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Penyusun Zulkifli Paldana Akbar Teknik Konstruksi Sipil 1s2 sore Politeknik Negeri Jakarta

definition

Number is a mathematical object used in counting and measuring. A notational symbol wich represents a number is called a numeral, but in common usage the word is used for both the abstract and the symbol. As well as for the word. In addition to their use in counting and measuring. Numeral are often used for labels (telephone number), for ordering (serial number), and for codes (e.g ISBN). In mathematics, the definition of number has been extended over the years to include suchnumbers as zero, negative numbers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, and complex numbers.

substraction. the successor operation adds one to an integer. multiplication. Unary operations take a single input number and produce a single output number. For example. . The study of numerical operations is called arithmetic. and exponentiation.Certain procedures which take one or more numbers as input and produce a number as output are called numerical operations. thus the successor of 4 is 5. division. Examples of binary operations include addition. More common are binary operations which take two input numbers and produce a single output number.

The Classification of Number Natural numbers Integers Rational numbers Real numbers Complex numbers Computable numbers Other types Specific uses .

1. 7.. −2. n a⁄ b where a and b are integers and b is not zero The limit of a convergent sequence of rational numbers a + bi where a and b are real numbers and i is the square root of −1 .... . 4. n 1. n −n. . 1. −3...Number System NATURAL INTEGERS Positive integers Rational Real Complex (0). −1. −4. 4.... 3. 0. −5. 5. . 4. 3. 2.. 2. 2. 3. 5. 5. .. 6..

Traditionally. in the 19th century. and so on.NATURAL NUMBERS Natural numbers is an ordinary counting numbers or is a number that occurs in commonly and obviously in nature. also written . The most familiar numbers are the natural numbers or counting numbers: one. where 0 is thus the smallest cardinal number) in the set of natural numbers. two. three. Natural numbers have two main purposes : counting (“there are 2 dogs”). set theorists and other mathematicians started the convention of including 0 (cardinality of the empty set. 0 elements. The mathematical symbol for the set of all natural numbers is N. and ordering (“that is the 4th largest planet”).e.) However. the sequence of natural numbers started with 1 (0 was not even considered a number for the Ancient Greeks. i. N .

3. the symbols for natural numbers are written using ten digits: 0.In the base ten numeral system. 5.2. 4. non-negative numbers (0. 2. 1.3. In this base ten system. . 6. … ) or. and every other digit has a place value ten times that of the place value of the digit to its right. Natural numbers consist of positive integers or counting numbers (1. and 9. in some cases. the rightmost digit of a natural number has a place value of one. 8.2. …). in almost universal use today by humans for arithmetic operations.1. 7. 3.

or zero. integers can not have decimal place. the numbers 10. For example : 6 divided by 3 equals 2. negative. when one integer is divided into another. which contains a fraction. but 6 divided by 4 equals 1.-25. and 5.Integers is whole number (not a fraction) that can be positive. unlike floating point numbers. or multiplied. the result is also an integer. which is an integer.5. When two integers are added. However. Therefore. INTEGERS . Decimal number may either be rounded or truncated to produce an integer result.148 are all integer. substracted.0. the result may be an integer or a fraction.

where b is not zero. Fractions are written as two numbers. A rational number is a number which can be expressed as a ratio of two integers. the numerator and the denominator. In the fraction written m⁄n . with a dividing bar between them. Non-integer rational numbers (commonly called fractions) are usually written as a/b. . A rational number is a number that can be in the form p/q where p and q are integers and q is not equal to zero.RATIONAL NUMBERS A rational number is a number that can be expressed as a fraction with an integer numerator and a non-zero natural number denominator.

