Attitudes and Attitude Theories

Importance of attitudes

Carl Hovland, founder of the Yale Attitude Research Program, initiated the scientific study of attitudes in the 1940’s attitudes! occu"ied the center stage in "ersuasion research for over #0 years transformed social studies! into social sciences! via attitude scales $ interval level data amena%le to statistical analysis $ agree&&& &&& &&& &&& &&& &&& &&& disagree

"redict %ehavior.  degree or intensity of attitude directed to'ard an attitude o%(ect! . evaluative dimension  direction of attitude )"lus or minus.en. $ $ $ $ learned. not innate "recursors of %ehavior )"recede.Definition of attitude  a "redis"osition to res"ond favora%ly or unfavora%ly to'ard some attitude o%(ect! )*ish%ein + A(. 19-#.

! %y relying on attitudes to "redict %ehavior $ attitude %ehavior  Persuaders see0 to alter attitudes. there%y %ringing a%out a corres"onding change in %ehavior $ old attitude ne' attitude ne' %ehavior  Ho' 'ell attitudes correlate 'ith %ehavior is 0no'n as the A12! relationshi" )or A2C attitude1%ehavior1 correlation.Attitudes and persuasion  /ocial scientists see0 a shortcut. .

social desira%ility %ias self1monitoring activation of relevant attitudes multi"le1act criteria )versus one1shot measures.       .Moderating variables in the A-B relationship attitude salience or centrality s"ecificity of the attitude)s. and %ehavior)s.

Likert’s “e ual appearing interval scales!   "atient’s suffering from terminal illnesses should have a constitutional right to assisted suicide# &&&&& strongly agree &&&&& moderately agree &&&&& slightly agree &&&&& neutral disagree &&&&& slightly disagree &&&&& moderately disagree &&&&& strongly     continuum of choices ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree! may consist of #. or 11 "oints am%iguity of neutral! "oint )don’t 0no'. undecided. 9. variations of 3i0ert scales . -.

ed semantic differential scales e6am"le5 8cCros0ey’s 9thos scale /arah Palin 4ualified &&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&& un4ualified "oised &&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&& nervous e6"ert &&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&& ine6"ert trust'orthy &&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&& untrust'orthy timid &&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&&5&&& %old      .$emantic Differential scales   %ased u"on connotative meanings series of %i"olar ad(ectives )o""osites. "otency. ad(ective "airs se"arated %y s"aces res"ondent chec0s semantic s"ace! corres"onding 'ith his7her attitude dimensions5 evaluation. activity s"eciali.

%isuall& oriented scales     o"inion thermometer facial e6"ressions steering 'heel "ointer advantages of visually oriented attitude measures .

"roblems 'ith attitude scales     "ro%lem of non1 attitudes social desira%ility %ias ac4uiescence %ias issue of mindfulness! .

im"licit s"ider 'e% analogy $ changes in one cognitive element rever%erate throughout the individual’s %elief system .attitudes as associative net'orks   often unconscious.

()ample of an associative net'ork contraception school prayer sex education abortion family values premarital sex divorce family leave marital fidelity child support dead-beat dads .

$ ?he ultimate driving machine! )28<.*reating associations     advertising cam"aigns :rive . . love 2eer and good times sloganeering $ 2rea0fast of cham"ions! )<heaties. $ 2e all that you can %e! )=>/> Army.

this is :ay At ?he /"a Bood@ @Co.+ood advertising and associations  *oods are often advertised as5 $ $ $ $ $ "romoting good health su%stitutes for love vicarious se6 guilty "leasures treatment for stress. this is *oot 8assage Bood@ Hershey’s5 food as stress management . an6iety Yo"lait5 *ood as a guilty "leasure5 @Aoo.

a&s of creating associations  Advertising cam"aigns $ $ 8c:onald’s goes ur%an 'ith the D’m lovin’ it! cam"aign /"rite associates itself 'ith hi"1ho" ur%an youth /tadiums.. s"orting events Philanthro"ic giving  Phili" 8orris’ social res"onsi%ility! cam"aigns  /"onsorshi" $ $  Cele%rity endorsers .

More 'a&s of creating associations  A""ro"riating sym%ols $ $ $ e6treme! lifestyle  ?aco 2ell s"onsors the E1Bames ur%an. hi" ho" culture  Ree%o0 0ee"s it real! to ra0e in the %ling %ling! alternative culture  Pe"si and i?unes identify 'ith music do'nloaders "re1o'ned! versus used! car F*C transformed itself into Fitchen *resh Chic0en! Contests. "ri. events  Renaming $ $  Dnvolvement and "artici"ation $ .

