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Multiple access techniques • 1-FDMA • 2-TDMA

• 3-CDMA
• 4-OFDMA • 5-DATA FRAMES
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OFDM and CDMA Communications Systems STC Systel Training Center 6 .

Outline • Multiple Access Techniques • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Spread Spectrum Technique Direct Sequence Spreading/De-spreading PN Sequences and orthogonal codes Immunity to interference Applications • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .Applications STC Systel Training Center 7 .FDM vs OFDM .Basic System Architecture .

Outline • Multiple Access Techniques • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Spread Spectrum Technique Direct Sequence Spreading/De-spreading PN Sequences and orthogonal codes Immunity to interference Applications .Basic System Architecture .Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .FDM vs OFDM .Applications STC Systel Training Center 8 .

TDMA STC FDMA Systel Training Center CDMA 9 . • Trying to optimize the usage of the available ones.Multiple Access Techniques • Lack of resources.

STC Systel Training Center 10 .Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) • The whole system spectrum is allocated for single user for pre-defined burst of time.

No need for precise narrowband filters .Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) • Advantages . compared to FDMA .Flexible bit rate .Easy for mobile or base stations to initiate and execute hands off .More efficient use of spectrum.Extended battery life STC Systel Training Center 11 .

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) • Disadvantages .Requires network-wide timing synchronization .Multipath distortion STC Systel Training Center 12 .

STC Systel Training Center 13 .Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) • Pre-defined band of the system spectrum is allocated for single user all the time.

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) • Advantages .No need for network timing STC Systel Training Center 14 .Sub-bands can be treated as independent systems .Capacity increase can be obtained by reducing the information bit rate and using efficient digital code .

The presence of guard bands .Idle channels add to spectrum inefficiency STC Systel Training Center 15 .Channel bandwidth is relatively narrow (30kHz) .Requires right RF filtering to minimize adjacent channel interference .Maximum bit rate per channel is fixed .Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) • Disadvantages .

Outline • Multiple Access Techniques • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Spread Spectrum Technique Direct Sequence Spreading/De-spreading PN Sequences and orthogonal codes Immunity to interference Applications .Applications STC Systel Training Center 16 .FDM vs OFDM .Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .Basic System Architecture .

STC Systel Training Center 17 .Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) • The whole system spectrum is allocated for single user all the time.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .Basic System Architecture .FDM vs OFDM .Applications STC Systel Training Center 18 .Outline • Multiple Access Techniques • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Spread Spectrum Technique Direct Sequence Spreading/De-spreading PN Sequences and orthogonal codes Immunity to interference Applications .

• Spread Spectrum: Spreading the base-band spectrum over a given bandwidth. • Total energy under the power spectrum curve remains the same after spreading and amplitude may reach the noise level. STC Systel Training Center 19 .Spread Spectrum Technique • Spectrum: Power spectrum associated with the base-band signal.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .Basic System Architecture .FDM vs OFDM .Outline • Multiple Access Techniques • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Spread Spectrum Technique Direct Sequence Spreading/De-spreading PN Sequences and orthogonal codes Immunity to interference Applications .Applications STC Systel Training Center 20 .

Direct Sequence Spreading STC Systel Training Center 21 .

Direct Sequence De-Spreading STC Systel Training Center 22 .

Basic System Architecture .FDM vs OFDM .Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .Outline • Multiple Access Techniques • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Spread Spectrum Technique Direct Sequence Spreading/De-spreading PN Sequences and orthogonal codes Immunity to interference Applications .Applications STC Systel Training Center 23 .

PN Sequences • Orthogonal Codes • Walsh Codes STC Systel Training Center 24 .

FDM vs OFDM .Basic System Architecture .Outline • Multiple Access Techniques • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Spread Spectrum Technique Direct Sequence Spreading/De-spreading PN Sequences and orthogonal codes Immunity to interference Applications .Applications STC Systel Training Center 25 .Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .

Immunity to Interference STC Systel Training Center 26 .

Easy addition of more users .Simplified frequency planning .Impossible for hackers to decipher the code sent .Greatest spectrum efficiency .Precise power control increases talk time and battery life for mobile phones STC Systel Training Center 27 .Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) • Advantages .No sense of handoff when changing cells “Soft Handoff” .Random Walsh codes enhance user privacy .No absolute limit on the number of users .

As the number of users increases.Near.problem arises . the overall quality of service decreases .Low ability of complying with existing systems STC Systel Training Center 28 .Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) • Disadvantages .Far.

