Structural Strength | Bending | Fracture

Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson

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World Maritime University
Professor Jan-Åke Jönsson, WMU
MSEP 407 June 2005

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Longitudinal strength is needed for a
bridge over troubled waters!
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- Old ship?
- Too heavy cargo?
- Not properly maintained?
- Wrong operation when loading?
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SOLAS Part A-1 (Structure of Ship)
Regulation 3-1: Structural, mechanical and electrical requirements for ships
In addition to the requirements contained elsewhere in the present
regulations, ships shall be designed, constructed and maintained in
compliance with the structural, mechanical and electrical requirements
of a classification society which is recognized by the Administration in
accordance with the provisions of regulation XI/ 1, or with applicable
national standards of the Administration which provide an equivalent
level of safety
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I nternational Convention
on Load Lines, 1966
Regulation 1: Strength of Hull
The Administration shall satisfy itself that the general structural strength
of the hull is sufficient for the draught corresponding to the free-board
assigned. Ships built and maintained in conformity with the requirements
of a classification society recognized by the Administration may be
considered to possess adequate strength.
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Hydrostatic Pressure Diagram
p = ρ
water
·g·d (N)

F = p·A (Nm)
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HSC are reinforced to withstand the higher
(hydrostatic + hydrodynamic) water pressure.
But that is good for other things also!
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Transverse strength to sustain the
pressure at bottom and hull sides
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Green sea on deck requires
a strong deck structure
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Structure on the deck to facilitate
effective tank cleaning
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Pressure from both outside and inside of
the hull in the cargo area
The loads acting on transverse bulkheads
may be divided into two types:
Pressure loads directly applied to the
bulkheads, and concentrated loads
transmitted via girders.
Transverse bulkheads have high-rigidity
stool rings arranged around them. A stool
ring serves various structural purposes,
including reduction of girder span,
smooth transmission of girder loads to
transverse bulkheads to restrain bending
of the girders and to increase the stiffness
of these bulkheads against transverse
deformation
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Typical bulk carrier section
Hopper sided cargo hold with ballast tanks
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Typical modern tanker section
Post 1986 Tanker: Wing and double bottom ballast tanks
surround the cargo tanks
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SOLAS Chapter II-2, Part C –
Fire safety measures for cargo ships
6 Protection of cargo tank structure against pressure or
vacuum in tankers
6.1 General
The venting arrangements shall be so designed and operated as
to ensure that neither pressure nor vacuum in cargo tanks
shall exceed design parameters and be such as to provide for:
.1 the flow of the small volumes of vapor, air or inert gas
mixtures caused by thermal variations in a cargo tank in all
cases through pressure/vacuum valves; and
.2 the passage of large volumes of vapor, air or inert gas
mixtures during cargo loading and ballasting, or during
discharging
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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SOLAS Chapter II-2, Part C –
Fire safety measures for cargo ships
6.3 Safety measures in cargo tanks
6.3.2 Secondary means for pressure/vacuum relief
A secondary means of allowing full flow relief of vapour, air or
inert gas mixtures shall be provided to prevent over-pressure or
under-pressure in the event of failure of the arrangements in
paragraph 6.1.2.
Alternatively, pressure sensors may be fitted in each tank
protected by the arrangement required in paragraph 6.1.2, with
a monitoring system in the ship's cargo control room or the
position- from which cargo operations are normally carried out.
Such monitoring equipment shall also provide an alarm facility
which is activated by detection of over-pressure or under-
pressure conditions within a tank
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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SOLAS Chapter II-2, Part C –
Fire safety measures for cargo ships
6.3.4 Pressure/vacuum-breaking devices
One or more pressure/vacuum-breaking devices shall be
provided to prevent the cargo tanks from being subject to:
.1 a positive pressure, in excess of the test pressure of the cargo
tank, if the cargo were to be loaded at the maximum rated
capacity and all other outlets are left shut; and
.2 a negative pressure in excess of 700 mm water gauge if the
cargo were to be discharged at the maximum rated capacity of
the cargo pumps and the inert gas blowers were to fail.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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Deck structure after over pressure in the cargo tank
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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Still water Shear Forces & Bending Moment
The hydrostatic lift force due to buoyancy and the weight of the
ship are normally not of equal magnitude in all parts of the ship.
This will give rise to vertical shear and bending forces.
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Weight curve and displacement curve
LOADING CURVE
Bending Moment
Shearing
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Influence of the trim on the buoyancy
(displacement) curve
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Containership splits in two
The afterpart of the 25-year-old container ship CARLA after breaking in two during a
storm 100 miles off the Azores. The disaster occurred after the ship's rudder was
damaged, leaving her at the mercy of the heavy seas. The 34-man crew, who took
shelter in the stern section, were all taken off by helicopter.
The forward half sank after five days, but a tug managed to tow the stern section,
carrying 1,000 containers, to Las Palmas.
The ship was lengthened 1984, but the vessel's owners denies that the ship had broken
apart along one of the welds.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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Racking
Hull deformation in heavy sea
Individual waves are creating additional forces
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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Torsional Forces
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Ship motions in a seaway
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Sloshing in tanks
In tankers there will be increased loads on the structure in the cargo (and
ballast) tanks because of motion and sloshing of the fluid.
The influence is both longitudinal (surge, heave, pitch) and transverse
(heave, sway, roll).
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Sloshing in tanks
The magnitude of the influence depends on the size of the tank, the
filling level, mass density and viscosity of the liquid and, of course,
the ship's motion and responses at sea.
To allow unrestricted filling levels in the tanks it is necessary to
specifically consider the variable liquid pressures on internal members,
such as transverse bulkheads, horizontal stringers and deck girders.
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Wash Bulkhead (longitudinal)
Wash Bulkhead is a perforated or partial bulkhead in tank.
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Additional local forces because of
acceleration and vibration
All ships are flexible and can be likened
to a hollow rod. When it is subject to the
motion of the sea, the ship bends and
twists in several directions. The
superstructure and the aft body follow
the ship's motion.

