Basic Biosensor Instrumentation

A biosensor is made up of two parts: 1. 2. Physical component: Transducer, amplifier, display unit, etc. Biological component: Enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, etc.

Figure 6 Block diagram of a biosensor.
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Components of a Biosensor

Detector

Potentiometric biosensors: Measure the electrical potential. All rights reserved. Optical biosensors: Measure the light produced or absorbed during the reaction. Amperometric biosensors: Measure the movement of electron during an oxidation-reduction reaction. Engineering Chemistry Copyright  2013 Wiley India Pvt. Acoustic wave biosensors: Measure the change in the mass of the biological material during the reaction. Calorimetric biosensors: Measure the heat released or absorbed by a reaction. 5. Ltd. the biosensors are of following types: 1. 3. .Types of Biosensors Based on the type of physical change produced. 4. 2.

RECOGNITION How do you specifically recognize the analyte? Complementary DNA Antigen Other: enzyme/substrate PNA/DNA or PNA/RNA Antibody DNA .

membrane Antigen It can be recognized by antibody.Bioreceptors  Antibody Antibodies are biological molecules that exhibit very specific binding capabilities for specific structure (antigens). .

Bioreceptors Bioreceptor Display .

Bioreceptors  Enzyme Enzyme is a large protein molecule that acts as a catalyst in chemical reactions. Enzymes are often chosen as bioreceptors based on their specific binding capabilities as well as their catalytic activity .

Bioreceptors Bioreceptor Display .

Four chemical bases: • adenine(A). which are the building blocks of genetics. • cytosine (C). and thymine (T) . guanine (G).Bioreceptors DNA structure Another biorecognition mechanism involves hybridization of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA).

Bioreceptors Bioreceptor Display .

Bioreceptors  Living Cell Nourishment Product .

Bioreceptors Bioreceptor Display .

. Physical Entrapment Bioreceptor (Antibody.Immobilizatiom The immobilization is done either by physical entrapment or chemical attachment. Cell. polar or hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. Enzyme. …) + polymer solution → polymerization Adsorption adsorptive interactions such as ionic.

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. Glucose monitoring device (for diabetes patients) Monitors the glucose level in the blood.Example of biosensors Pregnancy test Detects the hCG protein in urine.

Example of biosensors Infectous disease biosensor Old time coal miners’ biosensor .