1 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.

2008
Customer confidential
Guideline



Sakari Sistonen
v.10 - 05.03.2007 ,
v.20 - 16.08.2007 update,
v.30 - 21.01.2008 major update
I-HSPA dimensioning
2 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
What’s I-HSPA
I-HSPA is a simplified flat
architecture network

• Standard 3GPP packet
core

•RNC HSPA functionality
integrated into BTS

• Standard 3GPP HSPA
terminals

GGSN
SGSN
Node-B
Option: Direct-tunnel
3GPP open interface
I-HSPA RAN
3GPP open interface
UE
3GPP Rel5 or later
HSPA terminal
RNC
Node-B
SGSN
WCDMA WCDMA
I-HSPA
UE
GGSN
= control plane
= user plane
3 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
I-HSPA main differences
The main issues are
• Architecture:
• No stand alone RNC, but I-HSPA adapter integrated in Node B
• Node B internal Iub
• SGSN does only the control plane
• Node B is connected directly to GGSN for user plane
• Architecture quite close to LTE (shown in up coming slides)
• Services:
• Only packet service
• No CS traffic, no DCH possible in downlink except SRB
• Speech service VoIP
• Packet services for UL DCH+HSDPA or HSUPA+HSDPA
• Functionality:
•Soft handover for user plane in DCH (not in HSUPA), softer HO
and control plane SHO supported  Affecting on transmission as
need Iur between every Node B
• Overall very much as normal HSPA


What is I-HSPA?
I-HSPA adapter
4 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
I-HSPA Architecture
• NSN states more than 50% CAPEX savings with flat RAN
and flat Packet Core
• Significant OPEX savings from IP/Ethernet based transport and less elements
• Supports 3GPP Rel5/6 and future Air Interface releases
• Improves End-User experience by reducing delays
• Flat I-HSPA architecture is the first step to LTE
•I-HSPA BTS introduces LTE: RRM and GTP to BTS and BTS-BTS interface
5 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
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General Status and roadmap
Release 1:
• Program E2 approved 30.10.2007
– E3 Target 22.2.2008
– E4 Target P4/08
• Concept trials executed
– Vodafone
– Swisscom

Release 2 (HW Carrier sharing):
• P0 proposal reviewed, LE P11/07
• I-HSPA release 2 is approximately 3 months after RU10
Milestone Original at E1 Previous LE LE Actual
E0.5
Main system specs frozen
28.6.2006
E1
Commit to content &
schedule
4.12.2006
E1
Concessions closed
28.2.2007 31.5.2007 31.5.2007
E2
HW frozen
30.9.2007 30.10.2007 30.10.2007
E3
Ready to Trial
15.11.2007 31.1.2008 22.2.2008
E4
Ready to Pilot
31.1.2008 11.4.2008 25.4.2008
E5
Commercial release
30.4.2008 27.6.2008 27.6.2008
I-HSPA Rel1
P3 10/06

P7 4/08
P8 06/08
I-HSPA Rel2
P7 Q3/08 P8 Q4/08
2005
2006 2007 2008 2009
I-HSPA Rel3
P7 Q2/09 P8 Q3/09
Milestones in italics are initial estimates P0~B2, P1~E0, P2~E0.5, P3~E1, P7~E4, P8~E5
P3 3/08

P0 11/07

RU10
P7 Q2/08 P3 10/07

P0 10/06

P1 4/07

P8 Q3/08
6 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
Trials and testing
• Terrestar early lab trials starting at Dec07
– Major case for i-HSPA, 3GPP/Satellite solution
– Installations 12/07, the first lab tests B01/08 -> B03/08
– Salt lake city field trial planned to start end of March „08
• Mobilkom Austria
– Current Ericsson customer with ///3G
– Global player in several eastern Europe countries
– Installations by 12/07, tests start 01/08
• Vivo
– 2100&850 lab trial



• VF Turkey & Czech
– Starting with showcase in Turkey, continuing as a field trial
• TWC (time Warner Cable)
– 16 or 24 Flexi Node B trial, 1 year trial with friendly users, Dual mode i-HSPA/Wi-Fi
• Etisalat, Dubai
• Optus
• M1, Telkomsel
• Telefonica Spain
– Still open, Plan to have 10-15 sites in the city of Madrid as overlay of ///3G
• Swisscom
– Activities stopped for a while, Former concept trial customer
R&D Trial customers (12/07 – 4/08)
‘Showcase’ customers (1Q/08 )
7 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
2H/2009
I-HSPA Roadmap
1H/2008 2H/2008 1H/2009
I-HSPA Release 1
‐ Random camping strategy – CS enabling HO
‐ 2000MHz S-Band carrier
‐ 850,900,1700,1800,2100M carriers
‐ Rel5/Rel6 PS air if
‐ HSDPA downlink,14.4 Mbits/s
‐ HSUPA uplink, 2Mbit/s
‐ RTT 32 byte ping ~40ms
‐ State transitions (cell_FACH, cell_PCH, URA-PCH)
‐ Max 48 simultaneous users/cell
‐ BTS Configuration: Omni, 1+1, 1+1+1
‐ FlexiBTS Adapter
‐ GTP Mobility
‐ Intra System HO
‐ 2G/3G Inter System HO
‐ Centralized O&M
‐ QoS differentiation between BTS and ISN
‐ Ethernet, ATM or TDM TRS
‐ Synchronization options: GPS, TDM or neighbor BTS
‐ Direct tunnel solution
‐ Paging
I-HSPA Release 2 Study Items
- iNB/Carrier Sharing
- BTS Configuration: 2+2, 2+2+2
- Transport Optimization
- Mobility optimization
- I-HSPA MORAN
- 14 Mbps in DL per user
- Optimization for VoIP
- Emergency VoIP
- QoS aware HSPA scheduling
- QoS aware admission control
- Conversational QoS for HSPA
- Streaming QoS for HSPA
- Compressed mode for HSPA
- Telecom
- HSPA Inter-frequency Handover
- Max 64 simultaneous users/cell
- UM RLC
- GTP forwarding during SRNS relocation
- Multi RAB
- CPC
- Timing over packet
- Operability enhancements
- UltraSite with Flexi Adapter
Roadmap is subject to change without notice
I-HSPA Release 3
Study Items
- SW integrated I-HSPA
- HSUPA 5.8 Mbps
- Flexible RLC
- 64QAM
- SRBs on HSUPA
- Fractional DPCH with
SRBs on HSPA
I-HSPA ED1
- Satellite HO
- ROHC
- Pre-emption
I-HSPA Release 4
Study Items
- Ultra support
- Etc.