Modif&ing associations. 8c:onaldIs traded in their old @<e love to see you smile@ slogan for the ne'.en Aging icon Ronald gets (iggy! 'ith hi" ho" stars Justin ?im%erla0e is one of 8ic0ey :’s ne' s"o0es"ersons . ur%an youths > 3in0 to D’m 3ovin’ Dt! commercial5 htt"577 video>google>com7video"layKdocid . hi".mcdonaldOH-s+hl.from McDonald’s to Micke& D’s   After losing over GH00 million in H00H. D’m lovin’ it! cam"aign the ne' cam"aign uses a hi" ho" theme to target older.1--L440HL0ML#-N#191M+4.

institution." David #gilvy $ $ . cor"oration. a design.Image-based advertising $ @Dn the factory 'e ma0e cosmeticsP in the drugstore 'e sell ho"e>@ Charles Revson @An image > > > is not sim"ly a trademar0. Image means personality. "roduct or service>@ Daniel Boorstin "You now have to decide what 'image' you want for your brand. a slogan or an easily remem%ered "icture> Dt is a studiously crafted "ersonality "rofile of an individual. roducts! li"e people! have personalities! and they can ma"e or brea" them in the mar"et place.

or associated 'ith.Image-based advertising at 'ork    A consumer admires a "articular image or lifestyle ?he "roduct is "aired 'ith. the image or lifestyle Dn time the consumer comes to e4uate the "roduct 'ith image or lifestyle Music downloading + teen consumer + ? Pepsi .

Image-oriented advertising   ?he "oint of image1oriented advertising is to lin0 "roducts 'ith ideali. images. confined co'sK .>@ Are California co's really ha""yK <hat a%out the co's raised in cram"ed.ed associations. and lifestyles> /chudson )19M4. dreary feedlotsK Df good cheese comes from ha""y co's. advertising does not claim to "icture reality as it is %ut reality as it should %e11life and lives 'orth imitating )"> H1#. then does %ad cheese come from %ored.

Image-oriented car commercials .

Advertising associations and 'omen’s bodies    Qictoria’s /ecret Coors 3ight ?'ins Paris Hilton and Carl’s Jr>    :ove’s Real 2eauty! cam"aign :oes :ove really care a%out 'omen’s %ody imagesK Ar is this a clever %randing strategy to sell more "roductK .

attitudes. tension   l Dndividuals are motivated to restore cognitive consistency   . "reserve harmony among their %eliefs. "refer consistency   Cognitive consistency is a state of %alance. among one’s cognitions Dndividuals strive to maintain.consistenc& theories l Peo"le e6"ect. saving face l Dnconsistency causes "sychological discomfort. e>g>. %ehaviors :issonance! is an uncomforta%le mental state> 8ay even %e accom"anied %y "hysiological sym"toms :rive1reduction! model /ocial motivations. harmony.

.illustration of consistenc& in action ? favorable attitude . - perceived incompatibilit& .

"arenting and consistenc& theor&     A child admires Po"eye ?he child doesn’t li0e to eat s"inach Po"eye is "ositively associated 'ith /"inach ?his is a cognitively im%alanced state. 'hich should motivate the child to change one of the associations + + - .

"sychological states + + - + + - - - + + - imbalanced (inconsistent) psychological states - + + + + - + - + .consistent versus inconsistent ps&chological states %alanced )consistent.

have &our cake and eat it too/   9nvironmentally res"onsi%le. fat1free. lo' cholesterol . car% free. all consistenc&. high fi%er. lo' sodium. socially conscious "roducts $ Hy%rid cars $ :ol"hin free tuna $ 2en + Jerry’s ice cream $ Yo"lait and %reast cancer research $ Breen! mutual funds healthy la%els $ light.

Marketing inconsistenc&  Countering %rand loyalty $ $ $ ?hin0 outside the %un! )?aco 2ell. Carl’s GN>00 %urger 'ithout the restaurant    Countering tradition Cot your father’s Aldsmo%ile! 2uyer’s remorse $ $ Ca"ital Ane5 <hat’s in your 'alletK! Hotels> com . ?hin0 different! )8acintosh.

as it is a matter of ada"ting your message to the attitudes already held %y receivers> .The ke& to persuasion  Ada"t $ your message to your audience successful "ersuasion isn’t so much a matter of shifting receivers’ attitudes over to your "osition.