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BAHASA INGGRIS CONJUNCTION

Penyusun Zulkifli Paldana Akbar

Teknik Konstruksi Sipil 1s2 sore


POLITEKNIK NEGERI JAKARTA 2010

Definition
In Grammar, a Conjunction is a part of speech that connects two words, sentences, phrases or clauses together. This definition may overlap with that of other parts of speech, so what constitutes a conjunction should be defined for each language. In general, a Conjunction is in invariable grammatical particle, and it may or may not stand between the items it conjoins. The definition can be also be extended to idiomatic phrases that behave as a unit with the same function as a single-word conjunction (as well as, provided by that, etc). This use of conjunction is called parallel structure. However, modern usage in both Spanish and English is accepting of allowing conjunctions to be used at the beginning of a sentence to join it with a previous sentence.

The Types of Conjunctions


Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating Conjunction also called coordinators, are conjunctions that join two or more items of equal syntactic importance, such as word, main clauses, or sentences. In English mnemonic acronym FANBOYS can be used to remember the coordinators for, and, nor, but, or, yet and so. The word coordinate (verb) means of the same order or important; equal in rank. So, coordinating conjunctions often link similar grammatical parts of a sentence together (i.e. parts of speech + parts of speech ; phrase + phrase ; clause + clause).

To combine and align and : Zulkifli and Akbar went to Cinemas for watch a movie as well as : Zulkifli went to the cinemas for watch as well as Sakia The city provides many cultural opportunities. It has an excellent art Museum. ( Moreover / Futhermore / in addition ) it has a fine symphony Orchestra The city provides many cultural opportunities. Besides an excellent art museum, It has a fine symphony orchestra Both..and : Both Zulkifli and Sakia went to school together Likewise : Sakia went to Zoo for look animal likewise Zulkifli

to combine with show conflict although : Although it was cold, I went swimming. Even though : Even though it was cold, I went swimming Though : Though it was cold, I went swimming Nevertheless : It was cold. Nevertheless, I went swimming However : It wascold. However, I went swimming Nonetheless : It was cold. Nonetheless, I went swimming But : Sakia went to market for some fruits, but Zulkifli did not it Not only.. : Not only my brother but also my parents But also are here Despite of : I went swimming despite of the cold weather Inspite of : I went swimming inspite of the cold weather Whereas : Mary is rich, whereas Jane is poor Yet : they were not study, yet they passed the exam On the other hand : Mary is rich. Jane, on the other hand, is poor

Subordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions, also called subordinators, are conjunctions that introduce a dependent clause. Subordinating conjunctions join an independent clause (contains both subject, and a verb and can act as a complete sentence) and a dependent clause (also contains a subject, and a verb, but is not a complete sentence). Basically, dependent clause cannot exist on their own; they need to joined to an independent clause. Subordinating conjunctions do just that. The word subordinate (Adjective) means something of lesser of unequal value, which also gives you a clue about is position in a sentence in relation to an independent clause. Subordinating conjunctions always come at the beginning of a dependent clause. Its important to note, however, that dependent clauses can sometimes (not always) come before an independent clause.

To show time : After Before When During As Until As soon as As long as By the time Since The first time The last time The next time

: After I graduated, I will get a job : I will leave, before she comes : When I arrived, she was talking on the phone : Sakia and Zulkifli did homework during their mother was cooking : As I was walking home, it began to rain : I stayed there until I finished my homework : As soon as its stops raining, we will leave. : I will never speak to her again as long as I live. : By the time she arrived, we had already left. : I have not seen her since she left this morning : first time I went to Jakarta, I went to University of Indonesia : I saw two plays the last time I went to New York : The next time I go to Bandung, Im going to see a Paris Van Java

To show place : Where In which

Where ever they To show direction : For : I was studying English for TOEFL examination tomorrow So that : I am going to cash a check so that I can buy my textbooks In order that : Sinta and Reza went to the market for some vegetables in order that they have a cheap cost In the effort of : Sinta and Reza went to the market for some vegetables in the effort of dinner time In the hope that : Sakia and Zulkifli went to the Zoo in the hope that their mother did not angry anymore to them