8 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
i-HSPA is Part of 3GPP Release 7
• 3GPP Release 7 has specified flat architecture for HSPA
• The flat architecture is based on so called architecture Alternative
2 where RNC functionalities are located in Node-B (=internet-
HSPA)
• The flat architecture has only minor impact to 3GPP
standardization
– A change to RANAP specification to extend the RNC-ID to allow it to be
longer than 4096 values
– A description in a Technical Report of how existing 3GPP functionalities
can be used to allow UE mobile-originated and mobile-terminated CS call
re-direction
• Described in 3GPP TSG RAN WG3 Meeting 53 (R3-061220)
9 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
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I-HSPA dimensioning
I-HSPA Hardware
10 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
Node B Hardware
• Flexi supported
• Rel.1 one carrier, rel.2 two carriers
• 1-3 sectors
• Flexi BTS channel element rules and
limits
• Flexi performance rules apply

I-HSPA Adapter
• Performs all RNC functionalities
• Internal Iub between adapter and Node B
system module
• Licensing of throughputs
Dimensioning: Flexi and I-HSPA parameters
I-HSPA installation in 2U casing
with FMCB (Flexi 2U Mounting Covers front /back)
I-HSPA Adapter Module /
Core Assembly for FHAA
11 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
iHSPA adapter integration to UltraSite and FlexiBTS
Applicable to
Flexi
Applicable to
UltraSite (Rel 2)
Standard NSN WCMDA
Base Stations
I-HSPA adapter
Iub
Adapter module
12 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
Rel-2, UltraSite support with Flexi Adapter
WCDMA BTS
RNC
GGSN
Flexi
Adapter
SGSN
MSC-S+MGW+NVS
HSPA device
Carrier #1
Carrier #2

• If dynamic allocation of services needed between CS and HSPA, carrier sharing needs
to be deployed
Iub
Gn
Iub
13 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
I-HSPA dimensioning
I-HSPA Features Rel.1
14 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
FlexiBTS I-HSPA Support
• BTS configurations with FlexiBTS adapter: omni, 1+1, 1+1+1
• Subscription based or random camping for UEs to use I-HSPA
• 3GPP Rel5/Rel6 radio interface for PS radio bearers
• Max 48 simultaneous users/cell
• GTP mobility with I-HSPA intra-system handover
and GSM/WCDMA inter-system HO
• Centralized O&M
• QoS differentiation between FlexiBTS adapter and CN
• CS interworking: CS calls diverted during call
establishment to GSM or WCDMA
• Ethernet, ATM or TDM transmission
• BTS synchronization options: GPS, TDM or neighboring BTS
• Direct tunnel solution, emergency call support, service aware charging
FlexiBTS concept enables cost efficient site solutions
I-HSPA adapter
Feature ID(s): ref. Features Under Development,
I-HSPA Release 1
15 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
3GPP Rel5/Rel6 Radio Interface
I-HSPA provides service for
existing HSDPA/HSPA UEs
HSUPA HSDPA R6
R99 HSDPA R5
Uplink Downlink
• 3GPP Rel5/Rel6 radio interface for PS
radio bearers
• HSDPA downlink 10 Mbps/user,
14 Mbps/cell
• HSUPA uplink 2 Mbps/user
• RTT 32 byte ping ~40ms
• Packet state transitions
(Cell_FACH, Cell_PCH, URA_PCH)
Feature ID(s): ref. Features Under Development,
I-HSPA Release 1
16 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
HSDPA 10 Mbps per user
• Average HSDPA cell throughtput increased
• 15 codes for increased user bitrates and cell
capacity
• Increased cell peak data rate and capacity when
most of the power can be allocated to HSDPA
• Gain in cell capacity from 10/15 codes together
with code multiplexing
HSUPA 2.0 Mbps per user
• Introduces broadband speeds to uplink
enhancing multimedia, mobile office and file
sharing experience
• Enhanced end-user experience with high speed
uplink and reduced latency
• Efficient capacity utilisation
• Fully featured HSUPA enables large scale
commercial usage with dynamic and efficient
network resource utilisation
Increased peak data rates and cell capacity
HSPA 10Mbps/user and HSUPA 2.0Mbps/user
Feature ID(s): ref. Features Under Development,
I-HSPA Release 1
RAS06 HSDPA
• Maximum number of HSDPA users per cell: 48
• Maximum number of codes per cell: 15
• HS-DSCH can be transmitted to all cells in BTS at
the same time
RAS06 HSUPA
• Maximum number of HSUPA users per cell: 20
• Maximum number of HSUPA users per BTS: 24
17 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
RTT 32byte ping <40ms
• Standard 3G PP HSPA terminal or laptop with data card
• RTT savings due to less network elements at user plane
• Main saving by avoiding Iub delay and RNC internal processing delay
• Latency improvements, latency 25 ms
Round trip time of 32-Byte packet
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Today
HSDPA
HSDPA+HSUPA
m
s

