Philippine Radio Broadcasting

Broadcasting

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. The audience may be the general public or a relatively large sub-audience, such as children or young adults.

 History  The first radio station was called KZKZ set up by an American Henry Mann in Manila in 1922 1929. radio as introduced into the provinces  In .

German name of Germany)  .STATION IDENTIFICATION  Four letter call signs beginning with KZ were in the use The ITU however decided to give Philippines the right to use the call letter D (Deutscheland.

KZKZ A 100 watt station with the call letter KZKZ  October 4.1924 he sold it to the radio Corporation of the Philippines  .

Nomenclatures  DZ/DW  Established in Luzon  DY  Established in Visayas  DX  Established in Mindanao .

RCP put up KZRC (radio Cebu). .Outside Manila  In 1929. a one-kilowatt experimental station in Cebu city.

Early Filipino Broadcasters  Francisco “koko” Trinidad regarded as the Father of Philippine Broadcasting .

allocate band frequencies. and conducted inspections  .REGULATION  Early regulation of broadcasting begun in 1931 and thus passed the Radio Control Law creating the Radio Control Board The board examined applications for licenses to operate radio.

1972. Martial law was declared Government control was instituted with the establishment of Broadcast Media Council (BMC) and the Kapisanan ng mga Broadkaster sa Pilipinas (KBP)  .Martial Law  on September 21.

. through the massive dissemination of broadcast information  KBP  An assembly of media practitioners. which seeks to self-regulate and “standardize” the broadcasting industry.BMC AND KBP  BMC  Assists and supports the government in developing the masses.

.KBP  Founded in 1972 for its general objectives  To unify broadcast pratitioners  To formulate policies and standards  To represent broadcasters as their spokesman regarding matters concerning policies and legislation.

they are business and profit-oriented  Non-commercial – civic or religious organizations with specific target audiences for their programs  .Radio Broadcasting Operations  Broadcast Media operators are categorized into: Commercial-private corporations/ associations. private schools etc.

operated by a government. they provide public service and also disseminate information on government activities . agency etc. department. Broadcast Media operators are categorized into cotinuation:  Government Radio Broadcasting Operations sector.

1 MHz to 107.FM Broadcasting Standards Parameter Philippine Technical Standards Occupied Spectrum Allocated BW BW per station Spacing between station 88 – 108 MHz 20 MHz In 200 kHz increment from 88.9 MHz 800 kHz .

Carrier Frequency Tolerance Maximum Frequency Deviation Guard band Pre-emphasis Intermediate Frequency Receiver Characteristics Audio Frequency Response ±2000Hz of the assigned frequency ±75 kHz ±25 kHz 75µsec with break frequency of 2122Hz 10.FM Broadcasting Standards Cont..7 MHz Superheterodyne 50 – 15000Hz .

FM Broadcasting Standards Type of Modulation FM Type of Emission Pilot Subcarrier Antenna Polarization F3E 19kHz Horizontal or circular polarized .

Classes of Stations Station Class A Class B Class C Class D Authorized Power Not exceeding 15kW Not exceeding 10kW Not exceeding 1kW Not exceeding 10W .

FM Broadcast Frequency Allocation FM = FM1 + (n-1)BW (MHz) Where: FM = channel frequency in MHz FM1 = frequency of the first FM channel n = channel number BW = channel bandwidth .

Construction  The transmitter shall be constructed on racks and panels or in totally enclosed frames protected The transmitter shall be enclosed in a metal frame or grille separated from the operating space by a barrier or other equivalent means 2.FM Transmitter Considerations 1. Enclosure  .

Interlocks  All access doors shall be provided with interlocks which will disconnect all voltages in excess of 350V when any access door is opened . Grounding of Controls All external metallic handles and controls shall be effectively grounded  No circuit in excess of 150V shall have any part exposed to direct contact  4.FM Transmitter Considerations 3.

FM Transmitter Considerations 5. Wiring and Shielding  . All instruments having more than 1000V potential to ground shall be protected by a cage or cover. Bleeder Resistors  Proper bleeder resistors or other automatic shall be installed across all capacitor banks to lower any voltage which may remain accessible with access door open. 6.

Broadcast Transmission Services (FM)  Studio-to-transmitter Link (STL) Band Operating Frequency (MHz) A B 310 to 315 734 to 752 860-880 942-952 .

310 450-451 455 -456 .Broadcast Auxiliary Services Cont.  Remote Pick-up Broadcast Station Band A B C Operating Frequency (MHz) 305 ..

Broadcast Auxiliary Services Cont.25 170..10 to 26.48 162.15 880-890 D .615 166.  Communications.235 -162. Coordination and Control Link Band A B C Operating Frequency (MHz) 4 to 12 26.

Seatwork What will happen to the FM broadcasting system. if standards were not yet established until now? .