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The movement of particles by a wave is called vibration. There are two types of waves: transverse waves and compressional waves.A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy from one point to another. .

matter moves up and down as the wave travels through it. When a compressional wave travels. .When a transverse wave travels through a medium. matter moves back and forth as the wave travels through it.


the height of the wave from its tough or crest to its midpoint. such as a second. Frequency is a measure of how many wave crests or troughs pass a given point in one unit of time. . Amplitude.Wavelength is the distance between wave crests or troughs. is a measure of the wave’s intensity.


Hertz means “cycles per second” with respect to frequency. Speed describes how fast something travels in a specific amount of time.Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) the number of waves per second. .

The depth of water affects speed of ocean waves. the faster the waves travel.Wave speed is affected by different factors of its medium. Sound waves move faster through solids. the distance between particles affect speed. The deeper the water is. In some waves. . slower through liquids and slowest through gases.

Sound is harder to hear through liquids and solid objects. The energy causes then to vibrate in a wave like pattern. . Sound travels through air and liquids.Sound travels by means of sound waves. The more dense an object is the less sound will make it through.

Reflection refers to how waves bounce off objects and change their direction of travel. . An echo is a reflected sound wave.

.Refraction occurs when the direction of a wave changes because of change in medium.

. A material that absorbs sound well does not reflect sound waves.The material a sound wave strikes affects how the sound wave moves.

A sound’s pitch seems to change if its source or listener is moving. This is called the doppler effect .

. or intensity. The volume of a sound is measured in decibels (dB). of the sound wave determines the volume of a sound.The difference in the loudness of a sound is called volume. The amount of energy.

Destructive interference is the sound waves together have a lower amplitude than the sound made by one sound source alone. .Constructive interference is the combined sound waves of the stereos would produce a louder sound than from one stereo alone.

The vibrations are converted to nerve impulses which the brain recognize. they transfer energy and as they pass through your ear canal. .The difference among sound of the same pitch and amplitude in various instruments is called sound quality. As sound waves travel. they cause the ear drum to vibrate that nerve cells inside the ears are stimulated.

 Music - A combination of sounds that a listener finds pleasing  Noise - A combination of sounds that a listener finds unpleasant  Rhythm - A mathematical sounds’ structure of tones and silence .