Release 99 ~200
ms
HSDPA <100 ms
HSUPA
~50 ms
I-HSPA
I-HSPA
<40 ms
Internet
Iu + core
RNC
Iub
Node B
AI
UE
18 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
I-HSPA dimensioning
I-HSPA Features Rel.2
19 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
Optimisation for VoIP

Note 1: These techniques cannot be easily applied to CS voice (except
2-antenna terminals), otherwise the solution would end up similar to the
current HSDPA/HSUPA
Note 2: These figures assume that RAN can identify VoIP connection with
QoS parameters for admission control and for discard timer
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
WCDMA R99 CS
voice
HSDPA R5 / HSUPA
R6
HSDPA R6 / HSUPA
R7
Downlink
Uplink
AMR 12.2 kbps
Similar end-to-end delay assumed in all cases

VoIP enhancements
• Lower latency in HSPA gives more time for the
radio interface optimization, e.g. packing 3 VoIP
packets into single block and using Turbo
code.
• Short frame size and fast L1 retransmissions
with HARQ allow to operate with higher BLER.
Higher BLER leads to lower required power level.
• Fractional DPCH is used for HSDPA R6 reducing
L1 control overhead.
• Uplink gating is used for HSUPA R7 reducing L1
control overhead.
• HSDPA fast scheduling enables multi-user
diversity.
• No code limitation in HSPA. CS voice hard limit
is 128 minus SHO overhead = approx 90 users
max

Additional assumptions
• 2-antenna terminal is assumed for HSDPA R6.
• IP header compression has been assumed for
HSPA pushing the IP header size down to a few
bytes

Feature ID(s): -
20 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
HSPA 14Mbps/user (rel.2) and HSUPA 5.8Mbps/user
(moved to rel.3)
HSDPA 14 Mbps
• Average HSDPA cell throughtput increased
• HSDPA 15 codes for increased user bitrates and cell capacity
• Peak datarate up to 14Mbps
• Increased cell peak data rate and capacity when most of the power can be
allocated to HSDPA
• Gain in cell capacity from 10/15 codes together with code multiplexing
HSUPA 5.8 Mbps (moved to Rel.3)
• Introduces broadband speeds to uplink enhancing multimedia, mobile office and
file sharing experience
• Enhanced end-user experience with high speed uplink and reduced latency
• Efficient capacity utilisation
• Fully featured HSUPA enables large scale commercial usage with dynamic and
efficient network resource utilisation
Increased user peak data rates
Feature ID(s): -
21 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
Rel-2, Dynamic allocation of all services between different
carriers
WCDMA BTS
RNC
GGSN
iNB
SGSN
MSC-S+MGW+NVS
HSPA device
Carrier #1

Carrier #2
Carrier #3

• If dynamic allocation of services needed between CS and HSPA, carrier sharing needs
to be deployed
Carrier sharing
Iub
Iur
Gn
22 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
Rel-2, UltraSite support with Flexi Adapter
WCDMA BTS
RNC
GGSN
Flexi
Adapter
SGSN
MSC-S+MGW+NVS
HSPA device
Carrier #1
Carrier #2

• If dynamic allocation of services needed between CS and HSPA, carrier sharing needs
to be deployed
Iub
Gn
Iub
23 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
NSN I-HSPA Overview
I-HSPA Deployment
24 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
I-HSPA Greenfield
GGSN
Content &
Connectivity

Internet+
Intranets
I-HSPA
SGSN
IMS:
IM, Presence, PoC
Video sharing
VoIP, IP Centrex
I-HSPA
Standardized
Standardized with vendor
specific extensions
HSPA device
I-HSPA Intersystem handover
I-HSPA rel 1.0 has been optimized for
greenfield deployments
• Synchronization with Ethernet
transport is provided with external
GPS. Cost reduction for GPS is
planned for WBTS4.1 release
25 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
WCDMA BTS
RNC
GGSN
Content &
Connectivity

Internet+
Intranets
I-HSPA
SGSN
MSC-S
+MGW
+NVS
IMS: IM, Presence,
PoC, Video sharing
VoIP, IP Centrex
I-HSPA
Standardized
Standardized with vendor
specific extensions
HSPA device
I-HSPA handover
towards RNC
Reduced CAPEX and transport OPEX
I-HSPA Intersystem
handover
• Standardized in 3GPP as HSPA Evolution
PS Only Architecture
Feature ID(s): ref. Features Under Development,
I-HSPA Release 1
26 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
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I-HSPA as data overlay
WCDMA BTS
RNC
GGSN
Content &
Connectivity

