A SEMINAR REPORT ON SUMMER TRAINING FROM SURATGARH SUPER THERMAL POWER STATION

SUBMITTED TO: HEMANT KAUSHIK SEMINAR INCHARGE
Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner

SUBMITTED BY: MANISH SAHU Electrical engineering Thursday, 17 Oct.2013

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CONTENTS
                 Introduction Installed capacity of S.S.T.P.S Selection of site for thermal power plant Basic structure of thermal power plant Layout of thermal power plant Main units of thermal power plant Plant familiarization Thermal power plant auxiliaries Switch yard Control room Efficiency Super critical technology Ultra super critical technology Advantages Disadvantages Conclusion Reference
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INTRODUCTION
 Suratgarh thermal power station is the first super thermal power Station of Rajasthan with total installed capacity of 1500 MW.  Suratgarh super thermal power station is located 27 km away from Suratgarh town in Sri Ganganagar Distt. on the left bank of IGNP at Up Stream of Suratgarh Barrage.  This station is operated and maintained RajasthanVidhyt Utpadan Nigam Limited.
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INSTALLED CAPACITY OF S.S.T.P.S.
S.S.T.P.S. is designed in six stages
STAGE I STAGE II STAGE III STAGE IV STAGE V STAGE VI STAGE VII STAGE VIII Total Power Generation 1x250 MW 1x250 MW 1x250 MW 1x250 MW 1x250 MW 1x250 MW 1x660MW(Under construction) 1x660MW(Under construction) 1500 MW
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SELECTION OF SITE FOR THERMAL POWER PLANT
 Supply of Water  Requirement of Land  Labour Supplies  Transportation Facility  Ash Disposal  Distance form Populated Area  Near to the Load Centre  Magnitude and nature of load to be handled

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BASIC STRUCTURE OF THERMAL POWER PLANT
Three Phase Transmission Line

Bus-Bars

Waste Gases

Step-Up Transformer

Water Air Fuel
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Alternator

Boiler

Steam

Exhaust Steam

Steam Turbine

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LAYOUT OF THERMAL POWER PLANT

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MAIN UNITS OF THERMAL POWER PLANT
 Coal Handling Plant (C.H.P)
 Water Treatment Plant (W.T.P)

 Boiler Maintenance Division (B.M.D)
 Turbine Maintenance Division (T.M.D)

 Generator Division (G.D)

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OVER VIEW OF COAL HANDLIG PLANT
Raw coal from bharat coal ltd. Dhanbad & bilaspur(MP) To SSTPS from Birdwal via a single railway track

Wagon Tippler

Bunkers

Crusher House

Hoppers

Raw coal feeders

Coal mills (pulverization)

Boiler furnace
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PLANT FAMILIARIZATION BOILER
In boiler heat energy is released from the combustion of fossils fuel and heat is transferred to different fluids in the system. The boiler installed in S.T.P.S. are single drum, tangential fired water tube naturally circulated over hanged, pulverizing coal firing with a max. Continuous steam output of 375 tons/hour at 138 kg/cm2 pressure and 5400C temperature.
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SUPER HEATER
 A super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again, increasing its thermal energy.  Super heater eliminates the formulation of condensate during transporting of steam in pipelines and inside the early stages of turbine, which is harmful to the turbine blades and pipelines
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 Economizer is device which recover the heat from the flue gases on their way to chimney.  Flue gases coming out of the boiler carry lot of heat.  An economizer extracts a part of this heat from flue gases and uses it for heating feed water.  This use of economizer results in saving coal consumption and higher boiler efficiency .
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AIR PRE-HEATER
Air Pre-heater is a heat exchanger in which preheating of air done by transferring heat from the flue gas before supplying to the combustion chamber. The preheating of air results: 1.Improved combustion 2.Saving in fuel consumption 3.Thermal efficiency.
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CONDENSER
Steam after rotating steam turbine comes to the condenser.  The purpose of condenser is to condense the outlet steam from steam turbine to get the condensed steam in the form of pure water.

This water is then Pumped back to the boiler.