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DEFLECTION CURVE
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Various loads on the structure of a ship
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800 tonne grab
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Deformation of a container ship in the seaway (deformation magnified)
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The ship looks like a beam
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The ship is like a beam
For the purpose of calculating the maximum vertical bending
stresses and moment the ship may be considered as a beam
(box girder). There are then simple formulas for detecting the
maximum stresses.
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The hull of a ship is like a beam with
various loads and supports
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DOUBLE BOTTOM COSTRUCTION
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DOUBLE BOTTOM CONSTRUCTION
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DISTRIBUTION OF FORCES
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DISTRIBUTION OF FORCES
Deflection of the bulkheads will create
additional forces in the hull girder
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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TERMINOLOGY
Girder is a collective term for primary supporting members, usually supporting
stiffeners. Other terms used are:
- floor (a bottom transverse girder)
- stringer (a horizontal girder)
Stiffener is a collective term for a secondary supporting member. Other terms
used are:
- frame
- bottom longitudinal
- inner bottom longitudinal
- reversed frame (inner bottom transverse stiffener), side longitudinal
- beam
- deck longitudinal
- bulkhead longitudinal
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Oil tanker (large size)
Longitudinal framing
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Oil tanker (small or medium size)
Transverse side framing
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SOLAS CHAPTER II-2, Part C:
Suppression of fire
Regulation 11: Structural integrity
The purpose of this regulation is to maintain structural
integrity of the ship, preventing partial or whole collapse of
the ship structures due to strength deterioration by heat. For
this purpose, materials used in the ships' structure shall ensure
that the structural integrity is not degraded due to fire.
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and
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Mechanics of Material
F = o·A o = F/A
}
· = dA σ F
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
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Mechanical Properties of Metals
Plasticity is the ease with which a material may be bent or moulded into a
given shape.
Brittleness is the lack of ductility.
Malleability is the property possessed by a metal which allows it to be rolled
or hammered without fracture. Such material must be plastic.
Hardness is the measure of a metal's resistance to surface indentation and
abrasion.
Fatigue is the loss of ductility and consequent failure at a lower load after
repeated application of alternating stress.
Ductility is the property of a material which allows it to be drawn out into
smaller sections.
Elasticity is the property by virtue of which a material deformed under load
returns to its original shape when the load is removed.
Strength is the ability of the material to resist fracture under load.
Toughness is the property whereby a material absorbs energy with-out
fracture or has the ability to resist the propagation of cracks.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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Stress
Stresses are of three main types :
(1) Tensile: The forces are acting in such a
direction as to increase the length.
(2) Compressive: The forces are acting in
such a direction as to
decrease the length.
(3) Shear: Two equal forces are acting along
parallel lines and in opposite
directions such that the various
parts of the section tend to slide
one on the other.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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If A is the cross-sectional area of the material which is being subjected to
equal and opposite forces F, then:

Tensile or compressive stress = force/area σ = F/A [N/mm
2
]

If the material had an initial length l and the applied force extends or compresses
it by an amount x, then:

Strain = change in length / original length ε=x/l [dimensionless, %]

As shown by the dotted lines, changes also occur in the cross-sectional area of
the material and thus strains are set up in lateral directions as well as
longitudinal directions.
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When the material is subject to a longitudinal (axial) force, also
a lateral (internal) force will be set up (because of the change of
the sectional area and by that the volume)











Lateral strain/ Longitudinal strain = Lateral stress/ Longitudinal stress = Poisson's ratio

Forces in the material
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Hooke's Law
For loading within the elastic limit of the material, deformation is
directly proportional to the load producing it. Since stress is
proportional to load and strain to deformation, then stress is
proportional to strain.

The ratio of stress to strain is a constant for a given material.
Assuming all strains to lie within the elastic limit so that all stresses
follow Hooke's Law, then the intensity of stress, б, at any point is:
б = E·x/l = E·ε
where E is the modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus
Stress N/mm
2

Elongation mm or %
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E is not a function of the strength of the
material but is a function of its flexibility


E is the modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus

E
STEEL
~ 2· 10
5
N/mm
2

E
Al
~ 0,69· 10
5
N/mm
2
c o · = · = E
l
x
E
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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Stress / Strain diagram – Low carbon steel
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Stress / Strain Diagram – Low carbon steel
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Stress / Strain Diagram – Low carbon steel
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Brittle or fast Fracture
When a tensile stress is applied to a material it normally elongates
elastically until the yield point is reached, then undergoes plastic
deformation and finally fractures