Internet+
Intranets
I-HSPA
SGSN
MSC-S+MGW+NVS IMS:
IM, Presence, PoC
Video sharing
VoIP, IP Centrex
I-HSPA
User plane
Control plane
HSPA device
Voice call
Data call
BSC
GSM BTS
GSM/WCDMA network
redirects data calls to I-HSPA
End-user gets
optimized service
I-HSPA redirects voice calls to
GSM or WCDMA network
27 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
Shared Antenna System for I-HSPA Overlay by Flexi
Multiradio Combiner
3rd party WCDMA 3
rd
party WCDMA & Flexi I-HSPA
Mast Head
Amplifiers
WCDMA 2100
Antenna for
WCDMA 2100
Feeders
3
rd
party
WCDMA BTS
Shared
Mast Head
Amplifiers
Shared
Antenna for
WCDMA and
I-HSPA
Shared
feeders
Flexi RF
modules
Flexi System
Module
Flexi Multi Radio
Combiner for 2100
MHz
Shared antenna system for I-HSPA
overlay
•Co-sited 3
rd
party WCDMA base
stations can utilize the same antenna
system with Flexi I-HSPA BTS
•Flexi Multiradio Combiner (MRC)
doubles shared antenna system
performance compared to typical
combiners for antenna line sharing
•MRC allows high gain MHAs to be
used with Flexi RF-modules
Benefits of sharing antennas:
•Faster site construction and I-HSPA
rollout: existing antenna system for
WCDMA can remain untouched
•Savings in antenna system: same
antenna lines for both networks
•Visual impact: less antenna cables
and antennas
28 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
Rel-2, Dynamic allocation of all services between different
carriers
WCDMA BTS
RNC
GGSN
iNB
SGSN
MSC-S+MGW+NVS
HSPA device
Carrier #1

Carrier #2
Carrier #3

• If dynamic allocation of services needed between CS and HSPA, carrier sharing needs
to be deployed
Carrier sharing
Iub
Iur
Gn
29 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
NSN I-HSPA Overview
I-HSPA mobility
30 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
I-HSPA Uses Soft Handover Exactly Like HSPA
HSDPA R5 I-HSPA R5 HSDPA R6 I-HSPA R6
Downlink SRB Yes on DCH Yes on DCH
No, HS-DSCH
with HARQ
No, HS-DSCH
with HARQ
Downlink user plane
No, HS-DSCH
with HARQ
Downlink L1 control Yes on DCH Yes on DCH Yes on DCH Yes on DCH
No, HS-DSCH
with HARQ
No, HS-DSCH
with HARQ
No, HS-DSCH
with HARQ
Uplink SRB Yes on DCH
Uplink user plane
Uplink L1 control Yes on DCH Yes on DCH
Yes on E-DCH Optional*
Yes on E-DCH Yes on E-DCH
Yes on E-DCH
Yes on DCH
= Soft handover used both for HSPA and for I-HSPA
= Soft handover not used in HSPA/I-HSPA but HS-DSCH uses Link Adaptation and HARQ
= Soft handover is available but can be also optional, default implemented
Optional
Yes on DCH Yes on E-DCH
* Control plane soft handover
31 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
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I-HSPA is fully mobile solution
I-HSPA supports three types of mobility:
• Intra-system Handover within the I-HSPA network, with two options
– Intra-system I-HSPA handover
▪ Optimized handover solution for I-HSPA to minimize HO break time
▪ Requires Iur connection between I-HSPA Adapters
▪ Target HO break < 200 ms in commercial product
– Intra-system I-HSPA hard handover
▪ No Iur required
▪ Hard handover for UL and DL
• Inter-system Hand-over between the I-HSPA and a traditional 2G/3GPP
(WCDMA/HSDPA)
• Inter-system Hand-over from I-HSPA to WLAN or to any IP based access
– Normal WLAN Interworking systems can be used (TS 23.234)

The intra-system hand-over (HO) between I-HSPA BTSs is fast enough to support VoIP.
The target for intra system HO is less than 100-200ms.

The intra-system handovers are seen as SRNC relocations by the CN.
• Each handover results in SRNS Relocation via SGSN. Motivation is to have HS-DSCH
Serving Cell in Serving RNC all the time to avoid high transport load on Iur

The goal for Inter-system Handover between I-HSPA and traditional 3GPP is to be same as
normal RNC relocation in 3GPP.
32 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
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Optimized SHO vs. Full-blown SHO
GGSN
Content &
Connectivity

Internet+
Intranets
I-HSPA
SGSN
MSC-S+MGW+NVS IMS:
IM, Presence, PoC
Video sharing
VoIP, IP Centrex
I-HSPA
Standardized
Standardized with vendor
specific extensions
HSPA device
UL MDC (SHO)
via Iur
Iur
Gn
• ‘Default’-operation: Full-blown SHO
– Soft handover as defined per 3GPP Rel.7
• ‘Optimization’ (optional): Optimized SHO
– Soft handover applied selectively to certain
traffic types only (e.g VoIP); Option to
forward frames for selection combining only
upon non-receipt by Serving-RNC (I-HSPA
adapter)

34 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
I-HSPA CS enabling Handover
WCDMA BTS
RNC
GGSN
Content &
Connectivity

