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Light

and the

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Light Phenomenon Isaac Newton (1642-1727) believed light consisted of a!ticles "# 1$%% most scientists believed that light behaved as a wave&

'he (lect!omagnetic ) ect!*m 'he elect!omagnetic s ect!*m !e !esents the !ange of ene!g# f!om low ene!g#+ low f!e,*enc# !adio waves with long wavelengths * to high ene!g#+ high f!e,*enc# gamma waves with small wavelengths&

-isible light is a small o!tion of this s ect!*m& 'his is the onl# a!t of this ene!g# !ange that o*! e#es can detect& .hat we see is a !ainbow of colo!s&
/ed0!ange1ellow2!een"l*eIndigo-iolet
/01 2 "I-

3!e,*enc# /anges
.avelengths
1%4
6 7 1%6

1%1

1
6 7 1%1%

1%-2

1%-4
6 7 1%14

1%-6

1%-5

1%-1%

1%-12
6 71% 22

3!e,*encies (c#cles e! sec)


6 7 1%16 6 71%15

3!e,*enc# /anges of -isible Light


/ed light has a f!e,*enc# of !o*ghl# 4&6 8 1%14 9:+ and a wavelength of abo*t 7&% 8 1%-7 m (7%%nm)& -iolet light+ at the othe! end of the visible !ange+ has nea!l# do*ble the f!e,*enc# ;7&4 8 1%14 9:;and (since the s eed of light is the same in eithe! case) <*st ove! half the wavelength; 4&% 8 1%-7 m (4%%nm)&

'he !adiation to which o*! e#es a!e most sensitive has a wavelength nea! the middle of this !ange+ at abo*t 4&4 7 1%-7m (44% nm)+ in the #ellowg!een !egion of the s ect!*m&

It is no coincidence that this wavelength falls within the !ange of wavelengths at which the )*n emits most of its elect!omagnetic ene!g#;o*! e#es have evolved to ta=e g!eatest advantage of the available light&

> ? @A 'he f!e,*enc# (v) of a wave is the n*mbe! of waves to c!oss a oint in 1 second (*nits a!e 9e!t: B
c#clesCsec o! sec-1)

@ is the wavelength- the distance f!om c!est to c!est on a wave

'he !od*ct of wavelength and f!e,*enc# alwa#s e,*als the s eed of light&
> ? @A

.h# does this ma=e senseD


N0'(E

c is a constant val*e? 6&%% 7 1%5 mCs

PROBLEMS

>alc*late the wavelength of #ellow light emitted f!om a sodi*m lam if the f!e,*enc# is
4&1% 7 1%14 9: (4&1% 7 1%14 s-1)

List the known info List the unknown


c ? 6&%% 7 1%1% cmCs > ? @v @?c
v

wavelength (@) ? D cm

3!e,*enc# (v) ? 4&1% 7 1%14 s-1

@ ? 6&%% 7 1%1% cmCs ? 4&55 7 1%-4 cm


14 -1

10F/ 'F/N
1- .hat is the wavelength of !adiation with a f!e,*enc# of 1&4% 7 1%16 s-1D
2- .hat

f!e,*enc# is !adiation with a wavelength of 4&%% 7 1%-6 cmD In what !egion of the elect!omagnetic s ect!*m is this !adiationD

'he colo!s we see in ob<ects a!e the colo!s that a!e !eflected+ all othe! colo!s a!e abso!bed& G !ed t-shi!t a ea!s !ed beca*se !ed is !eflected to o*! e#es and the othe! colo!s a!e abso!bed& .hen all colo!s a!e being !eflected we see white light (white isnHt !eall# a colo!)

.hen all wavelengths of light a!e being abso!bed we see blac= (blac= also+ isnHt !eall# a colo!)

G false-colo! image is made when the satellite !eco!ds data abo*t b!ightness of the light waves !eflecting off the (a!thIs s*!face&

'hese b!ightnesses a!e !e !esented b# n*me!ical val*es - and these val*es can then be colo!-coded& It is <*st li=e ainting b# n*mbe!& 'he ne7t slide shows a t!*e colo! vs& false colo! image of the lanet F!an*s& )atellite images can be gathe!ed in t!*e colo! (what o*! e#es wo*ld see) and false colo! (to ma=e it loo= bette!)

'he t!*e colo! image on left is how o*! e#es wo*ld see it&

'he false colo! image is enhanced to b!ing o*t s*btle details to ma=e it easie! to st*d# F!an*sH clo*d st!*ct*!e&

Gtoms and Light


'he movement of elect!ons inside of atoms !od*ces light and othe! elect!omagnetic !adiation& )*nlight !od*ces eve!# colo! in the !ainbow b*tJ (ach element gives off onl# ce!tain f!e,*encies of light+ called s ect!al lines& In effect each element has its own signat*!e of s ect!al lines allowing *s to identif# which element we have o! what sta!s a!e made of&

"elow is a ict*!e of the s ect!al lines given off b# h#d!ogen& Note the!e a!e 6 diffe!ent f!e,*encies&

'he emission s ect!a ma=es it ossible to identif# inaccessible s*bstances& Kost of o*! =nowledge of the *nive!se comes f!om st*d#ing the emission s ect!a of sta!s& "elow is the s ect!a of a few mo!e elements& 9eli*m

Neon

G!gon

In a sta!+ the!e a!e man# elements !esent& 'he wa# we can tell which a!e the!e is to loo= at the s ect!*m of the sta!& 3!om spectral lines ast!onome!s can dete!mine not onl# the element+ b*t the tem e!at*!e and densit# of that element in the sta! (mission lines can also tell *s abo*t the magnetic field of the sta!& 'he width of the line can tell *s how fast the mate!ial is moving

If the lines shift bac= and fo!th+ it means that the sta! ma# be o!biting anothe! sta! - the s ect!*m will give the info!mation to estimate the mass and si:e of the sta! s#stem and the com anion sta!&

G!o*nd a com act ob<ect (blac= hole+ ne*t!on sta!)+ the mate!ial is heated to the oint it gives off L-!a#s+ and the mate!ial falls onto the blac= hole o! ne*t!on sta!& "# loo=ing at the s ect!*m of L-!a#s being emitted b# that ob<ect and its s*!!o*nding dis=+ we can lea!n abo*t these ob<ects&

Glbe!t (instein !et*!ned to the idea that light e7isted as a!ticles& 9e !o osed that light co*ld be desc!ibed as ,*anta of ene!g# that behave as if the# we!e a!ticles& Light ,*anta a!e called hotons&

.hile it was diffic*lt fo! scientists to believe (the# can be st*bbo!n) it did e7 lain the hotoelect!ic effect ( !evio*sl# a m#ste!#)

'he hotoelect!ic effect B .hen light shines on metals+ elect!ons ( hotoelect!ons) a!e e<ected f!om thei! s*!face&
G ce!tain f!e,*enc# has to be achieved o! the effect does not wo!=
/ed light will not ca*se elect!ons to e<ectM

'he hotoelect!ic effect has !actical a lications in hotoelect!ical cells *sed fo! sola! owe!ed ca!s+ and sola! owe!ed calc*lato!s&