WARNING of FRACTURE
is given by the
ELONGATION and DEFORMATION
of the material
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CRACK
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Cracking and other signs of
Structural Failure
A crack creates a stress concentration that causes the crack to
spread, and further intensify the stress and increase the rate at
which the crack spreads. This process will eventually cause
the structure to fracture.
Cracks usually start at a point where a discontinuity in the
structure has been poorly merged into the neighbouring
structure. An example of this would be corners of hatchways
or access cut-outs that have fillets of insufficient radius.
A crack developing in the main hull structure is a serious problem
that requires fairly immediate repair
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Cracking and other signs of
Structural Failure
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Poor design of a double bottom
might result in cracks
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Flow holes & air holes in a double bottom tank shall preferably be elliptical
and the edges to be smooth ground to avoid cracks
Area of the girder with the
highest tension
Very low tension in the center part
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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BRITTLE FRACTURE
There are a number of significant factors which may give rise to brittle
fracture. These are :
Stress Concentration and Notch Effect. A notch in a metal is susceptible to
cracking. Although only a single direct stress has been applied to the
material, at a notch the Poisson effect will give rise to a triaxial stress
system in which the stresses are greater than the original applied stress due
to the stress concentration effects of a notch. This will then lead to
increased probability of failure.
Temperature. One of the most important factors is the temperature at which
the material must function. The lower the temperature the greater is the
probability of brittle fracture. The temperature above which brittle fracture
will not occur is called the transitional temperature. This is due to a change
in the characteristics of the material with a change in the temperature. In
some cases only a difference of a few degrees may determine the difference
between a ductile and brittle fracture.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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Materials and Material Protection
(from DNV regulations)
Requirements for low air temperatures [Class notation dat(—x° C)]
In ships intended to operate for longer periods in areas with low air
temperatures (i.e. regular service during winter to Arctic or Antarctic
water), the materials in exposed structures will be specially considered. In
that case the notation dat(—x° C) will be entered in the Register of Ships
indicating the lowest design ambient air temperature applied as basis for
approval. Design ambient temperature is considered to be comparable with
the lowest monthly isotherm in the area of operation.
For materials subjected to low temperature cargoes, see Pt.5 Ch.5 Sec.2
(Liquefied gas) and Pt.5 Ch.10 Sec.2 (Refrigerated cargoes).
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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BRITTLE FRACTURE
Plate Thickness. Thick plates generally have higher transitional
temperatures plus the increased ability to develop triaxial
stresses, i.e. tensional stresses in three dimensions. Due to
their thickness there is also the possibility of a lack of
metallurgical uniformity occurring within the material, thus
affecting the internal stress level.
Stress Loading. Stress systems that vary rapidly, i.e. impact,
shock, intense vibration etc., can cause high local stress level
and thus increase the probability of fracture.
Metallurgical Composition. The chemical composition of the
material may influence the transitional temperature and thus
the probability of fracture.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
67
Brittle Fractures
Under the following conditions there is a potential risk for the
development of BRITTLE FRACTURES in steel:
 High nominal stress level
 Low temperature
 High local stress, i.e. a three dimensional stress at a
sufficient high level
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Shear Stresses
If the applied force, F, consists of two equal and opposite parallel forces, not
in the same line, then there is a tendency for one part to slide over the other
or shear across the section. Shear stress is load per unit area.







If the cross-section at X Y, measured parallel to the force F is A, then the
average shear stress is t = F/A [N/mm
2
]
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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Shear Stresses (cont.)
It will be seen that the block, where the force F is applied, distorts, the strain
being a measure of the angular distortion of the sides.

Shear strain = u (radians)

In pure shear stress systems no change in the volume occurs when the material
distorts. It is important to remember with shear stress systems that a stress
in one plane is always accompanied by an equal shear stress in a plane
at right angles to the first.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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In the real case it is always a combination of
stresses:

Both longitudinal and shear stress appear at the same time.
Various hypothesis for the calculation of the
effective (combined) stress have been developed.
One of them is von Mises' hypothesis:

| |
2 2 2
N/mm 3 t o o · + =
effective
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Causes of cracks in the strength
deck and in the shell
NOBODY
IS
PERFECT
!
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72
Failure modes against which structures must be designed in a
gross sense, include:
Hull failure
Deck collapse
Bulkhead collapse
Cracking and loss of water tightness
Gross deflections

stress Design
stress Yield
factor Safety =
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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In a more finite sense, geometry and material failures or strength
loss include:
Tearing Fracture Cracking
Rupture Explosion Buckling
Crippling Tripping Collapse
Excessive deflection Corrosion
Pitting Wastage Creep
Fatigue Warping Shearing
Compressive plastic flow Lamellar tearing

stress Design
stress Yield
factor Safety =
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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Minimum necessary plate thickness
RULE VALUE
for a new ship
SAFETY MARGIN
because of:
Inaccurate calculation,
varying plate thickness,
welding influence
MINIMUM THICKNESS
To maintain sufficient
strength with acceptable
safety margin
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
75
About plate thickness tolerances
(from DNV Hull Structural Steel Regulations)
General: Where subsequent Rules for material grade are dependent on plate thickness, the
requirements are based on the thickness as built.

Guidance note:
When the hull plating is being gauged at periodical surveys and the wastage considered in
relation to reductions allowed by the Society, the reductions are based on the nominal
thicknesses required by the Rules.
The under thickness tolerances acceptable are to be seen as the lower limit of a total minus-
plus standard range which could be met in normal production with a conventional rolling
mill settled to produce in average the nominal thickness.
However, with modern rolling mills it might be possible to produce plates to a narrow band
of thickness tolerances which could permit to consistently produce material thinner
than the nominal thickness, satisfying at the same time the under thickness
tolerance given. Therefore in such a case the material will reach earlier the minimum
thickness allowable at the hull gaugings.
It is upon the Shipyard and Owner, bearing in mind the above situation, to decide whether,
for commercial reasons, stricter under thickness tolerances are to be specified in the
individual cases.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
76
The ship itself and all the
construction details are like beams
For the purpose of calculating the maximum vertical bending
stresses and moment in the ship (a box girder) and all the strength
components in it, elementary beam theories may be used to detect
The maximum stresses.
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Beam Strength
When a force, or a system of forces, is imposed upon a beam or girder
resulting in a bending moment, the beam will tend to bend by an
amount that will depend on the magnitude of the bending moment.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
78
Three geometric properties of a structure are of importance when considering the longitudinal
stress distribution in a beam subjected to bending:
Neutral Axis of the beam is the position of the unstrained layer in longitudinal bending;
the neutral axis is coincident with the centroid or centre of gravity of a section.
Second Moment of Area or Moment of I nertia of the section (I ) is said to be the
measure of a beam's ability to resist deflection. It is an indication of how the cross-
sectional area is distributed with respect to the neutral axis.
Section Modulus of the cross-section (Z) is a measure of the structural bending strength
of the section under consideration. Z = I/y
max

Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
79
Necessary cutouts shall be made
around the neutral axes
A transverse frame in the accomodation, showing the cutouts for cables and
pipes, which are needed to ensure a clear headroom of around 2,10m.
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80
Typical crack catching plate strakes
in dry cargo ship and tanker
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81
Materials and Material Protection
(from DNV Rules)
Material certificates: Rolled steel and aluminium for hull structures are normally
to be supplied with DNV material certificates
Hull Structural Steel: Hull materials of various strength groups will be referred to
as follows:
- NV-NS Normal strength structural steel with yield point not less than 235 N/mm
2
.
- NV-27 High strength structural steel with yield point not less than 265 N/mm
2
.
- NV-32 High strength structural steel with yield point not less than 315 N/mm
2
.
- NV-36 High strength structural steel with yield point not less than 355 N/mm
2
.
- NV-40 High strength structural steel with yield point not less than 390 N/mm
2
.

The material factor f
1
which may be included in the various formulae for scantlings
and in expressions giving allowable stresses, is dependent on strength group as
follows:
- for NV-NS: f
1
= 1,00
- for NV-27: f
1
= 1,08
- for NV-32: f
1
= 1,28
- for NV-36: f
l
= 1,39
- for NV-40: f
1
= 1,43
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
82
DNV rules: Alternative Structural Materials
Aluminum alloy for marine use may be applied in superstructures,
deckhouses, hatch covers, hatch beams and other local items.
In weld zones of rolled or extruded products (heat affected zones) the
mechanical properties given for extruded products may in general be used
as basis for the scantling requirements.
The various formulae and expressions involving the factor f
l
may normally
also be applied for aluminum alloys when:
f
1

f
/235
σ
f
= yield stress in N/mm
2
at 0,2 % offset. σ
f
is not to be taken greater than 70 % of the
ultimate tensile strength.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
83
SOLAS: Structure of ships
Regulation 3-2: Corrosion prevention of seawater ballast tanks
1 This regulation applies to oil tankers and bulk carriers constructed on or
after 1 July 1998.
2 All dedicated seawater ballast tanks shall have an efficient corrosion
prevention system, such as hard protective coatings or equivalent. The
coatings should preferably be of a light colour. The scheme for the
selection, application and maintenance of the system shall be approved
by the Administration, based on the guidelines adopted by the
Organization.*
Where appropriate, sacrificial anodes shall also be used.
___________________________________________________
* Refer to the Guidelines for the selection, application and maintenance of corrosion
prevention systems of dedicated seawater ballast tanks adopted by the Organization by
resolution A.798(19).
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
84
DNV rules for ships:
Corrosion Protection and Corrosion Additions.
General: All steel surfaces except in tanks other than ballast tanks are to be
protected against corrosion by paint of suitable composition or other
effective coating.
In tanks for cargo oil and/or water ballast the scantlings or the steel
structures are to be increased by corrosion additions.

Corrosion additions:
Plates, stiffeners and girders in tanks for water ballast and/or cargo oil and of
holds in dry bulk cargo carriers are to be given a corrosion addition t
k
as
stated in Table D 1.
The requirement to section modulus of stiffeners in tanks for water ballast or
cargo oil given in relevant chapters is to be multiplied by a factor:
w
k
= 1 + 0,05 (t
kw
+ t
kf
) for flanged sections
= 1 + 0,06 t
kw
for bulbs
t
kw
= corrosion addition t
k
with respect to the profile web
t
kf
= corrosion addition t
k
with respect to the profile flange
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85
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86
Moment of inertia = Second moment of area
Second Moment of Area is said to be
an indication of the measure of a
beam's ability to resist deflection.
It is an indication of how the cross-
sectional area is distributed with
respect to the neutral axis.




With a given cross-sectional area it
is possible to create a number of
different sections. One cross-section
could have a greater second moment of
area than another because of the greater
distances of its flanges from the neutral axis.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
87
Second moment of area = Moment of inertia
The Second Moment of Area (I ) of a
rectangular section of length l and
breadth b about an axis through the
centroid (neutral axis) and parallel to the
breadth:



where A = area of cross-section
NA = neutral axis

(
¸
(

¸
·
=
·
=
4
m
12
2
12
3
l A l b
I
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
88
Theorem of Parallel Axis
The second moment of area, I, of an area about an
axis parallel to the axis through the centroid of
the area is equal to the second moment of area
about the axis through the centroid plus the area
multiplied by the square of the distance
separating the two axis.



I
yy
= I about axis yy
I
xx
= I about axis xx
A = area of cross-section
h = distance between axis xx and yy


2
xx yy
h A I I · + =
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
89
To Calculate the Section Modulus of a
Rectangular Section
2
l
y
12
2
l A
12
l b
I
6
l A
l
2
12
l A
y
I
Z
3
2
=
·
=
·
=
·
= -
·
= =
Section modulus:
Stress calculation:
Z
M
σ=
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
90
Example : In the following figures the area of cross-section is 6 000 mm
2
.
Calculate the second moment of area (I) about the neutral axis, and the
section modulus (Z), in each case.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
91
SECTION MODULUS
is a measure of the structural bending strength of the
transverse section of a ship and is proportional to D
3
h
D B
Z
D B
I
-
-
=
¬
-
=
12
3
12
3
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
92
moment of the force acting at the point about the neutral axis=
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
93
Since the beam is in equilibrium then the bending moment (M)
must be equal to the total moment of all the forces acting
across the area
of the section


Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
94
Z is used as a standard or modulus of the ability Df a section to withstand
bending and the associated stress due to bending
In the above calculation for section modulus it is assumed:
(a) the material is homogeneous and has the same value E
(Young's modulus) both in tension and compression.
R (b) the beam is initially straight and all longitudinal fibres
bend into circular arcs with a common centre of curvature.
transverse cross-sections remain plane and perpendicular to the
neutral axis after bending.
the radius of curvature (R) is large compared with the cross-
section dimensions.
the stress is purely longitudinal.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
95
S
The value of the section modulus for each flange of a beam permits the
calculation of the maximum bending stress to be imposed upon them when
the value of the longitudinal bending moment is known.
Each material is associated with a particular value of permissible stress. If the
stress level is too high, as determined by the above equation, for a given
bending moment, then the section modulus must be increased in order that
the stress level is reduced. The section modulus may be increased by a
redistribution as well as an increase in the cross-sectional area. Using the
above equation with a specified bending stress, a given bending moment
and a given type of material for the section, then the necessary section
modulus may be calculated
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
96
it is assumed:
the material is homogeneous and has the same value E
(Young's modulus) both in tension and compression.
the beam is initially straight and all longitudinal fibres bend into circular arcs
with a common centre of curvature.
transverse cross-sections remain plane and perpendicular to the neutral axis
after bending.
the radius of curvature (R) is large compared with the cross-
section dimensions.
the stress is purely longitudinal
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
97
Deflection in Seaway
it is assumed :
(a) the material is homogeneous and has the
same value E (Young's modulus) both in
tension and compression.
the beam is initially straight and all
longitudinal fibres bend
into circular arcs with a common centre of
curvature.
transverse cross-sections remain plane and
perpendicular to
the neutral axis after bending.
the radius of curvature (R) is large compared
with the cross-section dimensions.
the stress is purely longitudinal.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
98
Lloyd's Society's Regulations for the Classification and Construction of Steel
Ships require the calculation of the section modulus or geometric property
of rolled or built sections in association with an effective area of attached
plating. The calculations may be made directly or, alternatively, the curves
in the Society's publication Geometric Properties of Rolled and Built
Girders may be used.
Reference to Lloyd's Rules will show that minimum values for section
modulus for many structural items are given; i.e. the section modulus must
not be less than that given by formula in the rules. Examples are.:
 Hull midship section modulus
 Deck longitudinal
 Inner bottom longitudinal
 Transverse side framing
 Deck beams
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
99
Documentation
Plans and particulars.
The following plans are normally to be submitted for approval:
 Midship section including class- and register notations, main particulars (L,
B, D, T, CB), maximum service speed V, see B 100.
 Deck and double bottom plans including openings.
 Longitudinal section.
 Shell expansion and framing including openings and ex-tent of flat part of
bottom forward, watertight bulkheads including openings.
 Cargo tank structures.
 Deep tank structures.
 Engine room structures including tanks and foundations for heavy
machinery components.
 Afterpeak structures.
 Forepeak structures.
 Superstructures and deckhouses including openings.
 Supporting structure for containers and container securing equipment.
 Arrangement of cathodic protection in tankers.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
100
Specifications and calculations
Information which is necessary for longitudinal strength calculations:
 Maximum still water bending moments and shear forces (if different from
standard values)
 Still water bending moment limits.
 Mass of light ship and its longitudinal distribution
 Cargo capacity in t.
 Buoyancy data
 Cargo, ballast and bunker distribution.
Information which is necessary for local strength calculations:
 Minimum and maximum ballast draught and corresponding trim
 Load on deck, hatch covers and inner bottom
 Stowage rate and angle of repose of dry bulk cargo
 Maximum density of intended tank contents
 Height of air pipes
 Mass of heavy machinery components
 Design forces for cargo securing and container supports
 Any other local loads or forces which will affect the hull structure.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
101
The Second Moment of Area (I) of a
A rectangular section of length 1 and breadth b about
an axis through the centroid (neutral axis) and
parallel to the breadth,





where A = area of cross-section NA = neutral axis
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
102
The Second Moment of Area (I) of a
A rectangular section of length 1 and breadth b about an axis
through the centroid (neutral axis) and parallel to the
breadth,



where A = area of cross-section NA = neutral axisbNbxxT
hYTheorem of Parallel Axis. The second moment of area, I,
of an area about an axis parallel to the axis through the
centroid of the area is equal to the second moment of area
about the axis through the centroid plus the area multiplied
by the square of the distance separating the two axis.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
103
For stiffeners and frames we can in general assume that the part of the hull plate
to be considered as effective flange is equal to the framing distance, but for
normal plate thicknesses not more than 600 mm (300 mm on each side of the
stiffener web).
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
104
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
105
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
106
Calculation of Section Modulus
Consider material which is distributed over a major length in a longitudinal
direction, e.g. all continuous decks, deck longitudinal, side and bottom
shell, bottom longitudinal, tank top plating and centre girder. Deck girders
should be included if they continue for a sufficient length amidships.
TRANSVERSE FRAMING
is common in small and
medium size ships
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
107
LONGITUDINAL FRAMING
is necessary in big ships to get
enough longitudinal
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
108
Torsional Forces
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
109
Torsional stresses During Rolling
The hull is subjected to a twisting motion at the ends of roll
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
110
The mid ship section of a ship will not be symmetrical, i.e. the
neutral axis is unlikely to be at half the depth. There will therefore
be two values of Z, Z1 and Z2.
The Ship Girder
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
111
Elementary beam theory may justifiably be used in calculations
relating to the longitudinal bending of ships. Assuming the
greatest bending moment to occur at or near amidships then the
greatest stresses are likely to occur there so that the value of the
section modulus (Z) is required for the midship section.
The midship section of a ship will not be symmetrical, i.e. the
neutral axis is unlikely to be at half the depth. There will
therefore be two values of Z, Z 1 and Z2.
The Ship Girder
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
112
Take a section in way of openings.
Consider material which is distributed over a
major length in a longitudinal direction,
e.g. all continuous decks, deck
longitudinal, side and bottom shell, bottom
longitudinal, tank top plating and centre
girder. Deck girders should be included if
they continue for a sufficient length
amidships.
Two quantities are required, similar to
previous calculations:
the position of the neutral axis, the second
moment of area of the total area of the
material about the neutral axis.
Calculation of Section Modulus
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
113
Concentrated Load, where the load is considered to act at some point in the
length of the beam.
Distributed Load, where the load is distributed over the length of the beam. It
may be uniformly distributed or vary from point to point along the length of the
beam.
There will be a tendency for the beam to bend or sag.
Types of Load
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
114
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
115
E.g. a uniformly loaded beam, simply supported at its ends, has a maximum
bending moment at its centre with zero moments at its ends. If the ends are
fixed the maximum bending moment reduces by a third and is at the ends.
Brackets are important !
2 /
24 12
3 2 1
L x for
QL
M and
QL
M M = ÷ = = =
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
116
Stress concentration to
the toe of the bracket
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
117
Brackets are important !
3
2
cm