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FEED WATER HEATER
These heaters are used to heat the feed water by means of bled steam before it is supplied to the boiler. Necessity of heating feed water before feeding it back to the boiler arises due to the following reasons: Overall power plant efficiency is improved. Thermal stresses due to cold water entering the drum of boiler are avoided. Increase in the quantity of steam produced by the boiler. Boiler corrosion are removed in the feed water heaters.

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COOLING TOWER
 The condensate (water) formed in the condenser after condensation is initially at high temperature. This hot water is passed to cooling towers.  It is a tower- or buildinglike structure in which atmospheric air circulates in direct or indirect contact with warmer water and the water is thereby cooled.
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DEAERATOR
A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of air and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones.  In order to avoid corrosion of the metal, power station uses a Deaerator, for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the boiler feed water. A deaerator has a vertical, domed deaeration section mounted on top of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as a deaerated boiler feed water storage tank.

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TURBINE
 Turbine is rotating device that converts the energy of a moving stream of water, steam, or gas into mechanical energy. The basic element in a turbine is a wheel or rotor.  This mechanical energy is then transferred through a drive shaft to operate an alternator.

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ALTERNATOR
An alternator is a device which convert mechanical energy to electrical energy. Turbo-alternators are high speed machines (3,000 or 5,000RPM) for 50 Hz systems.  Alternator have horizontal configurations and smooth cylindrical (or non salient pole) type field structure wound usually for 2 or 4 poles.

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COAL HANDLING

Thermal station use coal as the main fuel.  Raw coal is transported by railway trains.  The supply of coal is from MP, Jharkhand by rail. About 18000 tonne coal required per day for whole unit and each unit consumes 150tonnes coal per day.

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FEED WATER
 The system coming out the turbine is condensed and the condensate is feedback to the boiler as feed water.  Some water may be lost due to blow-down, leakage etc. and to make up these losses additional water, called the make-up water, is required to be fed to the boiler. The make-up water in a modern thermal plant is about 1-4%. The heating of feed water :i. Improves the overall efficiency of the plant ii. Removes dissolved oxygen and carbon-die-oxide iii.Causes precipitation of other impurities carried by steam and condensate outside the boiler iv.Avoids thermal stresses owing to entry of cold water into the boiler.
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 The percentage of ash in coal is 5% in good quality coal & about 40% in poor quality coal.  Power plants generally use poor quality of coal , thus amount of ash produced by it is quite large.  A modern 1000MW plant produces about 4800 tons of ash daily.  The stations use some conveyor arrangement to carry ash to dump sites.
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DRAUGHT SYSTEM
 The circulation of air is caused by a difference in pressure, known as draught.  In a boiler the combustions of the fuel requires supply of sufficient quantity of air and removal of exhaust gases and this is achieved by draught system.  There are two types of drought system i. Natural Draught : - The natural draught is provided by the action of chimney or stack and is used only in small boilers. Its intensity depends upon the average temperature (difference between the flue gases within the chimney and the outside air (the gases within the chimney are at as higher temperature than that of the surrounding air) and also on the height of the chimney above the level of the furnace grate. ii. Mechanical Draught: - Artificial or mechanical draught is provided when the natural draught caused by a chimney is not sufficient or where a certain draught is required to be maintained irrespective of weather conditions or boiler operating conditions.
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THERMAL POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES
The equipments which help in the proper functioning of the plant are called plant auxiliaries.  Boiler make-up water treatment plant and storage
 Fuel preparation system  Barring gear  Oil system  Generator cooling  Generator high-voltage system  Monitoring and alarm system
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Place where switching operation of power distribution is performed is known as Switch Yard.  Main Components of Switch Yard: 1. Circuit breaker 2. Isolator 3. Lightening arrester 4. Bus bar 5. Current Transformer 6. Potential Transformer

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 These are used for automatic switching during normal or

abnormal conditions . Specification: Manufacturer
Type of Circuit Breaker

ABB Limited
SF6

Rated Voltage
Rated Current Under Site Condition of 40 0C Under Site Condition of 50 0C Rated Frequency

245 KV

4000 A 2000 A 50 Hz

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 These are used to disconnect transmission line under no-load

condition for safety, isolation and maintenance.
Specification: Rated current for site conditions Rated Voltage Rated Frequency Operating time of Isolator 2000 A 245 KV 50 Hz Less than 12 sec.
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 These are used to discharge lightning over voltages and

switching over voltages to earth. Specification:

Manufacturer
Model No. Ref. Standard Rated Frequency Max. Leakage Current

Crompton Greaves Nasik ZLA X 25 C
IEC 99 – 4. 1991 50 Hz 5 mA
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Ltd,

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 The conductors to which several incoming and outgoing lines

are connected.
 They are made up of Cu & Al,  The incoming and outgoing cables are provided for metering

purpose.