8..1415926535.a real numbers is a number that can be written as a terminating or non terminating decimal. and pi (3. The numbers 2.. REAL NUMBERS . 3/4 (a rational number that is not an integer). and pi (π ) are all real numbers. such as 5 (whole numbers that express discrete rather than continuous quantities) and complex numbers (mathematical constructs that include real numbers as a special case). -12. an irrational number).6 (a rational number expressed in decimal representation). such as 5 (an integer).5. 3/ .. 7 is a value that represents a quantity along a continum. Real numbers are commonly opposed both to integers. a rational or irrational number.

whole numbers or decimal numbers are all Real Numbers.. A real number can be given by an infinite decimal representation. 3/4.82.Real numbers can be divided into rational numbers.1. such as pi and the square root of two. They are called "Real Numbers" because they are not imaginary numbers. etc… Positive or negative. such as 42 and −23/129. large or small. such as 1. -0.. The type of number we normally use. and irrational numbers. The real numbers are sometimes thought of as points on an infinitely long number line.4871773339. . such as 2. 15.. where the digits continue indefinitely.

[1] The complex numbers contain the ordinary real numbers.A complex number is a number consisting of a real and imaginary part. This ultimately led to the fundamental theorem of algebra. COMPLEX NUMBERS . which shows that with complex numbers. but extend them by adding in extra numbers and correspondingly expanding the understanding of addition and multiplication. It can be written in the form a + bi. where a and b are real numbers. and i is the standard imaginary unit with the property i 2 = −1. Complex numbers thus form an algebraically closed field. a solution exists to every polynomial equation of degree one or higher. where any polynomial equation has a root.

Examples are complex analysis. the name usually reflects that fact. and complex Lie algebra. applied mathematics. complex polynomial. . complex matrix.Complex numbers are used in a number of fields. and chaos theory. When the underlying field of numbers for a mathematical construct is the field of complex numbers. including: engineering. quantum physics. electromagnetism.

are the real numbers that can be computed to within any desired precision by a finite. The computable numbers. also known as the recursive numbers or the computable reals. the computable numbers are determined in the set of the real numbers. but not all.Computable Numbers Moving to problems of computation. mathematical purposes. Equivalent definitions can be given using μ-recursive functions. The computable numbers form a real closed field and can be used in the place of real numbers for many. Turing machines or λ-calculus as the formal representation of algorithms. terminating algorithm. .

The hyperreals. but still form fields. This principle allows true first order statements about R to be reinterpreted as true first order statements about *R. denote an ordered field which is a proper extension of the ordered field of real numbers R and which satisfies the transfer principle. Superreal and surreal numbers extend the real numbers by adding infinitesimally small numbers and infinitely large numbers.Others types Hyperreal and hypercomplex numbers are used in non-standard analysis. . or nonstandard reals (usually denoted as *R).

The former gives the ordering of the collection. . For the finite set. but they differ in the infinite case. For dealing with infinite collections.The p-adic numbers may have infinitely long expansions to the left of the decimal point in the same way that real numbers may have infinitely long expansions to the right. The number system which results depends on what base is used for the digits: any base is possible. but a system with the best mathematical properties is obtained when the base is a prime number. while the latter gives its size. the natural numbers have been generalized to the ordinal numbers and to the cardinal numbers. the ordinal and cardinal numbers are equivalent. A relation number is defined as the class of relations consisting of all those relations that are similar to one member of the class.

(The old-fashioned term "evenly divisible" is now almost always shortened to "divisible". an odd number is an integer that is not evenly divisible by 2.There are also other sets of numbers with specialized uses. Complex numbers that are not algebraic are called transcendental numbers. Specific uses . Some are subsets of the complex numbers. For example. An even number is an integer that is "evenly divisible" by 2. where k is an integer. divisible by 2 without remainder. i.. algebraic numbers are the roots of polynomials with rational coefficients.e. An even number has the form n = 2k where k is an integer.) A formal definition of an odd number is that it is an integer of the form n = 2k + 1.

