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ConductionOne Dimension
PERTEMUAN II & III
Steady stateOne dimension
• In steady state, the temperature differ only
based on the direction and not change
based on time.
• One dimension focus on one dimensional
direction.
• Can you give an example ????
Resistance Approach
• Resistance approach (similar to the resistance in
electric current)
thermal potential difference
Heat flow
thermal resistence
=
The Plane Wall
• If more than one material is present → multi layer
1 4
C B
A B B
T T
q
X X
X
k A k A k A
÷
=
A A
A
+ +
R
x
kA
A
=
Combination of resistance series
and pararel
R Value
• It is different from the concept of resistance.
• It is commonly used in the building industry.
• It is defined as :
• What do you think the different between R value
and the concept of R ???
• U is overall heat transfer coefficient.
q=UAΔT
1 T
R
q
U
A
A
= =
Steady State in Radial System
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
ln 2 ( )
ln 2 ( )
( ) ( )
ln /
2
ln /
2
o
T
ro
ri T
ro
r i o
o
i o
i o i o
o
o
q T
k where A rL
A r
T
q k rL
r
r
q k L
r
q r kL T T
r
q kL T T
r
T T T T
q
r r
R
kL
r r
R
kL
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
c
= ÷ =
c
c
= ÷
c
c
= ÷
= ÷
= ÷
÷ ÷
= =
=
} }
One dimensional heat flow through multiple
cylinder section and electrical analog
Spheres system
2
4
( ) ( )
(1/ 1/ )
4
(1/ 1/ )
4
i o i o
o i
o i
A r
T
q kA
r
T T T T
q
r r
R
k
r r
R
k
t
t
t
=
c
= ÷
c
÷ ÷
= =
÷
÷
=
Convection
( )
( )
1/
1
conv w
w
conv
q hA T T
T T
q
hA
R
hA
·
·
= ÷
÷
=
=
The Overall Heat Transfer
Coefficient
• The overall heat
transfer coefficient,
U is defined by the
relation
• q=UAΔT
overall
What is the relationship
between R (resistance)
and U
Critical Thickness of Insulation
0
2
2
2 ( )
ln( / ) 1
1 1
2 ( )
0
ln / 1
i
i
o
i
o o
o
o i
o
o
o
o
L T T
q
r r
k r h
L T T
Kr hr
dq
dr
r r
K r h
k
r
h
k
r x q
h
k
r x q
h
t
t
·
·
÷
=
+
 
÷ ÷ ÷

\ .
= =
(
+
(
¸ ¸
=
< A ÷
> A ÷
Ti
T~
ri
ro
Heat transfer with Heat Generated
• In this system, heat may be generated
internally
• Example : Nuclear reactor, electrical
conductor and chemically reacting system.
• The system is confined into one
dimensional system where the
temperature is a function of only one
space coordinate.
Plane Wall with Heat Sources
• Look at the picture
• The thickness of the wall in the
x direction is 2L, and it is
assumed that the dimensions
in the other direction are
sufficiently large that heat flow
may be considered as one
dimensional
• Other assumption: the value of
K is not vary with the
temperature.
Tw
L
X=0
L
Heat
generated
per unit
volume, q
.
2
2
.
2
1 2
1
0 0 2
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
w
w
d T q
dx K
For the boundary conditions
T T at x L
the general solution
q
T x C x C
K
because the temperature at each side must be the same
C
at x T T Thus T C
T T x
this is parabolic distribution
T T L
+ =
= = ±
= ÷ + +
=
= = =
÷
 
=

÷
\ .
Cylinder with Heat Sources
Assumption:
1. Constant thermal conductivity
2. Uniform distribution of heat sources
3. The cylinder is sufficiently long that the
temperature may be considered a
function of radius only.
.
2
2
.
2
.
2
2
.
2
2
1
0
2
0
1
w
r R
d T dT q
dr r dr K
For the boundary conditions
T T at r R
heat generated equals heat lost at the surface
dT
q R L K RL
dr
d T dT qr
r
dr dr K
d T dT qr
dr r dr K
t t
=
+ + =
= =
= ÷
+ + =
+ = ÷
2
2
.
2
1
.
2
1 2
. .
1
1
.
2
2
.
2
2
.
int
2
ln
4
0
2 2
4
4
(
4
r R
w
w
w
from Taylor serries
d T dT d dT
r r
dr dr dr dr
the egration yields
dT qr
r C
dr K
qr
T C r C
K
from the other boundary
C dT qR qR
thus C
dr K K R
qR
T T C at r R
K
qR
thus C T
K
q
T T
K
=
 
+ =

\ .
÷
= +
÷
= + +
÷ ÷
(
= = + =
(
¸
÷
= = + =
= +
÷ =
2 2
2
0
)
1
w
w
R r
T T r
T T R
÷
÷
 
= ÷

÷
\ .
For Hollow Cylinder
0 0
.
2
1 2
.
2
2 2
0 0 1
0
1
2 2
0 0
1
( )
( )
ln
4
( ) ln
4
tan
( ) / 4
i i
i i
T T at r r inside surface
T T at r r outside surface
the general solution
qr
T C r C
K
Application of the new boundary conditions
qr r
T T r r C
K r
where the cons t C is given by
T T q r r
C
= =
= =
÷
= + +
÷
÷ = ÷ +
÷ + ÷
=
.
0
ln( / )
i
K
r r
THERMAL CONTACT RESISTANCE
Condition :
• A and B is different
material with different
value of K
• Experiences shows that
the actual temperature
profile through the two
materials varies
approximately as shown
at figure
2 3 1 2 2 2
1 3
1/
/ 1/ /
1/ tan
B A B
A B
A c B
A A c B B
c
T T T T T T
q K A K A
x h A x
T T
q
x K A h A x K A
h A thermal contact resis ce
÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
A A
÷
=
A + + A
=
…..in more detail
• No real surface is perfectly smooth and the actual
surface roughness is believed to play a central role in
determining the contact resistance.
• Two principal of heat transfer at joint
1. The solid to solid conduction at the spot of contact
2. The conduction through entrapped gases in the void spaces
created by the contact
2 2 2 2 2 2
/ 2 / 2 1/
2 1
A B A B A B
f v
g A g B g c
g
f
c v A B
c f
g A B
T T T T T T
q K A
L K A L K A L h A
L the thickness of the void space
K thermal conductivity of the fluid which fills the void space
A A K K
h K
L A K K A
÷ ÷ ÷
= + =
+
=
=
 
= +

+
\ .
Contact Conductance of Typical Surfaces
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