The Mole Concept

Unit VII
Dr. Passer
Chemistry Department
Bronx Community College
Version Version 1.1 1.1
© John Wiley and Sons, Inc

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Unit Outline
5.11 Atomic Mass
7.1 The Mole

7.2 The Molar Mass of Compounds

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Atomic Mass

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4 .The mass of a single atom is too small to measure on a balance.

673 x 10-24 g. 5 .Using a mass spectrometer. the mass of one hydrogen atom was determined to be 1.

small small small small small small small small small small small small small small small small small small small 6 .This number is very small.

Numbers of this size are too small for of To overcome this problem a system practical use. relative atomic masses using “atomic mass units” was devised to express the masses of elements using simple numbers. 7 .

12 6 C 8 .The standard to which the masses of all other atoms are compared to was chosen to be the most abundant isotope of carbon.

A mass of exactly 12 atomic mass units (amu) was assigned to 12 6 C 9 .

6606 x 10-24 g 12 6 C 10 .1 1 amu is defined as exactly equal to 12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom 1 amu = 1.

H 11 .Average atomic mass 1.00797 amu.

Average atomic mass 39.098 amu. K 12 .

029 amu.Average atomic mass 238. U 13 .

Average Relative Atomic Mass 14 .

0000…amu). • Isotopes of the same element have different masses. • The listed atomic mass of an element is the average relative mass of the isotopes of that element compared to the mass of carbon-12 (exactly 12.• Most elements occur as mixtures of isotopes. 15 .

9298 64.55 amu 16 .48 amu (64.9278 amu) 0.55 Cu Cu (62.3091 = 20. Isotope 63 29 65 29 Isotopic mass (amu) 62.6909 = 43.91 Average atomic mass (amu) 63.09 30.9278 Abundance (%) 69.07 amu 63.9298 amu) 0.To calculate the atomic mass multiply the atomic mass of each isotope by its percent abundance and add the results.

The Mole 17 .

The mass of a single atom is too small to measure on a balance.673 x 10-24 g 18 . mass of hydrogen atom = 1.

673 x 10-24 g mass 19 .This is an infinitesimal 1.

• Chemists require a unit for counting which can express large numbers of atoms using simple numbers. • Chemists have chosen a unit for counting atoms. • That unit is the 20 .

1 mole = 6.022 x 23 10 objects 21 .

6.022 x 23 10 is a very LARGE number 22 .

6.022 x is 23 10 Avogadro’s Number number 23 .

If 10.000 people started to count Avogardro’s number and counted at the rate of 100 numbers per minute each minute of the day. 24 . it would take over 1 trillion years to count the total number.

022 x 1023 particles of that element. 25 .1 mole of any element contains 6.

The atomic mass in grams of any element23 contains 1 mole of atoms 26 .

This is the same number of particles 6.022 x 1023 as there are in exactly 12 grams of 12 6 C 27 .

Examples 28 .

022 x 23 10 29 .Species H Quantity 1 mole Number of H atoms 6.

Species H2 1 mole Quantity Number of H2 molecules 6.022 x 23 10 30 .

022 x 23 10 31 .Species Na Quantity 1 mole Number of Na atoms 6.

Species Fe Quantity 1 mole Number of Fe atoms 6.022 x 23 10 32 .

022 x 10 C6H6 molecules 33 .Species C6H6 Quantity 1 mole Number of 23 6.

022 x 1023 ions 34 .1 mol of atoms = 6.022 x 1023 molecules 1 mol of ions = 6.022 x 1023 atoms 1 mol of molecules = 6.

• The molar mass of an element is its atomic mass in grams.022 x 1023 atoms (Avogadro’s number) of the element. • It contains 6. 35 .

31 amu 22.022 x 1023 6.022 x 1023 36 .31 g 22.99 g 6.008 amu Molar mass 1.022 x 1023 Mg Na 24.99 amu 24.Element H Atomic mass 1.008 g Number of atoms 6.

The Mole and Mass 37 .

The molar mass is the mass of Avogadro’s number of atoms. ions or molecules.022 x 10 38 . 23 6.

The mass of one mole of a substance is equal to the molar mass in grams of the substance. 39 .

Examples of the Molar Mass of an Element 40 .

element H atomic mass 1.01 g 41 .01 molar mass 1.

546 molar mass 63.element Cu atomic mass 63.546 g 42 .

0983 molar mass 39.element K atomic mass 39.0983 g 43 .

Examples of the Molar Mass of a Molecular Compound 44 .

02 g 45 .molecule H2 O 18.02 molecular mass molar mass 18.

05 molecular mass molar mass 64.molecule SO2 64.05 g 46 .

01 g 47 .molecule N2 O5 108.01 molecular mass molar mass 108.

Examples of the Molar Mass of an Ionic Compound 48 .

44 g 49 .44 molar mass 58.formula unit NaCl formula weight 58.

formula unit BaF2 formula weight 175.33 molar mass 175.33 g 50 .

88 molar mass 167.88 g 51 .formula unit Mg3(PO4)2 formula weight 167.

Problems 52 .

How many moles of iron does 25.85 Conversion sequence: grams Fe → moles Fe Set up the calculation using a conversion factor between moles and grams.0 g Fe)   0.448 mol Fe   55.0 g of iron represent? Atomic mass iron = 55.  1 mol Fe  (grams Fe)    55.85 g Fe  53 .85 g Fe   1 mol Fe  (25.

022 x 1023 atoms Fe  (grams Fe)   55.0 g Fe)   2.85 g Fe    6.85 g Fe   54 .85 Conversion sequence: grams Fe → atoms Fe Set up the calculation using a conversion factor between atoms and grams.0 grams of iron? Atomic mass iron = 55.022 x 1023 atoms Fe  23 (25.How many iron atoms are contained in 25.70 x 10 atoms Fe  55.  6.

