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Faculty of Engineering

Handout Slides by Engr. Sajjad Ahmed Ghauri

ORBITAL PLANE

Satellite remains in a fixed plane.

Geocenter

Satellite

Earth

Orbital plane

Satellite

Earth Edge view

ANGLE OF INCLINATION Definition-1: Angle between equatorial plane and satellite orbital plane as satellite enters northern hemisphere. Definition-2: Angle formed between line that passes through center of earth and North pole and a line that passes through center of earth but which is also perpendicular to orbital plane. Angle of inclination North Edge view of pole orbital plane Perpendicular to orbital plane Edge view of equatorial plane Geocenter Earth .

1) elevation 2) azimuth. Angle of elevation and azimuth both depend on 1) latitude (North-South) of earth station and 2) longitude (EAST-West) of both earth station and orbiting satellite. .SATELITE LOOK ANGLES Definition: Coordinates to which an earth station antenna must be pointed to communicate with a satellite.

Definition-2: Angle subtended at earth station antenna between satellite and earth’s horizon.ANGLE OF ELEVATION Definition-1: Angle formed between plane of wave radiated from earth station antenna and horizon. Earth station antenna Satellite Angle of elevation Earth Elevation is the angle measured upward from local horizontal plane at earth station to satellite path. .

Zenith may be used as a name which means success and power . equidistant from the zenith (point straight overhead) and the nadir (point exactly opposite the zenith). "Above" means in the vertical direction opposite to the apparent gravitational force at that location. the direction in which gravity pulls. on the imaginary celestial sphere.e. The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location. is toward the nadir. imaginary circle centered on the observer. The opposite direction. i.The HORIZON is defined as a huge.

In navigation. MEASUREMENT: Azimuth is measured eastward (clockwise) from geographic north to projection of satellite path on a (locally) horizontal plane at earth station.AZIMUTH DEFINITION: Horizontal pointing of antenna. . reference plane is typically true north and is considered 0°azimuth.

Range: Azimuth angle is between 0 and 360.AZIMUTH-ELEVATION MOUNTING Azimuth angle is angle by which antenna. pointing at horizon. Azimuth-elevation antenna . must be rotated clockwise around its vertical axis. to bring antenna boresight into vertical plane containing satellite direction.

” 1) Equatorial 2) Polar 3) Inclined.Types of Satellite Orbits ORBIT: “An orbit is a trajectory that is periodically repeated. earth having rotated 25. EARTH ROTATION: The earth has 0. . Satellite period is 102 min.45 km/s eastward rotational velocity (a) (b) Polar orbiting satellite (a) first pass. (b) second pass.

Equatorial Orbits • Lie exactly in plane of geographical equator of earth • LATITUDE = 0º N Coverage of LEO satellite Equatorial LEO satellite .

close to the poles • Cover the north and south polar regions.To measure ozone levels .Polar Orbits • Angle of inclination = 90º • Orbit: Circular.Reconnaissance satellites . . • Global Coverage • Applications: .Weather satellites . ozone hole over Antarctia.Earth-mapping .

Periodically users must switch from “setting” to “rising” satellite (handover problem).Inclined Orbits • Angle of inclination: Between 0º and 180º • For inclinations Between 0º and 90º: Prograde orbit • For inclinations between 90º and 180º: Retrograde orbit An inclined orbit . . . . requires users to acquire and track satellites. provides satellite visibility in polar regions.

Perigee = 400 km • Inclination: 63.000km. • Uninterrupted Service: Three satellites required Molniya orbit .Molniya Orbit • Highly Elliptical Orbit: HEO Apogee = 40. • Apogee Dwell: Satellite spends most of its time over designated area of earth.4° • Orbital Period: About 12 hours.

medium altitude elliptical orbit (MEO).000 miles Satellite constellation orbits LEO (low altitude circular orbit).GEO (High-altitude geosynchronous) (GEO) orbit: 19.ORBIT CATEGORIES Satellites may be placed in orbits at varying distances from surface of Earth.LEO (low-altitude circular orbit): 100 to 300 miles . Orbit Categories . and high-altitude geosynchronous GEO) orbit .000 miles .000 to 25.MEO (Medium altitude elliptical orbit): 6.000 to 12.

7 ms x 2 = 5. and GEO .Propagation Delay • Delay LEO = 2. MEO.4 ms MEO = 34.5 ms x 2 = 69 ms GEO = 230 ms x 2 = 460 ms One-way propagation delay for the three orbits: LEO.

Effect of Delay •On file transfer applications .Limited throughput .Slower recovery from faults .

Geosynchronous Satellites Definition 1) Period of rev T = 23 h. S Geostationary equatorial orbit 3) Orbit: prograde . 56 m. 4.1 s N Geosynchronous inclined orbit Geosynchronous satellite i Geostationary satellite 2) Inclination: “i” “e”: any value.

.Geosynchronous Satellites Advantages Advantages . . . Require high transmit powers and more sensitive receivers.Large Coverage: High-altitude geosynchronous satellites can cover a much larger area of earth. Longer propagation times/delays. Propulsion engines required on board satellites to keep them in their respective orbits.Tracking Equipment: Not required at earth stations. .Longer Distances: . .Doppler Shift: Effects of Doppler shift are negligible. • Disadvantages .

