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CHAPTER 10

ASSESSING AND TEACHING HANDWRITING AND WRITTEN EXPRESSIONS
LOW WEE KANG TONY KONG SING ANN

Cursive W. Typewriting and Keyboarding Cursive Writing Program D. Transitional W. Nealian Handwriting Programs Transitional . Nealian Handwriting Handwriting Without Tears D.Formal Problems Assessment Informal Teaching Handwriting Skills Handwriting Skills Activities Readiness Manuscript Readiness Skills Manuscript W.

Too much/ little slant . . Line quality. • Poor visual memory • Lack of motivation • Handwriting problems: .Incorrect directionality of letters and numbers . proportional. Slant.Inability to stay on a horizontal line . best and fastest handwriting.Messiness . alignment. spacing. Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills Informal Teacher can obtain diagnostic information by visually examining students handwriting.Problems • Motor problems • Faulty visual perception of letters and words. - • Test of Handwriting Skills Additional instructional information: Letter formation. - - • Determine 3 samples : Students’ usual. rate. letter size.Mirror writing Assessment Formal • Basic School Skills Inventory used to identify students who are low in handwriting readiness compared to other students their age.Slowness .Spacing difficulties .

• Lowercase letters are taught first before uppercase letters. • Stimulating children’s interest in writing. Letter/ word model placed on students’ desk. • Perceptuomotor Pen • Four-step sequence (Graham and Harris) Cursive W. fading model can be used. 2. visual discrimination. eyehand coordination.- Avoid repetitious drills. Letters connected with dotted line in colour pencil. 3. The word printed in manuscript. Traces letter and lines to form cursive writing. • Transition from manuscipt to cursive writing. Use a fading model. • Teacher can : 1. 2. . proper position of paper and pencil. hand preference.al suggest: 1. Transitional W. 3. Readiness Skills Manuscript W. • Requires : . mass practice without supervision Should give immediate feedback to correct wrongs.Demonstrate letter forms on chalkboard. hold writing instruments and refining their motor control. • Multisensory approach. • Mann et.Muscular control.

• Cursive activities i. . iii. • Manuscript activities i. ii. iii. ii. Let student practice writing movements in a tray filled in a layer of sand or salt. Have the students connect in dot-to-dot activities to form geometric shapes. ii. Use body exercises to practice movement. Use dot-to-dot cursive letter to let student form letter by connecting dots. Use arrows and colour coded dots to show direction of the stroke. Use paper with squares to help students maintain letter size and proportions Use arrows to provide direction clues to form specific letters.• Readiness activities i. Use colour dots to indicate the starting and stopping positions for each letter stroke.

Teaches how to form letters. ii. write and evaluate. apply) – 15 mins Materials such as practice masters and wall charts. ii. Offers a multisensory approach included student workbook and teacher edition. Contains a series of 8 workbooks. • Zaner-Bloser Handwriting (Zaner-Bloser ) . • Handwriting Without Tears i. i. Three step lessons (present letter. create words. ii. Students uses a set of 26 word pieces to build uppercase letters on a foam mat before practice to write the letters. • D’Nealian Handwriting (Thurber) i. alphabet teaching cards and self sticking alphabet desktapes. Included 5 student workbook.Miller) i. write sentences and improve writing speed and accuracy. iii.• Cursive Writing Programs (S. Materials included teacher presentation book and workbook of practice exercises.

Formal Informal Communication to show people organize ideas to convey message Assessment Teaching Program Content Commercial W.E Programs Computer Software Programs Activities Vocabulary Structure Fluency&Syntax .

handwritting (mechanical aspect) Informal *Fluency-longer sentences indicate more mature writing style *Syntax-counting number of sentences&usage of type of sentences & T-unit length. mechanics. Tabulating types of errors in sample.The GrammaticalCorrectness Ratio (GCR). spelling. originality of ideas. grammar *organizaton.index of diversification *Structure. vocabulary. capitalization.Formal *frequently assessed area is word usage. *Content *Profile of Components *Curriculum-Based Measurement *Portfolio Assessment *Observations&Interviews . (writing skill) *Syntax. *Vocabulary-Type Token Ratio (TTR) . punctuatioin.

E. *sentence Combining *teacher should emphasize sentence and paragraph development . *PENS. SPACE. *Process can be collaborative between teacher and student *Allocate time for writing instruction *Expose students to a broad range of writing tasks *Expect each student will learn to write Employ technological tools that improve writing performance Writing Instruction *promote a positive attitude to motivate student to write.Teaching W. *spontaneous written expression *Brainstorming generate ideas& word before writing *Teacher should avoid excessive correction *More attention given to develop the written expression of idea than to correcting mechanical errors.Skill *Prewriting > Draft > Revise > Edit > Publish. PLEASE. COPS. TOWER is an error monitoring strategy.

*complete partial sentences *provide various noun&verb phrases which should expanded. Content *ask student to complete an exciting story with writing *rewrite paragraph by arranging sentences in meaning order *arrange card which contain related idea in logical sequence . reading *Discuss special interests *play game involving synonyms and antonyms Structure *correct words should be capitalized & give reason on a text *ask student write answer that sentences does no capital and punctuation. Vocabulary *listening. viewing films.Fluency&Syntax *rearrange words to form a sentence.

paragraph construction.E. *Internet Application -TELE-WEB software program provides teachers with various tools for helping students organize their writing .Commercial W.P *Expressive Writing -integrate sentence writing. report and essay Computer Software Program *Word Processor -allow student to correct. revise and manipulate text. organized paragraph. edit. usage and mechanics rules in context of writing *Reasoning and Writing -templates to guide student in process of writing *Step Up to Writing -uses multisensory strategies to teach students of all abilities to write. And student able to write *Language Roundup -learn to apply specific grammar. editing skills.

The End Thank You~~~ .