: Sakia and Zulkifli did homework where they usually do activity : Sakia and Zulkifli went to the market for some vegetables In which place they bought fruits : Where ever Sakia and Zulkifli went to the Zoo always Use a Car

To show reason, because result : Because Because of Due to Due to the fact that Such .. that So .. that As.. For Why went In as much as Now that rest a Since : Because she was sleepy, she went to bed : Because of she sleepy, she went to bed : Due to the cold weather, we stayed at home : Due to the fact that the weather was cold, we stayed at home : It was such good coffee that I had another cup : The coffee is so hot that I cannot drink it. : As I was walking home, it began to rain : I was studying English for TOEFL examination tomorrow : Their father was ill, thats why Sakia and Zulkifli to The Drugstore : In as much as the two government leaders could not reach An agreement, the possibilities for peace are still remove : Now that the semester is finished, I am going to few days : I have not seen her since she left this morning

To show consequence : Consequently : Nad did not study. Consequently, she failed the test Therefore : Nad did not study. Therefore, she failed the test So : I was tired, so I went to bed Thus : Zulkifli and Subhan go to the market for some vegetables, thus,their mother give them some presents Then : Sakia and Zulkifli go to market for some food then, they also Go to the cinema

To show requirement : If : If Ann studies hard, she will pass the exam Only if : The picnic will be cancelled only if it rains Otherwise : I always eat breakfast. Otherwise, I get hungry during class Or else : I always eat breakfast, or else I get hungry during class Even if : Even if the weather is cold, Im going to go swimming In case that : I will be at my uncles house in case that you need to reach me. In the event that : In the event that you need to reach me, I will be at my uncles House Provided that : Provided that no one has any further question, the meeting will Be adjourned Unless = if : I will go swimming tomorrow unless its cold

To show conflict : Even though : Even though it was cold, I wentswimming Although : Although it was cold, I went swimming Though : Though it was cold, I went swimming Nevertheless: It was cold. Nevertheless, I went swimming

Correlative Conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together to coordinate two items. The word correlative (adjective) means a similar relationship of some kind. Thus correlative conjunctions join similar concepts in a sentence together. Similar to coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions joins similar grammatical parts of a sentence (parts of speech + parts of speech; phrase + phrase; clause + clause).

To combine with show a sense of purpose choice : Or Either .. Or Or else Otherwise Neither .. nor : Zulkifli wants to watch TV or listen to some music : I will take either chemistry or physics next semester : I always eat breakfast, or else I get hungry during class : I always eat breakfast. Otherwise, I get hungry during class : Neither my brother nor my parents are here : Im going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not it is cold

Whether .. or

The Exercises
Please choose the true answer, if you think are correctly punctuated. 1. a. I like fried chicken, but I really really like cous-cous. b. She went to the shops but couldnt find anything she liked. c. Everybody, but Tim was given a huge present. 2. a. I brought the washing in because it was raining. b. I brought the washing in, because it was raining. c. I brought it was raining, I brought the washing in. 3. a. She was shaking, as she had never been to the palace before. b. She was shaking as she had never been to the palace before. c. As she had never been to the palace before, she was shaking.

The following seven questions are sample conjunction exercises. The answers are below: 1. I like chicken ____ not fish. A. And B. Since C. But D. For E. Or 2. ____ it rains on Sunday, I will not be able to drive. A. And B. Where C. Either D. If E. How 3. I like both dogs ______ cats. A. Also B. But C. And D. If E. Until 4. The items are on sale in the local store _____ not online. A. But B. And C. Though D. Or E. Nor

ENDING
The Conjunction is a word to describe conjunction. There are so many kinds of conjunction. Each form has their role respectively. Each type also has a shape and its own characteristics. To better understand in every language studied, especially the English language we must understand the basic concepts in English. Then we should practice it in everyday life. In this case is an conjunction. In English are so many types, shapes and uses conjunctions. It is therefore not enough just to memorize, but it must be practiced in everyday language. Karena dengan memahami dan lebih mengenal many kinds of conjunctions and sentences in other kita dapat lebih cepat memahami dan mengerti dalam menggunakan bahasa inggris sebagai penghubung kita dalam memahami ilmu teknik sipil ini. I hope this paper can be used to another person to understanding conjunction.

Thank you