22.022 x 10 Na atoms  22.99 g Conversion sequence: atoms Na → grams Na Set up the calculation using a conversion factor between grams and atoms.01 x 10 Na atoms)   11.What is the mass of 3.01 x 1023 atoms of sodium (Na)? Molar mass Na = 22.99 g Na   (Na atoms)   23  6.022 x 10 Na atoms  55 23 .5 g Na 23  6.99 g Na   (3.

365 moles of tin? Atomic mass tin = 118.What is the mass of 0.365 moles Sn)    43.7 Conversion sequence: moles Sn → grams Sn Set up the calculation using a conversion factor between grams and atoms.3 g Sn  1 mole Sn  56 .7 g Sn   (0. 1 molar mass Sn   (moles Sn)    1 mole Sn  118.

How many oxygen atoms are present in 2.022 x 10 molecules O2    1 mol O   2 23  2 atoms O   1 molecule O   2 Conversion sequence: moles O2 → molecules O2 → atoms O  6.41 x1024 atoms O 57 .022 x 1023 molecules O2   2 atoms O  (2.00 mol O2 )    1 molecule O  1 mol O   2 2 = 2.00 mol of oxygen molecules? Two conversion factors are needed:  6.

Molar Mass of Compounds 58 .

59 .The molar mass of a compound can be determined by adding the molar masses of all of the atoms in its formula.

06 g 1 O = 1(16.01 g) = 24.01 g) = 6.Calculate the molar mass of C2H6O.02 g 6 H = 6(1.08 g 60 .00 g 46. 2 C = 2(12.00 g) = 16.

1 Li = 1(6.00 g 106.45 g) = 35.39 g 61 .94 g 1 Cl = 1(35.45 g 4 O = 4(16.Calculate the molar mass of LiClO4.94 g) = 6.00 g) = 64.

97 g) = 30.97 g 4 O = 4(16.03 g 12 H = 12(1. 3 N = 3(14.12 g 1 P = 1(30.12 g 62 .Calculate the molar mass of (NH4)3PO4 .01 g) = 12.01 g) = 42.00 g) = 64.00 g 149.

Avogadro’s Number of Particles 6.022 x 1023 Particles 1 MOLE Molar Mass 63 .

022 x 1023 Ca atoms 1 MOLE Ca 40.078 g Ca 64 .Avogadro’s Number of Ca atoms 6.

02 g H2O 65 .Avogadro’s 6.022 x 1023 Number of H2O molecules H2O molecules 1 MOLE H2O 18.

66 . F2. O2. Br2. Cl2. and I2). N2. distinguish between one mole of atoms and one mole of molecules.In dealing with diatomic elements (H2.

01 g Calculate the molar mass of 1 mole of H2 molecules.01 g) = 1.02 g 67 . 1 H = 1(1.01 g) = 2.Calculate the molar mass of 1 mole of H atoms. 2 H = 2(1.

Mole Conversions 68 .

To convert from grams of a substance to moles of a substance use the molar mass of the substance. molar mass grams moles 69 .

Avogadro’s Number moles molecules 70 .To convert from moles of a substance into atoms (or molecules) of the substance (and vice versa) we have to use Avogadro’s number.

To convert from moles of a substance into molecules of the substance we use the molar mass and Avogadro’s number. Molar mass Avogadro’s Number grams moles molecules (or atoms) 71 .

Definition The molar mass of any substance is the number of grams contained in one mole of that substance. grams substance molar mass  1 mole substance 72 .

Problems

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How many moles of benzene, C6H6, are present in 390.0 grams of benzene? The molar mass of C6H6 is 78.12 g. Conversion sequence: grams C6H6 → moles C6H6
1 mole C6 H 6 Use the conversion factor: 78.12 grams C6 H 6
 1 mole C6 H 6  = 5.000 moles C6 H 6 (390.0 g C6 H 6 )    78.12 g C6 H 6 
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How many grams of (NH4)3PO4 are contained in 2.52 moles of (NH4)3PO4? The molar mass of (NH4)3PO4 is 149.12 g.

Conversion sequence: moles (NH4)3PO4 → grams (NH4)3PO4
149.12 grams (NH 4 )3 PO 4 Use the conversion factor: 1 mole (NH 4 )3 PO 4
 149.12 g (NH 4 )3 PO 4  (2.52 mol (NH 4 )3PO4 )    1 mol (NH 4 )3 PO 4 

= 376g (NH 4 )3PO475

04 g of N2 contains how many N2 molecules? The molar mass of N2 is 28.56.02 g N 2   76 N = 1.02 g. Conversion sequence: g N2 → moles N2 → molecules N2 Use the conversion factor Use the conversion factor 1 mol N 2 28.02 g N 2 6.04 g N 2 )     1 mol N 2   28.204 x 1024 molecules 2 .022 x 10 molecules N 2  (56.022 x 1023 molecules N 2 1 mol N 2 23  1 mol N 2   6.

02 g.409 x 1024 atoms N  2 .56.04 g N 2 )    1 mol N 28.02 g N   2 2  23  2 atoms N  77  1 molecule N  = 2.02 g N 2 1 mol N 2 1 molecule N 2  1 mol N 2   6.022 N 2 x 1023 molecules2N atoms N 2 28. Conversion sequence: g N2 → moles N2 → molecules N2 → atoms N Use the conversion Use the factor conversion Use the factor conversion factor 1 mol6.022 x 10 molecules N 2  (56.04 g of N2 contains how many nitrogen atoms? The molar mass of N2 is 28.

78 .