Internet+
Intranets
I-HSPA
SGSN
IMS:
IM, Presence, PoC
Video sharing
VoIP, IP Centrex
I-HSPA
User plane
Control plane
HSPA device
Data call
WCDMA network redirects
data calls to I-HSPA End-user gets
optimized service
I-HSPA redirects voice calls to
WCDMA network
37 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
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Shared and dedicated carrier
For I-HSPA two different cases will be defined:
1. Dedicated carriers solution
2. Shared carrier solution
Shared carrier solution:
• One carrier is assigned for all traffic types
i.e.:
– AMR
– CS data
– HSDPA + DCH
– HSDPA + HSUPA
– MultiRAB solutions (PS+PS)
– MultiRAB solutions i.e. CS + PS
– Rel99 DL PS traffic
Dedicated carrier solution:
• One carrier is assigned for I-HSPA
– HSDPA + DCH
– HSDPA + HSUPA
– MultiRAB solutions (PS+PS)
– Rel99 DL PS traffic (under study)
• Second carrier is assigned for
– AMR
– CS data
– HSDPA + DCH *)
– HSDPA + HSUPA *)
– MultiRAB solutions i.e. CS + PS
– MultiRAB solutions (PS+PS) *)
– Rel99 DL PS traffic (under study)
*) the service may also relocate to the first carrier if
the coverage area of the carriers overlaps
38 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
Need for Uplink Soft Handover for Coverage?
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Distance from BTS [relative to cell radius, 1=cell edge]
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

u
s
e
r

d
a
t
a

r
a
t
e

[
k
b
p
s
]


With SHO
Without SHO
Problems at cell edge, in case
of 1 dB difference the situation
is much better
SHO support to be verified from product line!
Common in HSDPA and I-HSDPA:
• Downlink User Plane – HS-PDSCH does not support soft
handover
• Downlink Control Plane -HS-PDSCH does not support soft
handover
Common and different in HSUPA and I-HSUPA:
• Uplink User Plane –Optional, but current view is to avoid
soft handover. Needs SHO over Iur which is not
supported.
• Uplink Control Plane –combining in serving Node B (uses
Iur connection via SGSN)
• HSUPA have normal soft handover
L1 Control (DPCCH) –uplink and downlink soft handover
supported RNC
Uplink HSPA assumes soft handover. Similarly uplink I-HSPA
assumes soft handover and softer handover supported. With
exception that I-HSUPA SHO is over Iur thus most of the time
not supported (SW support is not in normal RAS06)

Still there is many parameters which have similar effect on
coverage. To get the 1 to 2 dB advance from SHO:
• Difference depends on channel type (pedestrian/vehic.)
• Path loss difference is 0 dB
• The loss is seen at the cell border
• NOTE: the potential loss in uplink coverage/capacity from
disabling SHO only will be visible if the uplink is loaded.

39 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
I-HSPA Dimensioning
Content:
• Introduction
• Link budget and coverage
•HSDPA link budget
• Uplink
• Downlink
• HSUPA link budget
• Uplink
• Downlink
• HSPA capacity
• Air interface capacity
• Simulations
• I-HSPA traffic estimation
• Parameters
• VoIP
• Data services
• HSPA HW capacity
•Channel element capacity
40 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
Dimensioning inputs and services:
• No CS services
• No downlink PS DCH services
• Uplink PS DCH service (16, 64, 128, 384) or HSUPA
• Speech service in I-HSPA is VoIP

Coverage:
• For I-HSPA rel. 1, reduced soft handover gain in HSUPA uplink as there is no SHO supported for the user plane
• For I-HSPA rel. 2, HSUPA SHO is supported
• In I-HSPA each handover is serving RNC relocation, Iur needed between each neighboring Node Bs

Capacity:
• In uplink: HSDPA associated UL DPCH traffic load influences on HSUPA capacity
• In downlink: there is no DCH traffic thus whole carrier capacity is for HSDPA

Network element dimensioning
• BTS dimensioning has similarities for Channel element and fully new adapter dimensioning
• Transmission dimensioning has advantages when compared to “standard” HSPA

Two dimensioning cases need to be considered
• R99 UL + HSDPA dimensioning (rel.5 mobiles)
• HSUPA + HSDPA dimensioning (rel.6 mobiles)
Dimensioning Process, differences summary
Coverage
Dimensioning
R99 UL/
HSDPA/HSUPA
Dimensioning
Inputs
Network Element
Dimensioning
BTS (CE + adapter)
Transmission
Core Network
Capacity
Dimensioning
R99 UL/
HSDPA/HSUPA
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Dimensioning inputs:
• Amount of subscribers
• Area size, clutter type and factors
• Simultaneous VoIP users, call duration, BH usage, compression usage
• Data services, data volume, overbooking, utilisation, activity
Coverage calculation can be based on R99 UL services, HSDPA or HSUPA with defined cell edge throughput
• HSDPA associated UL DPCH the coverage is defined for 16/64/128/384 kbps (64 is used in R99 to support VoIP,
32 can be used if ROCH used)
• HSDPA the coverage is calculated for defined cell edge throughput
• HSUPA the coverage is calculated for defined cell edge throughput
Capacity dimensioning
• HSDPA is utilizing all DL power, which is left from CCH (noticing also power control overhead)
• HSDPA associated UL DPCH load is calculated from the defined traffic mix of associated RAB for HSDPA
• For HSUPA the capacity is calculated = Planned max. UL load – R99 UL load (in case R99 UL associated RAB is
used, which can be 64/128/384 kbps)
• Verification of capacity and need  additional site if the requirement not fulfilled
CE calculation
• CE for HSDPA associated UL DPCH based on used associated bearer utilisation
• HSDPA the CE usage depends on parameters like (# of codes 5/10/15, shared scheduler or cell specific scheduler)
• HSUPA the CE usage depends on amount of simultaneous users
Dimensioning Process, Overview I-HSPA
Coverage
Dimensioning
R99 UL/
HSDPA/HSUPA
Dimensioning
Inputs
Network Element
Dimensioning
BTS (CE + adapter)
Transmission
Core Network
Capacity
Dimensioning
R99 UL/
HSDPA/HSUPA
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Basic information needed for dimensioning
frequency (e.g. 2100, 1900, 850)
Inter-cell interference ratio for (used in R99 load calculation)
• omni (macro 0.55), 3 sectors (macro 0.65), 6 sectors (macro 0.85)
Orthogonality, default 0.5 for macro, micro and pico it can be 0.8 to 1.0
Air interface PS packet throughput (%), default is 79%
Common Channel % of PA power, default is 20%, effects on left Node B power for HSDPA capacity calculation

