Project 1

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Windspeed, Sea Surface Temperature & Salinity Mapping
Group Member’s : 1. ABDUL AZIM BIN ABDUL TAHRIM 2. NOOR HAZWANI BINTI ZUNAZRI 3. SITI MARYAM BINTI BAKRI 4. WAN MOHAMAD AMIRUL HAKIM B WAN MOHAMED 5. NUR RITASHA BINTI TARIDI
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Resolution?
Spectral? Radiometric? You just can’t have it all

Spatial?

Temporal?
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Spatial
What ??
The ability to refers to the size of the smallest possible feature that can be detected depends primarily on their Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV). If a sensor has a spatial resolution of 20 metres means each pixel represents an area of 20m x 20m on the ground

comparing a high and low spatial resolution

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Spectral
What ??
The ability of a sensor to define fine wavelength intervals The finer the spectral resolution, the narrower the wavelength range for a particular channel or band. Advanced multispectral sensors called hyperspectral sensors – contains hundreds bands
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comparing a 2-bit image with an 8-bit image

Temporal
What ??
The ability to collect imagery of the same area of the Earth's surface at different periods of time to monitor the changes that take place on the Earth's surface

By collecting and comparing multitemporal imagery
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Radiometric
What ??
The ability to describe the actual information content in an image Finer = the more sensitive it is to detecting small differences in reflected or emitted energy

Use number of bits (e.g. 1 bit=2 1=2) comparing a 2-bit image with an 8-bit image
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Trade-Off
Consideration??
High Spatial = Small IFOV , Low Radiometric = Reduce amount of energy High Radiometric = Broaden wavelenght range , Low Spectral = • Thus, these three types of resolution must be balanced against the desired capabilities and objectives of the sensor.
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Introduction to Wind Speed
What is Wind Speed?
the measure motion of the air with respect to the surface of the earth covering a unit distance over a unit time . An Earth-observing satellite that has provided early detection of ocean storms, including tropical cyclones Wind speed directly affects aviation, maritime and construction activities.

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QuickScat

Common RS satellites used to retrieve wind speed

RapidScat

WindSat

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Magnitude = Speed

Vector = Direction
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QuikSCAT
• The QuikSCAT nominal mission ended on November 23, 2009. QuikSCAT was launched in 1999 and was already operating 7 years beyond its design life.

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RapidSCAT (Future)
• The RapidSCAT is improvement of QuickScat, which is scheduled launch in next year (2014)

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WindSat
• Developed by the Naval Research Laboratory, it is one of the two primary instruments on the Coriolis satellite launched on 6th January 2003. WindSat is continuing to outlive its three year design life, with data free of charge to scientists

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Comparison
Resolution

QuickSCAT
Standard = 25 km Special = 5 km and 12.5 km

RapidSCAT
10 to 15 km 13.402 GHz (Ku Band) Daily

WindSat
25km 5 bands (125, 300, 750, 500 2000 MHz) 8 days

Spatial Spectral Temporal

13.402 GHz (Ku Band)
Daily coverage includes four browse images per day

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Comparison (Cont`)
Characteristic

QuickSCAT
824 km
19 July 1999 to 21 November 2009

RapidSCAT
Altitude of 435 km (highest expected) compared to QuikSCAT
One month of postinstallment checkout and two years of operations.

WindSat 830 km
Planned 3 years from 6 January 2003 (Still Operating)

Altitude Operational Lifetime Sensor Used

SeaWinds scatterometer

Scatterometer

Polarimetric Microwave Radiometer

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Conclusion
• Wind speed measurement is vital for the computer models that forecast hurricanes, since hurricanes typically move over data-poor ocean areas

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Introduction to salinity
What is Salinity?
Think salt = we use it to add flavor to our food, or to keep our sidewalks free of ice in the winter But salt in our natural environment impacts = important role in Earth’s climate. The concentration of salt in the ocean, called “salinity,” is a key variable for understanding global ocean circulation and the movement of freshwater in the ocean.

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Common RS satellites used to retrieve sea surface salinity

SMOS (ESA and partners)

Aquarius / SAC-D (NASA)
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Mission Partnership of Aquarius

International Partnership between United States – Argentina

• Aquarius Salinity Microwave Instrument

• Service Platform and SAC-D Science Instruments

• Launch Vehicle

• Mission Operations & Ground System
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Aquarius / SAC-D

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Common points between SMOS and Aquarius missions?
• Produce global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of ~100 km with an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 psu • Both radiometer measuring radiation at 1.4 GHz • Physical laws ( Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation, planck law) • 8 months period of SSS products
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What are the differences? (SMOS and Aquarius)
• Instrument design and accuracy • Spatial and temporal sampling • Ascending passes (6am for SMOS vs 6pm for Aquarius) • Forward model (or contamination corrections) and auxiliary parameters (SST,wind speed…) used to retrieved salinity

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SMOS vs Aquarius Instrument
Resolution

SMOS
30-55 km
L-band (1.4 GHz)

Aquarius
90 x 130km

Spatial
Spectral

L-band (1.4 GHz)
7 days
0.4 K

Temporal
(Global Coverage)

3 days
0.8 - 2.2 K

Radiometric

Scanning System Operating Mode

Interferometer
Passive

Push broom
Active and Passive
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Discussion (SSS)
• SMOS has higher spatial, temporal and radiometric resolution in comparison to Aquarius. • In contrast, Aquarius has higher spectral resolution compare to SMOS. • Both of them are complementary by way of their spatial and temporal coverage and their viewing angles. • By combining their data, maps of ocean salinity will be even more accurate and robust.
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GOES

Common RS sensors used to retrieve SST

NOAA- AVHRR

MODIS

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Comparison of Satellites (SST)
Resolution

MODIS
1km 36 bands

GOES
4km
5-band (0.6, 3.9, 6.7, 10.7, 12 or 13.3 micron) and 4-band (0.6, 3.9, 6.7, 10.7. or 13.3 micron)

NOAA-AVHRR
1 - 4km 6 bands (band 3B, 4 and 5 for SST) 4 day 10 bits

Spatial Spectral Temporal Radiometric

Daily, weekly (8 day), monthly and annual.
12 bits

3 hour and 24 hour Averages
11 bits

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Discussion (SST)
• Radiometric – Most of the instruments have almost same radiometric resolution. • Images such as these from polar-orbiting satellites are available less frequently that those from GOES, but • they offer a more detailed view of cloud features due to improved spatial resolution. • The more modern instruments such as MODIS also contain many more channels (or spectral bands) than are available from the current generation of GOES satellites. • These additional bands allow the creation of a variety of quantitative satellite products.
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Discussion – Validation (SST)
According to Marcello, J., Validation of MODIS and AVHRR/3 sea surface temperature retrieval algorithms, IGARSS 2004

• MODIS provides, as well, the first opportunity to obtain SST using exclusively bands in the medium IR atmospheric window. • This window is more transparent and provides the opportunity to derive more accurate SST fields, • however this spectral interval suffers from the contamination of the reflected solar radiation in the daytime, limiting its applicability to night-time or where the risk of solar contamination can be confidently discounted.

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