sp 1000l
Z=
Rules for Ships , Pt.3 Ch.2 Sec.8 — Page 35

304 Brackets are normally to be fitted at ends of
non-continuous stiffeners.

C 400 Stiffeners on watertight bulkheads
401 The section modulus requirement is given by:
p = p
1
as given in table B1 for watertight bulkheads
o = 160 for collision bulkhead
= 220 for other watertight bulkheads

m = 16 for member fixed at both ends
= 12 for member fixed at one end (lower) and simply
supported at the other
= 8 for member simply supported at both ends
The m-value may be adjusted for members with boundary conditions not
corresponding to the above specification.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
118
Brackets are important !
C 200 End connections of stiffeners.
201 Normally all types of stiffeners
(longitudinals, beams, frames, bulkhead stiffeners)
are to be connected at their ends, in special
cases, however, sniped ends may be allowed.
202 The arm lengths of brackets for stiffeners
not taking part in longitudinal strength may
normally be taken as
| | mm
t
Z
c a =
c = 70 for flanged brackets
= 75 for unflanged brackets
Z = rule section modulus in cm
3
of stiffener
t = thickness of bracket in mm.
The arm length (a) is in no case to be taken less
than 2 times the depth of the stiffener.
Brackets to be flanged if free lengths exceed 50 t.
The connection between stiffener and bracket is to
be so designed that the effective section modulus is
not reduced below the requirement for the stiffener.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
119
Tripping bracket
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
120
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
121
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
122
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
123
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
124
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
125
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
126
Because of the arm length
it
is necessary with a flange
or a supporting flat bar
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
127
WHY ? HOW
Finding the shearing force and bending moment
in a beam or a ship at various conditions
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
128
I LLC Regulation 10: I nformation to be supplied to the Master
The master of every new ship shall be supplied with sufficient information, in
an approved form, to enable him to arrange for the loading and ballasting of
his ship in such a way as to avoid the creation of any unacceptable stresses in
the ship‘s structure.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
129
The shearing force at any section of a beam is the sum of the vertical forces acting
on one side or the other of the section.








F is called the shearing force. F = R
1
—W
1
—W
2


F = W
3
+W
4
—R
2

therefore, R
1
—W
1
—W
2
= W
3
+ W
4
—R
2

Shearing Force
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
130
A shearing force diagram
is one which shows the variation of the
shearing force along the length of the beam.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
131
The bending moment at any section in a beam is defined as the sum of the
moments, about that section, of all the forces acting on one side or on the other side
of that section.





Moment to left of section X Y is
equal to the moment to the right
of section X Y since the beam is
in a state of equilibrium.


Bending moment: M = R
1
d
3
- W
l
d
l
- W
2
d
2
Bending Moment
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
132
The bending moment diagram shows the variation in the bending moment
along the length of the beam.
BENDI NG MOMENT diagram
R
1
= W/2 R1=
W/2
M
max
= R ·L/2 = W·L/4
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
133
Graphical Representation
The shearing force and bending
moment in the beam are shown
graphically by plotting the values of the
shearing force and bending moment at
points along the beam. Such curves
indicate where fracture is most likely to
occur; that is at points where the shearing
force or bending moment has its maximum
value.

1. Increase in the bending moment
between two sections is given by the area
under the shearing force curve between
those sections;
2. Generally zero shearing force
corresponds to a maximum or minimum
bending moment;
3. Peaks in the bending moment diagram
frequently occur at points of concentrated
loads or reactions;
4. Area of the shear force diagram above
the baseline equals the area below the
baseline.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
134
Loading diagram, shearing force diagram and bending moment
diagram for a beam which is loaded with a uniform weight
(w tonnes per unit length) and which is freely supported at its two
ends.
Loading diagram
Shearing force diagram
Bending moment diagram
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
135
Loading diagram, shearing force diagram and bending moment
diagram for a beam which is loaded with a concentrated weight v
at L/2 and which is freely supported at its two ends
Loading diagram
Shearing force diagram
Bending moment diagram
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
136
The combined effect of two different
types of load on a beam (e.g. the
light weight and engine weight in a
ship) is found by adding the two
load cases.

Final combined
Loading diagram
Shearing force diagram
Bending moment diagram
for a beam which is loaded with a
uniform weight (w tonnes per unit
length) and a concentrated weight v
at L/2 and which is freely supported
at its two ends.
Combined diagram
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
137
Contributing Factors
1. section modulus
2. material yield strength
3. stiffening system design
4. quality control in construction
Controllable?
1. yes, alter scantlings
2. yes, change material (caution: fatigue and buckling)
3. yes, add more and/or stronger stiffeners (cost!)
4. somewhat, high precision construction is very expensive
Variables: Strengths
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
138
A floating ship is supported throughout its length by the upthrust due to buoyancy;
the forces acting downwards are due to the weight distribution within the ship.











