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CHAPTER 10

ENERGY

The nature of ENERGY


ENERGY

The ability to do work or produce heat


LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Energy can neither be created nor destroyedBUT Energy can be converted from one form to another

POTENTIAL ENERGY

Energy of an object due to its mass and position.


KINETIC ENERGY

Energy of an object due to its mass and motion.

Thing to remember
For Potential or Kinetic energy:
When one increases, the other decreases PATHWAY of the reaction is NOT important [HOW] CHANGE IN LEVEL/ELEVATION is important [WHAT]

ANALOGY:
If you have to pay $8 to a friend, you can either: 1) Pay him exactly $8 (one $5 and three $1) 2) Pay him $10 and ask for $2 back In this scenario: HOW you pay does not matter. WHAT you pay does matter.

TEMPERATURE AND HEAT


TEMPERATURE It is a measure of the random motions of the molecules/atoms in a substance. HEAT Flow of energy due to a difference in temperature

DO NOT confuse Temperature with Heat, they are two different things. Temperature is the measure of heat or lack of heat caused by the fast or slow movement of molecules.

SYSTEM AND SURROUNDINGS


SYSTEM The part of the universe we are concerned with Contains the reactants and products of a reaction SURROUNDINGS Everything else in the universe that is NOT the system

THESE 2 OBJECTS WOULD CONSTITUTE THE SYSTEM EVERYTHING OUTSIDE THESE 2 OBJECTS WOULD BE THE SURROUNDINGS

EXOTHERMIC & ENDOTHERMIC


ENDOTHERMIC When energy flows into the system in the form of heat EXOTHERMIC When energy flows out of the system in the form of heat

Exothermic and PE relationship


Potential energy stored in chemical bonds is converted to thermal energy (heat). Reactants have more PE than products Products have less PE than reactants

Endothermic and PE relationship


Potential energy stored in chemical bonds of reactants is not enough. Therefore, more energy is necessary (usually provided in the form of heat). Products have more PE than reactants Reactants have less PE than products

THERMODYNAMICS
THERMODYNAMICS is the study of the effects of work, heat, and energy on a system. There are 4 laws of Thermodynamics Laws 0 3

ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


The energy of the universe is constant
means the same thing as the Law of Conservation of Energy

The internal energy of a system (denoted by E) is the sum of all KE and PE of all the particles in the system. = Change in E = internal energy w = work q = heat

E = q + w

THERMODYNAMIC QUANTITIES
NUMBER Indicates the magnitude/size of the energy change SIGN Indicates the direction of the energy flow
ENDOTHERMIC

When you add heat into the system, q = (+) , E = (+)


EXOTHERMIC

When you lose heat from the system, q = () , E = ()

MEASURING ENERGY CHANGES


Common units of energy are
calorie (with a lowercase C) Joule (SI unit)

1 calorie = 4.184 Joules The Calorie that you are familiar with is denoted with a uppercase C because it is actually 1000 calories (1 kilocalorie)

cal J / J cal CONVERSIONS


1. Express 60.1 cal of energy in joules. 60.1 4.184 = 251 1 1 2. How many calories of energy do I have if I am expending 28.4 J of energy? 28.4 1 = 6.79 1 4.184

CLASSWORK CONVERSIONS
3. Express 34.8 cal of energy in Joules.

Answer: 146 J
4. Express 47.3 J of energy in calories.

Answer: 11.3 cal


5. Express 0.0348 cal of energy in Joules.

Answer: 146 J
6. Express 47.3 J of energy in Calories.

Answer: 0.0113 Cal or kcal

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY


SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY of a substance is defined as the amount of energy required to change the temperature of one gram of substance by one Celsius degree.

UNITS:

For example:
The specific heat of ice is 2.03 J/g That means, if I had 1g of ice, it would take me 2.03 J of energy to increase the temperature of that 1g of ice from 0 to 1.

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITIES


Table 10.1 in your textbook (Page 279) You DO NOT need to memorize this table here or the table in the textbook. Use it as a reference to solve problems.

FORMULA involving specific heat


=
Q = Energy (heat) required s = specific heat capacity m = mass of the substance in grams T = change in Temperature in Celsius

CLASSWORK PROBLEMS
1. A 5.63 g sample of solid gold is heated from 21 to 32. How much energy is required? Give the energy in both Joules and calories.

Answer: 8.1 J -or- 1.9 cal


2. What quantity of energy is required to heat a piece of iron weighing 1.3 g from 25 to 46? Give the energy in both Joules and calories.

