 SODAR (sonic detection and ranging) systems are used to remotely measure the vertical turbulence structure and

the wind profile of the lower layer of the atmosphere.  SODAR systems reflection is due to the scattering of sound by atmospheric turbulence.  In SODAR systems maximum range can be achieved in moderate or high relative humidity and low ambient noise  In dry areas, sound is absorbed faster  Advantages of SODAR systems : • compared to erecting tall towers with in-situ wind and temperature sensors ,a SODAR system can be installed in a small fraction of the time it takes to erect a tall tower. • Also, the practical height limit for meteorological towers is about 150 m (500 ft). Most SODAR systems will obtain reliable data well beyond this altitude.

 Disadvantages: • Do not report valid data during periods of heavy precipitation • Principle Problem ground clutter. such as wind speed standard deviation. Other wind parameters. are usually either not available or not reliable. Reason • Sodar samples over volume and at multiple points in space and time whereas • In-situ sensors in masts samples instantaneously at a point in space and time. . The reflected side-lobe energy from nearby obstacles can overwhelm the atmospheric return signal and cause the component wind speeds reported by a SODAR system to be zero-biased • SODAR systems primarily provide measurements of mean wind. wind direction standard deviation and wind gust.

the frequency of the backscattered return signal will be higher than the frequency of the transmitted signal. meaning they have the ability to detect signal frequency shift in three or more radial directions and use that data to derive both the profile of wind speed and direction and the vertical intensity structure of the atmosphere. .  the return signal strength 1/α target height  Multi-axes Doppler SODAR systems. The intensity or amplitude of the returned energy [E ] α CT2  When the target (a reflecting turbulent eddy) is moving toward the SODAR antenna.