The buoyancy will vary along the length of the ship as a result of the change in the
ship's shape throughout its length. The weight distribution likewise varies throughout
the length of the ship.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
139
If a ship could be divided into a number of sections and each section allowed to
float freely then the sections would take on the positions as shown by the dotted
sections i.e. a state of equilibrium will be reached when buoyancy equals weight.
The difference between the upward (buoyancy) and downward (weight) forces
results in a load on the ship girder. Since the load varies throughout the length of
the ship an overall bending moment is produced with the associated shear forces.
A ship may be regarded as a hollow beam or box girder subjected to a varying
loading rate due to distribution of buoyancy and weight
in a longitudinal direction. The loading on the ship girder depends on the
buoyancy to weight difference. It is only necessary to find the load, i.e. the
difference between the buoyancy and weight over the length of the ship, and then
treat as a freely supported beam.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
140
The variety in load and buoyancy forces from stem to stern are causing
SHEAR FORCES
and
BENDING MOMENTS
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
141
Example: A barge is of rectangular
construction; length 80 metre, breadth 10
metre, depth 6 metre, floating at a draught
of 3 metre in fresh water. It is divided
transversely into four equal
compartments; the two centre
compartments are to be uniformly loaded
with 400 tonne cargo in each. Draw the
curves of load, shear force and bending
moment for the loaded condition.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
142
S.F= shear force=
Σ(vertical forces)=
Area under the load curve
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
143
B.M. = bending moment =
Area under the shear force curve
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
144
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
145
Variable: Stillwater Bending Moment
Contributing Factors
1. weight distribution
2. hull form (buoyancy distribution)
Controllable?
1. yes, modifying weights to match buoyancy distribution
2. yes mostly, procedures for obtaining a desired sectional area curve by
changing hull shape are well defined and widely understood, only
limitation is mission-driven constraints on required volumes at different
locations
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
146
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
147
Heavy sea will increase the structural loads
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
148
The Calculation of Ship's Strength Curves
When investigating the basic strength of the vessel the stresses induced in the
ship girder, as would be expected, are greater when floating amongst waves
than in still water. The two most severe conditions are the hogging and
sagging conditions. The three conditions which must be examined are :
A. the still water condition,
B. the hogging condition, and
C. the sagging condition.
For a given loaded condition the weight curve will remain constant but the
buoyancy curves for the still water condition and the two extreme wave
profile conditions, given by the hogging and sagging conditions, will vary.
The variations in the relative distribution of buoyancy and weight will give
rise to different bending moments.
The load curve is obtained
by subtracting the weight values from the buoyancy values and plotting the
resultant difference. Integration of the load curve will give the shear force
curve which may then be integrated to obtain the bending moment curve.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
149
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
150
Information from a loading computer
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
151
The Buoyancy Curve
In carrying out the strength calculation for a ship, in addition to the still water
condition, the vessel is assumed to be floating in a regular series of
trochoidal waves having a length from crest to crest equal to the length of
the vessel and a depth from crest to trough of 0.607s/(L), where L is the
length of the vessel in metres.
A trochoid is the locus of a point, of radius r, inside a rolling circle of radius R.
To give the required wave profile, the circle rolls along beneath a
horizontal baseline.
R = L 2r = 0.607
STANDARD TROCHOIDAL WAVE PROFILE
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
152
Bonjean Curves
These are simply curves of transverse sectional area plotted against draught and
are prepared from the Body Plan of the vessel by calculating the transverse
sectional areas progressively to the various waterlines.
By this means a complete series of transverse section areas over the length of
the vessel is obtained, thus enabling the displacement to any unusual
waterline to be readily obtained.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
153
Standard Trochoidal Wave Profile
The shape of the appropriate wave is positioned on the sheer pro-file of the
vessel which shows the Bonjean curves at each station.
Using such curves the buoyancy per metre run cut off by the wave can be
obtained and plotted to give the buoyancy curve.

Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
154
BONJEAN CURVES
It is necessary for equilibrium to place the wave at a draught and trim such that;
the buoyancy (upthrust or displacement) equals the weight.
the centre of buoyancy and centre of gravity lie in the same vertical transverse
plane.
The position of the wave to meet the above two conditions can be found by a
process of trial and error.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
155
The weight Curve
consider the weight curve to be composed of:
a) a continuous curve over the length of the
ship, representing the weight to the
uppermost continuous deck of steel etc.
b) local weights, which include items above
the uppermost continuous deck together
with local additions to the basic underdeck
weight.
Given the total light weight of the vessel, the
procedure is to deduct the sum of all the
local weights, distribute the remainder
under a standard curve which depends on
the -block coefficient and then add the
correctly distributed local weights to the
basic weight curve. The local weights, i.e.
forecastle, bridge, poop etc., are generally
distributed as a rectangle or triangle over
their appropriate length in the vessel.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
156
Shear Force and Bending Moment Curves
1. Divide the length of the ship into a number of equal parts.
2. Calculate the average weight per metre for each of the sections.
3. Calculate the average buoyancy per metre for each of the sections.
4. Draw the curve of loads as a series of rectangles.
5. Successive integration of the load curve will give the values for the
shearing force and bending moment curves.
Check that the total weight and total buoyancy are equal and they have the
same fore and aft position for the L CB and L C G.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
157
Typical strength curves
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
158
Typical strength curves
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
159
Longitudinal Strength Standards by Rule
Formulae have been devised to represent the standard calculation and to specify
mini-mum section module.
The rules are based on the division of the total bending moment into two parts :
A. the still water bending moment.
B. the wave bending moment.
The wave bending moment is that due to the superimposing of a wave onto the
still water condition. It is determined by the geometry of the ship and the
wave and is in no way influenced by the disposition of the cargo.