Answer: 12 J -or- 2.9 cal

CLASSWORK PROBLEMS
3. A 0.0016 kg sample of a metal that has the appearance of gold requires 5.8 J of energy to change its temperature from 23 to 41. Is the metal pure gold?

Answer: 0.20 J / g not pure gold


4. A 2800 mg sample of pure metal requires 10.1 J of energy to change its temperature from 21 to 36. What is this metal?

Answer: 0.24 J / g SILVER

ENTHALPY
Enthalpy is the total energy produced () or absorbed (+) by a given reaction. ENTHALPY is denoted by H So exothermic reaction (+) or () enthalpy? So endothermic reaction (+) or () enthalpy? For a reaction occurring under constant pressure, the CHANGE IN ENTHALPY is the same as the energy that flows as heat. H = Qp

ENTHALPY VALUES?
2 mini reactions:
Elephants toothpaste (Hydrogen peroxide decomposition)
1. ENDOTHERMIC OR EXOTHERMIC? 2. WHY? 3. POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ENTHALPY VALUE?

Sulfur dioxide production


1. ENDOTHERMIC OR EXOTHERMIC? 2. WHY? 3. POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ENTHALPY VALUE?

ENTHALPY PROBLEMS
1. When 1 mole of methane (CH4) is burned at constant pressure, 890 kJ of energy is released as heat. Calculate H for a process in which a 5.8-g sample of methane is burned at constant pressure.
We know that 1 mole of CH4 releases 890 kJ of heat So, 1 mole CH4 H = 890 kJ But how many moles in 5.8-g of CH4? And what is the H value for that amount of moles?

ENTHALPY PROBLEM # 1
1. When 1 mole of methane (CH4) is burned at constant pressure, 890 kJ of energy is released as heat. Calculate H for a process in which a 5.8-g sample of methane is burned at constant pressure.

5.8 4 1 4 = 0.36 4 1 16.042 4 0.36 4 890 = 320 1 1 4


H

ENTHALPY PROBLEM # 2
2. The reaction that occurs in the heat packs used to treat sports injuries is when Iron metal reacts with Oxygen gas to form solid Iron (III) Oxide. The energy released in this balanced reaction is 1652 kJ. How much heat is released when 1.00g of iron reacts with excess oxygen gas?

4 Fe (s) + 3 O2 (g) 2 Fe2O3 (s)


H = 1652 kJ

ENTHALPY PROBLEM # 2
4 Fe (s) + 3 O2 (g) 2 Fe2O3 (s)
H = 1652 kJ

1.00 1 = 0.0179 1 55.85 0.0179 1652 = 7.39 1 4


H

Extra Practice Problems WS


See Worksheet for problems 3 5 Done in class.

HESS LAW
In going from a particular set of reactants to a particular set of products, the change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a series of steps. **REMEMBER** the analogy of paying your friend $8. It doesnt matter HOW you pay him as long as you pay it.

Hess Law: Case-in-point!


One-step reaction: H = 68 kJ N2 (g) + 2 O2 (g) 2 NO2 (g)

Two-step reaction: H = 68 kJ N2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 NO (g) H1 = +180 kJ 2 NO (g)+ O2 (g) 2 NO2 (g)
Net Rxn: Net H:

H2 = 112 kJ

N2 (g) + 2 O2 (g) 2 NO2 (g) H1 + H2 = 68 kJ

Characteristics of Enthalpy Changes


1. If the order of a reaction is reversed, then the sign of H is also reversed. Example: N2 (g) + 2 O2 (g) 2 NO2 (g) 2 NO2 (g) N2 (g) + 2 O2 (g) H = 68 kJ H = 68 kJ

Characteristics of Enthalpy Changes


2. If the coefficients in a balanced reaction are multiplied by an integer, the value of H is also multiplied by that same integer. Example:

N2 (g) + 2 O2 (g) 2 NO2 (g) [N2 (g) + 2 O2 (g) 2 NO2 (g)] 4 4 N2 (g) + 8 O2 (g) 8 NO2 (g)

H = 68 kJ H = 68kJ 4 H = 272 kJ

PROBLEM
Apply Hess Law Apply Characteristics of Enthalpy Changes Two forms of carbon are graphite and diamond. In each combustion reaction, carbon reacts with oxygen gas to form only carbon dioxide gas. Using the enthalpies of combustion for graphite (-394 kJ/mol) and diamond (-396 kJ/mol), calculate H for the conversion of graphite to diamond.

Extra Practice Problems WS


See Worksheet for problems 2 4 Done in class.