that is. These first four perfect numbers were the only ones known to early Greek mathematics. because 1. and 3 are its proper positive divisors and 1 + 2 + 3 = 6. 2. a perfect number is a number that is half the sum of all of its positive divisors. The next perfect number is 28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14.A perfect number is defined as a positive integer which is the sum of its proper positive divisors. 3. or σ(n) = 2 n.g. and 4 are: • P2(n) = 1⁄2 n(n + 1) (triangular numbers) • P3(n) = 1⁄6 n(n + 1)(n + 2) (tetrahedral numbers) • P4(n) = 1⁄24 n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3) (pentatopic numbers) . The next perfect numbers are 496 and 8128 (sequence A000396 in OEIS). the sum of the positive divisors not including the number itself. the figurate is labeled a polytopic number. and may be a polygonal number or a polyhedral number. Equivalently. A figurate number is a number that can be represented as a regular and discrete geometric pattern (e. If the pattern is polytopic. Polytopic numbers for r = 2. dots). The first perfect number is 6.

so the answer is: rational. Depending on the text and teacher (there is some inconsistency). The answer is: rational. which technically-speaking it is. since this approximation terminates. real 10 Obviously. though this may be more decimal places than you customarily use. rational. but it isn't pi! This is a rounded decimal approximation.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510. so it can be written as a fraction: 45/100 = 9/20. The answer is: integer.45 This is a terminating decimal. You probably recognize this as being pi. 0. real 5/ 3 This is a fraction. The point. real 3. then it's not an integer or a natural. however. And everything (that you know about so far) is a real. but notice that this square root simplifies: –sqrt(81) = –9. And of course it's also a real. so the answer is: irrational.. this is a counting number. but notice that it reduces to –3. so pi is an irrational. integer. so it's a rational. because it's a square root. real –sqrt(81) Your first impulse may be to say that this is irrational. so the answer is: rational.• • • • • • • • Classify according to number type. real – 9/ 3 This is a fraction. real 1 2 /3 This can also be written as 5/3. real 3. The answer is: natural. And everything is a real.. some numbers may be of more than one type. rational (possibly). this is actually a rational. That means it is also a whole number and an integer. is that the decimal does not repeat. Since this fraction does not reduce to a whole number. which is the same as the previous problem.14159 Don't let this fool you! Yes. It's also a real. real . you often use something like this as an approximation of pi. unlike pi which is irrational! The answer is: rational. The answer is: integer (possibly). and. whole. this may also be counted as a rational. rational. which is just an integer. so this may also count as an integer.

_____.Examples a. Natural numbers : • 5+5=… • Fill in the missing number : ___ ten and 7 ones = 17 • Between 9. Whole numbers : • Write the number below in words Eg : 4 159 Ans : Four thousand one-hundred and fifty nine • Write each in expanded form Eg : 517 249 ans : 500 000 + 10 000 + 7 000 + 200 + 40 + 9 . 11 Ans : 10 (for all question) b.

positive • What is the magnitude of 87? a.100 b. -13 ans :c.3 c. 13 b.8? a. 87 • What is 5 .97 c. -3 . Integers • Is 8 positive or negative? ans : yes.87 ans :c.-3 d.c.

Real numbers • |8| The number enclosed within the absolute value bars is a nonnegative number so the first part of the definition applies. −(−3)=3. This part says that the absolute value of −3 is the opposite of −3. By the doublenegative property. |−3|=3 .d. which is −(−3).2 a rational number? • Is -5. This part says that the absolute value of 8 is 8 itself • |-3| The number enclosed within absolute value bars is a negative number so the second part of the definition applies.321671 a rational number? ans : yes (for all question) e. Rational numbers • Is 3.

f. Complex numbers • Simplify ί 9 ί 9 = ί 2 ί 2 ί 2 ί 2 ί = (-1)(-1)(-1)(-1) ί = ί • Find √-49 √-49 = √-1 √49 = ±7 ί .

may be understood and we all know about the various numbers and usefulness.ENDING number was classified according to the utility's own numbers. many explanations. turned out to not only learn the number sekdar adding and subtracting or dividing and multiplying numbers only. decimal and more. prime. . Thus the classification number that can be explained. integral. each number has an explanation in accordance with the part. fractional. and from which all numbers can be formed into integer.

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