. UNIX is still a popular choice for Web and other network servers. and SUSE Linux. LINUX Linux is a low-cost. UNIX now is also offered by other vendors. UNIX is a multitasking. are also available. but is sold with extra features and support services by software vendors such as Red Hat. including Solaris by Sun Microsystems and AIX by IBM. email. and microcomputers.

Assignment • What do you mean by Microsoft office? Define its attributes in detail with its use and importance. • Define contemporary issues of e-commerce in India with its counterparts in ASIA. .