00 km 0 km 42.Global Coverage Earth Coverage: Approx.3 beamwidth for earth coverage 264.000 km 88. 42% Orbit: Ranging from 34.000 36.440 km Indian Ocean (relay station) 17.100 to 36.162 km geostationary orbit radius 120O (a) Equilateral triangle Pacific Ocean (relay station) Atlantic Ocean (relay station) .

g. 2) Where high expense of tracking antenna can be afforded. 3) Satellite has global or broad area coverage beams. on mobile platforms like ships. planes). 4) Satellite has run out of its north-south station keeping fuel..Geosynchronous satellite applications Used where: 1) Tracking earth antennas are required for other reasons (e. .

one sidereal day of 23 hours. 2) Orbit: Non-retrograde circular. 3) Inclination and eccentricity: Zero . Three conditions are required for an orbit to be geostationary: 1) Direction: Eastward at same rotational speed as earth i.GEOSTATIONARＹ SATELLITE CONDITIONS The geostationary satellite revolves in exact synchronism with the earth’s rotation. 4 seconds. 56 minutes.e..

Running Into One Another: To make sure that the satellites aren’t close enough to run into one another since they have some small movement. Primary Limitation: . 786 km.Limitations There is only one geostationary orbit – belt circling the earth’s equator at an altitude of roughly 35.Satellite Spacing Interference: Spacing satellites along the geostationary belt so that the limited frequencies allocated to this purpose don’t result in interference between links on uplink or downlink. . .

5% of earth’s surface (0elevation) Three for global coverage with some areas of overlap (120 apart) On the equator Above 81 north and south latitude Simpler ground station tracking No handover problem Nearly constant range Very small Doppler shift .070 miles/hour 42.GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE Specifications Altitude Period Orbit inclination Velocity Coverage Number of satellites Subsatellite point Area of no coverage Advantages 35784 km 23hr. 4.56min.009sec(one sidereal day) 0 11.

549 55 17.8 40 27.CIRCULAR OTRBIT PARAMETERS Orbital velocity.03 10.469 780 0 25.4 5 23 56 4.623.0 1 24 Earth radius Re = 6378. a = Re + h . and period of four satellite systems Satellite system Altitude h (km) Orbital velocity vs (km/h) Orbit period ts (hr min sec) Intelsat (GEO) New-ICO (MEO) 35.17 km.068.92 1 26. height.92 17.64 1 28.657.1＊ 55 48.255 11.4 Skybridge (LEO) Iridium (LEO) 1.786.864.137 km GEO radius from center of earth is = 42.164.

458 km/sec. G = 6.378.600.3482 5.CIRCULAR OTRBIT PARAMETERS Astronomical constants Constant Gravitational parameter Mass Radius Symbol = GMe = GMe Me Re Earth 398. c = 299792.9733 X 1024 6. .673 X 10-20 km3/kg sec 2 Velocity of light.5 631.140 Units km3/sec2 km3/2/sec kg km Physical constants: Gravitational constant.

347 In orbit 42164.091 Unit km km/sec sec earth’s geostationary Orbit period tS = 2a3/2/ tS = 2a/s ts = 2/s3 a: Orbit radius (= Re + h) = The product Gravitational constant (GMe) = 398.140 7.CIRCULAR OTRBIT PARAMETERS Circular orbit parameters Equations in terms of At a and Quantity Radius Velocity S= /a a = S3 a and S vS and radius 6378.074689 86164.5 km3/sec2 .905364 5069.600.570 3.

960 miles or 6.ELLIPTICAL ORBITS Center of Earth is ONE of focal points of ellipse. Two points of Interest: Highest (Apogee) and lowest (Perigee).370 km) Eccentricity: Orbit eccentricity e is “ratio of distance between center of ellipse and center of earth to semi-major axis of ellipse.” e = [apogee – perigee]/[apogee + perigee] e = [apogee – perigee]/2a Perigee VP h P V = VPVA r hp Ea rt h b = RPRA C hA V A Apogee P (Perigee) e RA (Apogee) a . include the earth’s radius (= 3.

= GRe2 = 14.08 X 1015 ft3/sec2 Perigee VP h P hp C h A Apogee P e (Perigee) a RA (Apogee) .e)/(1 + e)]1/2 V = VPVA Orbit Period T = 2a3/ = 2a3/ReG r b = RPRA Ear th V A Where.ELLIPTICAL ORBITSatellite Velocity Satellite Velocity 2 = (2/r) – (1/a) At perigee: = 0. p = [/a(1 + e)/(1 – e)]1/2 At Apogee: = . a = [/a(1 .

8 x 1013 m3/s2) Solution : •Circular Orbit Velocity: = (/r)1/2 = [(39. Satellite B is orbiting earth in an elliptical eccentric orbit with apogee and perigee distances of 47. Determine the velocities of the two satellites at point X. .946 km/s Therefore. respectively.54 km/s •Elliptical Orbit Velocity: 2 = [(2/r) – (1/a)] Here.000 km.8 x 1013/7000000)]1/2 = 7.Elliptical Orbit-Example Satellite A is orbiting earth in a near-earth orbit of radius 7000 km.000 and 7. and a = (47000 + 7000)/2 = 27000 km = √(39.8 x 1013) x (2/7000000 – 1/27000000) = 9. r = 7000 km. (µ = 39.

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