The visual aids support the air traffic control system for navigational help (landing and take off operations).The different type of visual aids are:  Markings  Signs  Lights  Markers .

Air port markings helps the pilot in proper. Airport markings can be grouped as:  Runway markings  Taxiway markings  Other markings Airport marking . efficient and safe use of the airport facilities.

visual marking. precision instrument marking. 2) Aiming point marking used by air jet on 1200m long runway. The table differentiate between the catagories.Runway markings are of three catagories. non-precision instrument marking. . i.e. No 1 2 3 4 5 Marking element Designation marking Centerline marking Threshold marking Aiming point marking Sides stripe marking Visual marking X X X1 X2 Non-precision marking X X X X Precision marking X X X X X Note: 1) Used when runway intended to be use for international commercial transport.

Following markings are basically use on runway:  Runway designation marking  Runway center line marking  Runway threshold marking  Runway threshold bar marking  Runway aiming point marking  Runway side stripe marking  Chevrons .

.     Runway designation marking are located just after the threshold of a paved runway. its designation number will be (180/10) 18. The number is basically the (1/10)th of the bearing with the north pole. Runway designation marking is basically a number and on parallel runway is suplemented with a letter. Example: When the runway is located with 1800 degree with north pole.

 It is located along the center of the runway through out the lenght.Runway center line marking identifies the physical center of the runway and provide alignment guidance during take off and landing operations.  Runway centerline marking .  A runway center line marking shall consist of a line of uniformly spaced stripes and gapes.

Threshold bar marking .  A threshold bar delineath the begenning of the runway that is available for landing. The threshold bar is 3m in width and extend across the width of the runway.

 They are a series of parallel. longitudinal stripes across the width of the runway.Threshold marking identifies the begenning of the runway that is available for landing and take off operations. The number of stripes shall be in accordance with the runway width as follows:  No 1 2 3 4 5 Runway width 18 23 30 45 60 Number of stripes 4 6 8 12 16 .  In some instances the landing threshold may be relocated or displaced.

6m for a runway of width 45m. Aiming point marking consist of two rectangular stripe 45m in lenght and 9m wide. . Typically started 300m from the threshold of the runway.    Runway aiming point markings provide guidance on where to land on the runway. The lateral space between the inner side of the marking is 21.

Runway side stripe The minimum width of side stripe marking marking is 0.9m on 30m wide runway. . Runway side stripe is a continouse stripe along the lenght on each side of the runway.   Runway side stripe provide visual contrast between the runway and sorrounding terrian and delineath the width of the paved runway.

.  Chevrons are located on paved runway that are contigoues to the runway. Chevron marking are used to identify paved area unusable for landing and take off operation.  They are yellow in colour.

They consist of four yellow lines two solid. extending across the width of the taxiway.   These markings identify the locations on a taxiway where an aircraft is supposed to stop when it does not have clearance to proceed onto the runway. The solid lines are always on the side where the aircraft is to hold. . and two dashed.

 Runway shoulder marking are use to identify the paved area contagious to the runway sides that are not intended to be use by aircraft. Runway shoulder marking .  Located between the runway side stripe marking and the runway paved edge.

takeoff and taxing. Clouser marking . The yellow "X" denotes that the runway is closed to all operations: landing.

They mostly have hard surface such as asphalt or concrete. terminals and other facilities.  Taxiway markings are yellow to differentiate it between white runway markings and the pavement.A taxiway is a path on an airport connecting runways with ramps .hangars. Taxiway marking .

 Enhanced Centerline. .  Geographic Position Markings.Following marking are basically use on taxiways:  Normal Centerline.  Taxi Shoulder Markings.  Taxiway Edge Markings.

Taxiway centerline marking . It’s width is 0.5 to 1feet.  The taxiway centerline is a single continuous yellow line that provides a visual clue to permit taxiing along a designated path.

 Taxiway centerlines are enhanced for 150 feet prior to a runway holding position marking. The enhanced taxiway centerline marking consists of a parallel line of yellow dashes on either side of the taxiway centerline. Enhanced centerline marking .

continuous lines.5feet apart.  Each line being at least 0.  It is yellow in colour and consists of dual.5feet in width and spaced 0. The taxiway edge marking is used to delineate the taxiway edge from the shoulder or some other contiguous paved surface that is not intended for use by pilots. Taxiway edge marking .

 Low visibility operation are those that occur when the runway visible range is below 360m.These markings are installed when its necessary to identify the location of taxing during low visibility operation.  Geographic position marking .  They are positioned to the left of the taxiway centerline in the direction of taxiing.

 Taxiway shoulder markings are yellow lines perpendicular to taxiway edge. Taxiways.  Shoulders are not intended for use by aircraft. Taxiway shoulder marking Taxi shoulder marking . holding bays. and aprons are sometimes provided with paved shoulders to prevent blast and water erosion. and may be unable to carry the aircraft load.

The following marking can also be used on runway:  Vehicular roadway marking  VOR checkpoint marking  Non-movement area boundary marking .

    The standard vehicle roadway markings are use to determine roadway located on or crossing area . Vehicle road way markings are white. that are also intended for use by aircraft.67m must be maintained between the roadway edge marking and the non-movement area boundary marking. . Vehicular roadways are delineated on runway when there is a need to define a path way for vehicle operations A minimum spacing of 0.

A VOR aerodrome check point marking is located on the spot at which an aircraft is to be parked to receive the correct VOR signals. . VOR reciever check points are provided with painted markings and an associated sign. VOR marking consist of a circle 6m in diameter and have a line width of 15cm.    VOR receiver check point markings allow the pilot to check aircraft instruments with navigational signals.

.     Non-movement area boundary markings are used when there is a need to delineate the movement area. one solid and one dashed line. The dash are 1m in length with 1m spacing between them. Each line is 15cm in width with 15cm spacing between them. This marking consist of two yellow lines. This marking should be used only when it is considered necessary.