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 These are used to step-down currents for measurement,

control & protection.
 Current transformers are used extensively for measuring

current and monitoring the operation of the power grid.

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 VT measure voltage and this parameter used for protection of

system.
 For high voltage CVT (capacitive voltage transformer) is

used instead of VT and capacitors play divider role.
 We can also use these capacitors for PLC system.

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CONTROL ROOM

The control room is the nerve centre of a power station.  The various controls performed from here 1. Voltages adjustment 2. Load control 3. Emergency tripping of turbines 4. The equipment and instruments housed in a control room are synchronising equipment and are controlled form control room like as voltages regulators, relays, ammeters, voltmeters, wattmeters, kWh meters, kVARh meters etc. 5. Temperature gauges 6. Water level indicators and other appliances 7. As well as a mimic diagram and suitable indicating equipment to show the opened or closed position of circuit breakers, isolators etc.
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CONTROL ROOM

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EFFICIENCY OF THERMAL POWER PLANT
Installed Plant Capacity Up to 1MW 1MW to 10MW 10MW to 50MW Average Overall Thermal Efficiency 4% 12% 16%

50MW to 100MW
above 100MW

24%
27%

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SUPER CRICTICAL TECHNOLOAGY
 At a temperature of about 600 degree centigrade and pressure of 30N/mm2, water enters a supercritical phase and has properties between those of liquid and gas.  Water in supercritical stage can dissolve a number of organic compounds and gases and on addition of hydrogen peroxide and liquid oxygen combustion process starts.  The steam power plants operating on this principle are called supercritical plats.  Advantages 1. Low grade fossil fuels (e.g. lignite) can be used 2. NO2 emissions are completely eliminated 3. SO2 emission are reduced 4. complete burning of coal occurs. 5. need of desulphurisation and equipment and soot collector. 6. The cost of processing flue gas emissions (electrostatic precipitator etc.) is eliminated 7. cooling water requirements are also reduced, 8. more economical and efficient. 9. Supercritical power plants, these days have an overall efficiency of just over 40%.
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ULTRA SUPER CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY
 Temperature around 700 degree centigrade is known as ultra supercritical technology.  Efficiency of the power plant may be improved to around 50%.

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ADVANTAGES
 They

can respond to rapidly changing loads without difficulty  A portion of the steam generated can be used as a process steam in different industries  Steam engines and turbines can work under 25 % of overload continuously  Fuel used is cheaper  Cheaper in production cost in comparison with that of diesel power stations

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DISADVANTAGES
 Maintenance

and operating costs are high  Long time required for erection and putting into action  A large quantity of water is required  Great difficulty experienced in coal handling  Presence of troubles due to smoke and heat in the plant  Unavailability of good quality coal  Maximum of heat energy lost  Problem of ash removing

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CONCLUSION
Thermal power plants haves low efficiency and these are releases large amount of harmful gases in environment and large amount of ash in the form of wastage. To use renewable energy source to save environment.

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REFERENCE
 "Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station" Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan
Nigam Ltd  A course in Electrical Power By J.B.Gupta  Babcock & Wilcox Co. (2005). Steam: Its Generation and Use (41st edition ed.) ISBN 0-9634570-0-4

 Thomas C. Elliott, Kao Chen, Robert Swanekamp (Co-author) (1997). Standard Handbook of Power plant Engineering (2nd edition ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-019435-1
 Maury Klein, The Power Makers: Steam, Electricity, and the Men Who Invented Modern America Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2009 ISBN 1-59691-677-X  J.C. Hensley (Editor) (2006). Cooling Tower Fundamentals (2nd Ed. ed.). SPX Cooling Technologies.
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