User equipment information
UE Noise figure (dB)
UE transmit power (dBm)
UE antenna gain (dB)
Body loss

Node B information
Node B type (Ultra, Flexi)
noise figure (note: this changes between Node B‟s and frequencies)
antenna gain
cable loss UL/DL (MHA usage)
# of carriers, # of sectors
Node B output power (40W/20W Macro or 8W Micro/Pico)

HSDPA information
HSDPA associated Uplink RB
HSDPA scheduler shared or cell specific
Round Robin or Proportional Fair scheduling (PF gain)
Number of codes, 5/10/15

Important dimensioning input for link budget and
capacity calculation (quick info)
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Area information
Clutter type, in clutter type you can define four clutter types (e.g. dense urban, urban, suburban, rural).
Subscribers, the amount of subscribers in the area is typed over here
Total area to be covered, the total area size in sqkm which is needed to cover.
Traffic profile and volumes can be defined per clutter

Link budget gains and margins per clutter (e.g. Urban, suburban and rural)
Antenna height BS, Node B antenna height which is used in cell range calculation. Normally it is different for clutter
types.
Antenna height MS, this parameter is used to define user equipments average height, normally it is 1.5 meters.
Correction factor, Correction factor has direct effect on cell range. This value is normally 3 for dense urban, 0 for urban
and lower for suburban and rural.
Location probability, Indoor location probability, normally 90%.
Building penetration loss, this parameter has great effect on cell range calculation. Dense Urban 15-18 dB, urban 14-16
dB, suburban 10-12 dB and rural 10 or lower.
Standard deviation, Standard deviation is used to calculate fade margin by using indoor location probability

Area and capacity factors
Coverage limiting service, UL DPCH (64/128/384), HSDPA (cell edge throughput) or HSUPA (cell edge throughput).
The selected services link budget will be used for cell radius and site coverage area calculation and thus the number of
sites needed for coverage will be based on this service.
Planned max Uplink load, you can define same or different maximum UL load for all four clutters. UL load is used in link
budget and also the HSUPA capacity is calculated from = MAX load – UL R99 load
Planned max. Downlink load is used to define HSDPA link budget, it is recommended to use 80% load. (this
corresponds to the 83% load which is maximum after power control overhead in HSDPA)

Important dimensioning input for area and subscriber
profile (quick info)
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I-HSPA link budget and coverage
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R99 DCH
In normal HSPA and I-HSPA also R99 DCH link budget can be used for coverage calculation, but in I-
HSPA there is slight difference
• I-HSPA
– Only uplink link budget is used. HSDPA associated uplink DPCH can be selected from following bearers; 16,
64, 128 and 384 kbps.
– No CS services and SHO can be implemented differently than in common HSPA
• HSPA
– CS calls and videos can be used
– Uplink as previously but the coverage can be also CS services. Also downlink DCH can be used for coverage
calculations.

HSDPA
• In downlink HSDPA link budget is used in both cases
• Uplink DPCH calculated similarly for both.


HSUPA
• In uplink HSUPA link budget is used in both cases one exception
is the soft handover implementation

In DCH case the lower bit rates (e.g. 16 kbps) can be used to improve the missing SHO gain. This can support many
services, in case the VoIP is supported with 16 kbps bearer due to the compression then this will improve the coverage
and capacity as well.
Introduction to the link budget calculation
Supporting Tool
46 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
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Link budget
I-HSPA HSPA
Downlink Uplink Downlink Uplink
DCH link
budget
No DL DCH No UL DCH Shared carrier
DCH+HSPA.
Downlink link budget
can be used to
define service
coverage (not
common)
Shared carrier
DCH+HSPA. Uplink
link budget can be
used to define
service coverage
HSDPA link
budget
Normal HSDPA
link budget
UL associated
DPCH
(16/64/128/384)
needs to be
calculated in case
no HSUPA.
NO SHO (can be
used)
Normal HSDPA link
budget
UL associated
DPCH (64/128/384)
needs to be
calculated in case no
HSUPA
HSUPA link
budget
Normal HSDPA
link budget

HSUPA link budget
one exception is
NO SHO over Iur(?)
Normal HSDPA link
budget

Normal HSUPA link
budget
Not similar
Major similarities
Similar
47 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
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Received pilot power = Pilot transmit power – Antenna line losses + Antenna gain
- (Max. pathloss – Planning margins)
Antenna gain
Antenna line losses
Pilot transmit power
M
a
x
. p
a
th
lo
s
s
-
m
a
r
g
in
s
CPICH EIRP
Node B information
• Node B only Flexi BTS supported in Rel.1
• Usual Flexi Noise figure, output power, etc.
• Frequencies supported 850, 900, 1700, 1800, 2000, 2100 MHz
• # of carriers (rel1 = 1 and rel2 = 2)