For a 0° 607wave, the wave bending moment can be represented by the
formula:
max. 0.607 wave bending moment = b .B . L2.5 x 10- 3
where b is a constant depending on the block coefficient.
The above expression was used by Murray in his method for determining the
longitudinal bending moment amidships, on a ship inwaves.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
160
Still Water Bending Moment (S.W.B.M.)
Let Wf= moment of weight forward of amidships
Bf= moment of buoyancy forward of amidships
Wa = moment of weight aft of amidships
Ba = moment of buoyancy aft of amidships
W= total displacement of vessel.
Bending moment amidships is given by :
BM=Wf—Bf=Wa—Ba
It is possible to evaluate the above equation by calculating in detail the
magnitude of the various quantities.
Mean weight moment, Mw= Wf + Wa/ 2
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
161
The mean buoyancy moment can be obtained from the formula:
Mean buoyancy moment = W x mean LCB of fore and aft bodies 2
The value of the mean LCB has been found by analysing a large number of ships
and the following formulae have been obtained in terms of the block
coefficient (Cb) and the length of the ship (L).
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
162
Formula for LCB
Mean LCB=C x L
The value of the block coefficient in the above table is at a draught of 0.06L
and the formulae can be applied up to a trim of 0.01L.
Draught C
0
.
06L 0
.
179Cb+0
.
063
0
.
05L 0
.
189Cb + 0
.
052
0
.
04L 0
.
199Cb+0
.
041
0
.
03L 0
.
209Cb+0
.
030
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
163
Still Water Bending Moment (S.W.B.M.)
The bending moment amidships, in terms of the mean moments of weight and
buoyancy about mid ships, is then given by:
S.W.B.M. =Wf+Wa/2- W/2 . C. L, where C is as above.
If the mean weight moment is greater than the mean buoyancy moment, the
ship hogs, and if vice versa, the ship sags.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
164
This can be shown to depend upon wave height, wave length and the beam of
the ship. If the wave height is taken to be proportional to and the wave
length is taken as equal to the length of the ship (L), then it has been found
that the wave bending moment may be expressed:
Wave bending moment= b • L2' 5 • B x 10- 3 tonne metre,
where b is a constant depending upon the block coefficient and position of the
wave crests, i.e. whether the ship is hogging (crest amid-ships) or sagging
(crests at ends).

Wave Bending Moment (W.B.M.).
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
165
S
Values of b at load draught for various block coefficients.
Table for values of b
Cb Hogging Sagging
0
.
80 10
.
555 11
.
821
0
.
78 10
.
238 11
.
505
0
.
76 9
.
943 11
.
188
.

0
.
74 9
.
647 10
.
850
0
.
72 9
.
329 10
.
513
0
.
70 9
.
014 10
.
175
0
.
68 8
.
716 9
.
858
0
.
66 8
.
402 9
.
541
0
.
64 8
.
106 9
.
204
0
.
62 7
.
790 8887
0
.
60 7
.
494 8 571
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
166
S
Summary. The total bending moment on a ship may be divided
into two parts:




(1) Still Water Bending Moment (S.W.B.M.). This may be obtained by taking
the differences of the moments of weight and buoyancy about amidships.
Wf+Wa
where Wf= moment of weight forward of amidships Wa = moment of weight
aft of amidships
and Mb = mean moment of buoyancy W.c.L 2
where W = displacement in tonnes c= mean position of L C B L = length of
ship, in metre.
Still Water Bending Moment S.W.B.M.=Mw—Mb

Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
167
(2) Wave Bending Moment (W.B.M.). This is caused by the passage of a wave
and has been found by analysis to be,
W.B.M.=b:L2.5B x 10-3
where b =a constant depending on the block coefficient L =length of ship, in
metre B = breadth of ship, in metre.
The values of the S.W.B.M. and W.B.M. may be added algebraically to give
the total bending moment.
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
168
Variable: Wave Moment
Contributing Factors
1. environmental condition (waves)
2. operating conditions (speed, heading, operating area)
3. hull form
4. weight distribution (specifically, radii of gyration)
+ Controllable?
1. no, natural forces
2. marginal, requires restricting operation of ship
3. marginal, cause/effect relationship not well understood,
restricted by mission-driven limitations (e.g. cargo
requirements and shape of holds)
4. marginal, very difficult to reduce radii of gyration
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
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Variable: Dynamic Moment
Contributing Factors
1. environmental conditions
2. operating conditions
3. weight distribution (gyradius)
4. shape of hull near bow (bow flare and flat of bottom
forward)
Controllable?
1. no, natural forces
2. marginal, requires restricting operation of ship
3. marginal, very difficult to reduce radii of gyration
4. yes, interactions well understood, changes are localized
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
170
Structural Strength of Ships, Professor Jönsson
171
Structural Design Principles
Loading conditions.
Static loads are derived from loading conditions submitted by the builder or
standard conditions prescribed in the Rules.
Unless specifically stated dry cargoes are assumed to be general cargo or bulk
cargo (coal, grain) stowing at 0,7 t/na3 liquid cargoes are- assumed to have
density equal to or less than that of seawater.
The requirements given in Sec.5-12 refer to structures made of mild steel with
yield strength бy = 235 Nlmm2. If steel of higher yield strength is used,
reduced scantlings may be accepted
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Compositely Framed Oil tanker
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Longitudinally Framed Oil Tanker
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Single Bottom Construction
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Transversely Framed Double Bottom Construction
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Longitudinally Framed Double Bottom Construction
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Bulk carrier Double Bottom Construction
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Deck Construction
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Rolled steel products for hull construction
Hull structural steel is a rolled product with
three commonly used ,strength grades
measured in yield point: 235N/ mm2
(mild steel), 315N/mm2 and 355Ni
mm- (high-tensile steel) although high-
tensile steel of 390N/mm- grade has
also been put into commercial use
recently.
In addition to strength, hull structural steel
requires good impact properties
(toughness) and outstanding weld
ability dc-oxidation largely depends on
fine-killed steel. Impact properties are
subject to three-level requirements for
each category of strength.

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