The concept of totipotency

What is totipotency?

It is the potential/ability of plant cell to regenerate into completely functional plant
In 1902 the idea was conceived by Gottileb Haberlandt

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cell differentiation is the basic event of development in higher organisms and conveniently referred to as cytodifferentiation .Terminology • To express totipotency the differentiated cell first undergoes dedifferentiation and then redifferentiation • The phenomenon of a mature cell reverting to a meristematic state and forming undifferentiated callus tissue is termed dedifferentiation • The ability of a dedifferentiated cell to form a whole plant or plant organs is termed redifferentiation • Thus.

roots. somatic embryogenesis or organogenesis • The process of initiation and development of embryos or embryo-like structures from somatic cells (Somatic embryogenesis) .or flowers) and overall plant shape and structure • Plant morphogenesis in vitro can be achieved via two pathways.• Morphogenesis refers to the development of organs (shoots.

which subsequently leads to the organization of meristematic centers referred to as meristemoids . forming zones of localized cell division.• Organogenesis: The process of initiation and development of a structure that shows natural organ form and/or function • Cells within the explant are induced to divide.

This can be liquid or semisolid • Aseptic (sterile) conditions.What is needed? Tissue culture has several critical requirements: • Appropriate tissue (some tissues culture better than others) • A suitable growth medium containing energy sources and inorganic salts to supply cell growth needs. as microorganisms grow much more quickly than plant and animal tissue and can over run a culture .

both auxins & cytokinins Frequent sub-culturing to ensure adequate nutrition and to avoid the build up of waste metabolites .Growth regulators .in plants.

An essential mineral is defined as an element that is critical or essential for a plant to complete its life cycle To be classified as ‘essential’ the mineral must fulfill the following criteria: (1) an obligatory requirement for normal growth and reproduction (2) it is not possible to replace the mineral with another mineral or substance (3) have a direct or indirect role in plant metabolism .

depending on the relative amount of each element required for growth Macronutrients such as nitrogen. phosphorus. as well as constituents of many small molecules .Essential mineral nutrients are classified into two groups macro.or micronutrients. and sulfur are important components of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

the basis of all nutrient media is a mixture of mineral salts combining the essential macro.and micronutrients .Micronutrients are required in much smaller quantities than macronutrients and function in various roles such as enzyme cofactors or components of electron transport proteins In plant tissue culture.

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unlike animals.Vitamins are compounds required by animals in very small amounts as necessary ancillary food factors Many of the same substances are also needed by plant cells as essential intermediates or metabolic catalysts. but intact plants. B1) Nicotinic acid (niacin) Pyridoxine (Vit. B6) and Myo-inositol . are able to produce their own requirements Thiamine (Vit.

is an essential cofactor in carbohydrate metabolism and is directly involved in the biosynthesis of some amino acids .Myo-inositol is the only one of the nine theoretical stereoisomers of inositol which has significant biological importance Thiamine (Vit. B1) in the form of thiamine pyrophosphate.