Warsztat tłumacza II

dr Ewa Rajewska
Zakład Literatury XX w., Teorii Literatury i Sztuki Przekładu Instytut Filologii Polskiej UAM w Poznaniu

E-mail: rajewska@amu.edu.pl; tel. +48 601 69 55 22 Konsultacje: gabinet 211, Coll. Maius, czwartki 10.30-11.30

INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF NARRATIVE NARRATIVE TEXT 3 LAYERS: TEXT STORY FABULA (SPEAKER) (CHARACTER) (ACTOR) .MIEKE BAL. NARRATOLOGY.

and „colouring‟ of a fabula.MIEKE BAL. NARRATOLOGY. sound. 5) . such as language. imagery. inflection. buildings. the fabula is a series of logically and chronologically related events that are caused or experienced by actors. or a combination thereof.” (p. and produces a particular manifestation. A story is the content of that text. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF NARRATIVE “A narrative text is a text which an agent or subject conveys to an addressee („tells‟ the reader) a story in a particular medium.

some can be read aloud to children. Not everyone has read that story in the same text. There are different versions. „text‟ refers to narratives in any medium. NARRATOLOGY. There are noticeable differences among the various texts. I use this word with an emphasis on the finite nature and structuredness of narratives […]” (p. 6) . in other words. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF NARRATIVE “Take the familiar story of Tom Thumb. Some texts are considered to be literary while others are not. others are to difficult. there are different texts in which that same story is related.MIEKE BAL. […] Here.

NARRATOLOGY. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF NARRATIVE “[T]he next distinction. that between story and fabula […] is based on the difference between the way in which the events are presented and the sequence of events as they „occur‟ in the imaginative world of the fabula. […T]he fabula is not exclusively language-based. 6) .” (p.MIEKE BAL. That difference lies not only in the language used.

] Only the text layer. visual images. [. 7) .. story. embodied in the sign system of language. NARRATOLOGY. or any other.” (p.. fabula] [do not] exist independently of one another. […] The only material we have for our investigation is the text before us. is more or less directly accessible.MIEKE BAL. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF NARRATIVE “[T]hese layers [text.

We call this the logic of events” (p. understood as material or content that is worked into a story. disgusting. Their arrangement in relation to one another is such that they can produce the effect desired. or esthetic” (p. time. This series is constructed according to certain rules. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF NARRATIVE “The fabula. 7) “Events. […] [T]hese elements are organized in a certain way into a story. has been defined as a series of events.MIEKE BAL. be this convincing. 8) . moving. NARRATOLOGY. and location together constitute the material of a fabula. actors.

9) “The fabula is really the result of the mental activity of reading. The fabula is a memory trace that remains after the reading is completed”. 10) “A narrative text is a text in which a narrative agent tells a story” (p.MIEKE BAL. and this telling requires a medium […]” (p. the interpretation by the reader. A narrative text is a story that is „told‟. (p. 15) . NARRATOLOGY. an interpretation influenced both by the initial encounter with the text and by the manipulation of the story. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF NARRATIVE “A fabula that has been ordered into a story is still not a text. conveyed to recipients.

INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF NARRATIVE “[T]he story – the middle of the three layers I distinguish in the narrative text – does not consist of material different from that of either the text or the fabula. NARRATOLOGY.MIEKE BAL. but that this material is looked at from a certain.” (p. and the fabula primarily as the product of imagination. If one regards the text primarily as the product of the use of a medium. the story could be regarded as the result of an ordering. specific angle. 75) .

” (p. also in this second sense. I would like to suspend the negative connotations of manipulation. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF NARRATIVE “How is it that a narrative text comes across to the reader in a certain manner? Why do we find the same fabula beautiful when presented by one writer and trite when presented by another? Why is it so difficult in a simplified edition of a classic. and the reader is being manipulated by this treatment. to preserve the effect of the original?” (p. or of a masterpiece of world literature. The fabula is „treated‟. „treatment‟.MIEKE BAL. 75) “Manipulation originally meant simply „handling‟. It is basically at this level [=story] that suspense and pleasure are provoked. the original meaning is still synonymous with „operation‟. and that ideology is inscribed. 76) . and even though its modern sense has shifted to include more unfavourable connotations. NARRATOLOGY.

while every event can also be called a process or.” (p. part of a process. at least.” (p. NARRATOLOGY.MIEKE BAL. 195-196) “X is a subject-actant. Mary object. The fabula as a whole constitutes a process. and the element of intention of the fabula takes the form of „wanting to marry‟. 203) . John is subject. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF NARRATIVE “A fabula may be considered as a specific grouping of series of events. Y an object-actant. For instance. in a typical love story the slots may be filled as follows: John – wants to marry – Mary.