Antenna configuration information
• Normal antenna configuration
• Exception # of sectors = 1 to 3

User equipment information
• Normal user equipment
• However higher share of data cards is expected,
which might lead higher UE performance
• Body loss might be needed for VoIP service

Link budget gains and margins per clutter (e.g. Urban, suburban and rural)
• Normal gains and margins are used as in “standard” HSPA
Coverage dimensioning: Flexi and I-HSPA parameters
5. Antenna gain
6. MHA usage
1. Frequency
2. Noise Figure
3. Output power
4. # of carriers
7. Feeder losses
8. # of sectors
9. Noise Figure
10. Transmit power
11. Antenna gain
12. Body Loss
13. Path loss and margins
cell range calculation
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Release 5 HSDPA
• Uplink
• Downlink
Release 6 HSUPA
• Uplink
• Downlink
Content – I-HSPA link budgets
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Uplink DPCH link budget for HSDPA
• Overall same approach as normal R99 uplink link budget
except the requirement to include a peak overhead for the
HS-DPCCH
• HS-DPCCH Overhead is dependent upon the selected
associated DCH (16/64/128/384). Use the values with soft
handover (due to the control plane soft handover thus
power control from many sites) or in case of no SHO
implemented you can use without SHO



• UL handover gain is same as in normal HSPA, except that
there is also possibility to define I-HSPA without user
plane SHO which then has degrading influence on
handover gain but also decreasing the HS-DPCCH
overhead
• 64kbps used as link budget for VoIP, with ROHC the 16
kbps link budget can be used
• Rest of the link budget is the same as for a conventional
link budget
• The soft handover strategy might have small effect on the
cell radius and site coverage. Anyway for R99, if Iur is
implemented, SHO functions as in traditional HSPA
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Uplink DPCH Link Budget for HSDPA
Requirement to include an overhead for the HS-DPCCH
HS-DPCCH includes the ACK/NACK and CQI
Average overhead generated by HS-DPCCH depends upon activity of ACK/NACK
and CQI
Overhead impacts both uplink coverage and uplink capacity
HS-DPCCH overhead can be included in uplink EbNo in same way as DPCCH
overhead
Link budgets consider peak rather than average overhead
Easy to model HS-DPCCH
overhead in link budget
Difficult to measure in practice
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Uplink DPCH Link Budget for HSDPA
Next Figure shows the link budget for
UL DPCH, following slides contains
detailed considerations
Main parameters to change in UL DPCH
link budget are:
• Service rate (UL PS services e.g. 16, 64, 128 or
384)
• Max TX power of the UE
• UE TX antenna gain
• Body loss
• Node B Noise figure (different frequency and Node
B type effecting)
• Uplink load, which might be dependent on the traffic
inputs
• Service Eb/No, if you change service your Eb/No will
change
• Cable loss, usage of MHA (thus assume Cable loss
and MHA same)
• Building penetration loss and location probabilities,
standard deviation  depending on clutter type
• For cell range: frequency + antenna heights and
correction factor (can change per clutter)
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Uplink DPCH Link Budget for HSDPA –Transmit End
Applicable to R99 and HSDPA
(64 kbps uplink DPCH sufficient
for a 1.6 Mbps HSDPA
connection running TCP)
Uplink bit rates of 128 kbps and
384 kbps can also be supported
• Requirement to compute the EIRP from the UE antenna
• Uplink bits of 128 kbps and 384 kbps supported but dimensioning typically
completed for a maximum uplink bit rate of 64 kbps, also 16 kbps supported in
RAS06
• UE transmit powers of 24 dBm common but worst case assumption of 21 dBm
• HS-DPCCH overhead different for service bit rates
• Data services can be assumed to be associated with UE with a greater antenna
gain (2 dBi) or not having gain (0 dBi)
• Body loss for data services, where UE is held further from body is assumed to be
0 dB

PS Data PS Data PS Data PS Data
Uplink Bit Rate 16 64 128 384 kbps
Max. Tx Power 24 24 24 24 dBm
HS-DPCCH overhead 4.6 2.8 1.6 1.1 dB
UE Antenna Gain 0 0 0 0 dBi
Body Loss 0 0 0 0 dB
EIRP 19.4 21.2 22.4 22.9 dBm
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Uplink DPCH Link Budget for HSDPA – Receive End
• Eb/No requirement dependant upon BLER target, UE speed, TTI,
propagation channel
• Target uplink load usually assumed to be a function of clutter, i.e. urban has
higher target load than rural which leads to smaller, higher capacity cells
(
¸
(