Multiple Access Techniques Comparison TDMA FDMA Low CDMA High Spectrum Efficiency Security Backward Compatibility Ease of Implementation Frequency Reuse Transmission Mode STC Medium Low Medium High Same frequency Burst Low High High High Low Low Depends on Same frequency interference level Continuous Systel Training Center Continuous 29 .

Basic System Architecture .FDM vs OFDM .Outline • Multiple Access Techniques • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Spread Spectrum Technique Direct Sequence Spreading/De-spreading PN Sequences and orthogonal codes Immunity to interference Applications .Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .Applications STC Systel Training Center 30 .

Applications • IS-95: The North American DS-CDMA Standard (cdmaOne) • WCDMA (UMTS) • GPS STC Systel Training Center 31 .

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .Applications STC Systel Training Center 32 .Outline • Multiple Access Techniques • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Spread Spectrum Technique Direct Sequence Spreading/De-spreading PN Sequences and orthogonal codes Immunity to interference Applications .FDM vs OFDM .Basic System Architecture .

OFDM Modulation Five FDM sub-carriers STC Systel Training Center 33 .

OFDM Modulation Five OFDM sub-carriers STC Systel Training Center 34 .

Applications STC Systel Training Center 35 .Basic System Architecture .FDM vs OFDM .Outline • Multiple Access Techniques • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Spread Spectrum Technique Direct Sequence Spreading/De-spreading PN Sequences and orthogonal codes Immunity to interference Applications • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .

insertion x converter converter 2046  x2047  y0 . y1511 .. converter y 1510 y1511 Mapper . . parallel . 0 2047  interval to serial analog . Front end s (t ) r2046 r2047 x2046 x2047 TPS and Pilots STC Systel Training Center 36 ..Basic System Architecture y0 y1 r0 r1 x0 x1 x0 x1 .. Serial to .. . u Digital to . Guard Parallel u . y1. . IFFT ... .

Basic System Architecture zeros r0 r171 r172 r173 =y0 r206 First Pilot sub-carrier First Data Symbol Serial to parallel converter First TPS sub-carrier IFFT r1875 =y1511 Last Data Symbol r1876 Last Pilot sub-carrier r1877 r2047 zeros TPS and Pilots STC Systel Training Center 37 .

Guard Parallel u .. Serial to . .. . 0 2047  interval to serial analog . y1511 ... insertion x converter converter 2046  x2047  y0 . Front end s (t ) r2046 r2047 x2046 x2047 TPS and Pilots STC Systel Training Center 38 . . y1.. u Digital to . parallel . IFFT . . converter y 1510 y1511 Mapper ..Basic System Architecture y0 y1 r0 r1 x0 x1 x0 x1 .

Basic System Architecture x1536 x2047 x0 Parallel to Serial Converter IFFT x1535 x1536 x2047 STC Systel Training Center 39 .

converter y 1510 y1511 Mapper .... u Digital to . Guard Parallel u ... . IFFT . y1511 . parallel . . y1. . . Front end s (t ) r2046 r2047 x2046 x2047 TPS and Pilots STC Systel Training Center 40 .. 0 2047  interval to serial analog . insertion x converter converter 2046  x2047  y0 .Basic System Architecture y0 y1 r0 r1 x0 x1 x0 x1 . Serial to .

Pilots Sub-carrier index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 …….. : Data sub-carrier : Pilot sub-carrier STC Systel Training Center 41 . Symbol 1 Symbol 2 Symbol 3 Symbol 4 Symbol 5 ..

.Pilots Sub-carrier index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ……. : Data sub-carrier : Pilot sub-carrier STC Systel Training Center 42 . Symbol 1 Symbol 2 Symbol 3 Symbol 4 Symbol 5 ..

Basic System Architecture .FDM vs OFDM .Applications STC Systel Training Center 43 .Outline • Multiple Access Techniques • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Spread Spectrum Technique Direct Sequence Spreading/De-spreading PN Sequences and orthogonal codes Immunity to interference Applications • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .

Questions STC Systel Training Center 44 .

Applications • • • • • DAB DVB-T/H ADSL VDSL2 WiMAX STC Systel Training Center 45 .

Data Frames • E1 Frame • T1 Fram STC Systel Training Center 46 .

E1 Frame STC Systel Training Center 47 .

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Each channel is 8 bits wide and the frame is sent on a 8KHz boundary.Every frame has synchronization bit at the beginning (8000 Hz).544Mbits/sec. STC Systel Training Center 49 . . The data capacity is therefore (24x8x8000)+8000 = 1.T1 Frame -.Each T1 line is split into 24 channels referred to as DS0's.