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The Negotiating Process

In determining whether the parties are “bargaining in good faith”, the NLRB relies on it’s totality-ofconduct concept rather than looking at individual actions.

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Bargaining in Good Faith
Among the factors the Board examines as part of this totality of conduct are:

Willingness to meet and confer at reasonable times, and places.

Reasonable authority to negotiate.
Rejection of the other side’s proposals without extension of counterproposal.
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Poverty pleas. Anti-union animus. Take it or leave it offers. Recognition of union’s exclusive right to bargain .Bargaining in Good Faith   Open mind to consider proposals.no direct dealing. Surface bargaining.       Requirement to provide relevant information. Dilatory tactics. 3 .

Bargaining in Good Faith Legal Categories of Bargaining Issues  Mandatory “You must talk to me” Permissive “Please talk to me”   Prohibited “I can’t talk to you” 4 .

The “Bargaining Procedures” Before bargaining over substance can begin. the parties must agree on a mutually acceptable bargaining procedure. The following can be classified as procedural issues: 5 .

and fully furnished with chairs. Free from disruption. paper. and adjoining caucus rooms for both sides. Theirs. coffee.Bargaining Location One of three places:  Yours.   Accessible at all hours. chalk. tables. blackboard. close to food and refreshments. and good lighting. 6 . water. or Somewhere else.

Agenda Sequence The typical approach for the parties is to negotiate over minor issues first. The rational being that it is difficult to resolve minor issues if they are left for the later stages of negotiations. 7 .

8 . and it is advisable to define the authority of both sides at the outset.Authority to Make Firm Commitments Under the law (NLRA). This notwithstanding. the authority of negotiators varies considerably. reducing potential misinterpretations later. the negotiators on both sides must have the authority to make firm commitments on behalf of the principles.

the employer draft. the parties exchange draft agreements. 9 . This presents a procedural question as to whether to negotiate from the union draft. or the existing agreement.Working Drafts In some bargaining situations.

Some understanding should also be reached with regard to confidentiality.Procedures During Negotiations The parties should establish a schedule and duration of negotiating sessions. Time out for caucuses should be arranged. and some understanding needs to be established with regard to recordkeeping. 10 .

11 . The next meeting or set of meetings is where management presents it own initial response to the union and submits its own demands.Stages of the Negotiating Process The Opening Characterized by the first meeting or set of meetings. Typically the union presents all of its demands.

The number of proposals typically submitted by the union at the bargaining table can vary from a few to a few hundred. It is considered a faux pas in the negotiation arena to bring up completely new issues after this point in the process. 12 .Stages of the Negotiating Process The Opening It is in the opening that the limits of any potential collective bargaining outcome are set by the parties.

During this stage of negotiation. both sides try to resolve issues on which agreement can be reached easily. 13 . and national price trends as well as any other supportive materials. local wage trend. Detailed analysis of industry wage trends.Stages of the Negotiating Process The Settling-In Characterized by a full discussion of each issue.

and the being of the discussion of the economic package (wages and benefits).Stages of the Negotiating Process The Consolidation Characterized by a fuller elaboration of positions by each side. 14 . We begin to see tradeoffs of small items. At this point we begin to see movement on some issues as each side begins to offer concessions to the other side.

15 . At this point each side has a general feeling about the opposition’s true priorities. most of the less important items or the more easily settled issues are taken-off the bargaining table either through agreement or abandonment.Stages of the Negotiating Process The Consolidation By the conclusion of this stage.

Generally. the finalization stage is accompanied by a change from what we might call more normal bargaining environment to one of crisis bargaining. 16 .Stages of the Negotiating Process The Finalization There are only a few items left on the table and they are important to both sides.

Stages of the Negotiating Process The Finalization Crisis bargaining is characterized as much as anything by the behavior of the parties. so they bargain much more intensely. they recognize that there is a fast approaching time limit. meeting on a daily basis and for longer periods of time. 17 . That is.

Basic Negotiation Concepts and Techniques Every negotiating team should formulate a total plan of action. 18 . and Attempt to satisfy the need of it own constituencies.

whereas Integration implies an attempt to satisfy the needs of both sides. 19 .Mutual Gains(Integrative)Bargaining It has been suggested that Compromise means a giving up of something.

20 .Mutual Gains(Integrative)Bargaining The philosophy of integrative bargaining stresses a participate working relationship between labor and management and a joint problem-solving approach to collective bargaining.

Win-Win(Principled)Bargaining Another form of MGB through which objective sources are sought to settle disagreements on mutually agreeable terms without the necessity of one side’s losing face. 21 .

The emphasis in bargaining is on each party’s interests rather than their positions. 22 .Win-Win(Principled)Bargaining Negotiations are viewed as problem solving sessions.

23 . There is no paradigms that would work well in all organizations.Win-Win(Principled)Bargaining There are no ideal bargaining models or processes that would be appropriate for all bargaining parties.

the parties must be eclectic in deciding which bargaining approach would work best in their particular circumstances.Win-Win(Principled)Bargaining In the final analysis. 24 .