¸

÷ × ÷ =
100
_
1 10 _ _ _
LOAD TARGET
LOG NOISE THERMAL IN RISE kTB POWER NOISE THERMAL = _ _
Receiver Noise Figure is
changing among the frequency
and Node B type
gGain oces No Eb T REQUIREMEN I C sin Pr / _ / ÷ =
EbNo for HSDPA Associated
DPCH varies along with used bit
rate
PS Data PS Data PS Data PS Data
Chip Rate 3.84 3.84 3.84 3.84
Mcps
Processing Gain 23.8 17.8 14.8 10.0 dB
EbNo Requirement 2.5 2.0 1.4 1.7 dB
Target Uplink load 50 50 50 50 %
Rise in Thermal Noise 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 dB
Thermal Noise Power -108 -108 -108 -108 dBm
Receiver Noise Figure 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 dB
Interference Floor -103 -103 -103 -103 dBm
Receiver Sensitivity -124.3 -118.8 -116.4 -111.3 dBm
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Example of clutter parameters
PS Data PS Data PS Data PS Data
Node B Antenna Gain 18 18 18 18 dBi
Cable loss 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 dB
Fast Fade Margin 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 dB
Soft Handover Gain 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 dB
Gain against shadowing 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 dB
Building Penetration 12 12 12 12 dB
Indoor Location Prob. 90 90 90 90 %
Indoor Std Deviation 10 10 10 10 dB
Slow Fading Margin 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 dB
Isotropic Power Req. -124.2 -118.7 -116.3 -111.2 dB
Allowed Prop Loss 143.7 139.9 138.7 134.1 dB
• Antenna gain 18 dBi, which is typical for a 3 sector site
• Cable loss 0.5 dB can be achieved with Flexi Node B feeder less solution
• Fast fade margin dependant upon the UE speed, commonly 1.8 dB selected.
• In I-HSPA soft handover gain can vary from 0 to 1.5 dB depending on implementation
• Gain against shadowing is 2.5 dB in all cases

NOTE: following parameters have
huge impact on cell range and
coverage
Building penetration loss (can vary
from 18 dB to low as under 10 dB) and
indoor standard deviation (from 12 dB to
low as 7 dB) usually assumed to depend
upon the clutter type
Indoor location probability is often
assumed to be lower for the rural
environment (Can vary from 95% to low
as 80%)
Standard deviation varies from 4-10

Slow fading margin computed from the
location probability and the standard
deviation
Uplink DPCH Link Budget for HSDPA–Margins and Gains
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Uplink DPCH Link Budget for HSDPA – Cell range and
coverage

As final calculation from the allowed propagation loss we can derive the cell
range and coverage area by using Okumura-Hata model
Also the site coverage area is calculated, which is dependent on site
configuration. Commonly 3 sector configuration is used.
R
Omni
A = 2,6 R
1
2
Bi-sector
A= 1,73 R
2
2
Tri-sector
A = 1,95 R
3
2
R
R
RR
Omni
A = 2,6 R
1
2
Omni
A = 2,6 R
1
2
Bi-sector
A= 1,73 R
2
2
Bi-sector
A= 1,73 R
2
2
Tri-sector
A = 1,95 R
3
2
Tri-sector
A = 1,95 R
3
2
RR
RR
Frequency 2100 MHz
Antenna Height BS 30 m
Antenna height MS 1.5 m
Correction factor 0 dB
PS Data PS Data PS Data PS Data
Cell radius (R) 1.40 1.10 1.01 0.75 km
Site coverage area (A) 3.84 2.36 2.00 1.11 km
2
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Pilot power planning threshold
Link budget, planning margin and planning
threshold definitions are important phases
of pathloss based 3G planning

Received pilot power = Pilot transmit power – Antenna line losses + Antenna gain
- (Max. pathloss – Planning margins)
Antenna gain
Antenna line losses
Pilot transmit power

CPICH EIRP
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Pilot power planning threshold is the minimum outdoor pilot level which is required
in order to achieve the required Coverage Probability

Pilot power planning threshold is based on link budget calculations and planning
margin definitions
• Bit rate
• Eb/N0
• Location probability  Slow fading margin
• Indoor/outdoor coverage
Pilot power planning threshold have to be defined separately for each service and
area type
• Select the threshold for limiting service, allowed propagation loss includes indoor
margins
Pilot power planning threshold
Pilot power 33 dBm
Antenna gain 18 dBi
Feeder loss 0.5 dB
Correction factor 0 dB
PS Data PS Data PS Data PS Data
Allowed Prop Loss 143.7 139.9 138.7 134.1 dB
RSCP -93.2 -89.4 -88.2 83.6 dBm

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Release 5 HSDPA
• Uplink
• Downlink
Release 6 HSUPA
• Uplink
• Downlink
Content – I-HSPA link budgets
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The HSDPA power corresponds to the total transmit power
assigned to the HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH. Thus in
dimensioning the HS-SCCH power have to noticed from the
total HSDPA power.
C/I requirement computed from SINR rather than Eb/No like
in R99

R99

HSDPA

HS-PDSCH SINR should correspond to the targeted cell
edge throughput
Relationship between SINR and RLC throughput can be
validated as part of a practical investigation
No fast fade margin because no inner loop power control
HS-PDSCH does not enter soft handover
Other differences:
• UE antenna gain can be assumed to be 2 dBi or 0 dBi
• No body loss
• No soft ho gain
• Gain against shadowing 2.5 dB, referring to macro cell
environment best cell selection

C/I Requirement = Eb/No – Processing Gain
C/I Requirement = SINR – Spreading Gain
Spreading Gain = 12 dB,
due to the SF16
SINR-throughput mapping
Release 5 HSDPA Downlink HS-PDSCH link budget
Power available for
HS-PDSCH
Cell edge throughput
Interference margin based
on full power usage
No SHO
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HSDPA power and SINR
HSDPA available power
• Available power depends on interference, HS-SCCH power usage
• It can vary per TTI




SINR and throughput
• Relationship derived from simulations and validated in the field
• Used as a look-up table during HSDPA dimensioning

tx CCH WBTS
P P PtxHSDPA
_ max _
÷ =
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• Cell radius calculation
• The cell radius can be calculated with different cell edge
throughputs
• Also the available HSDPA power can vary based on Node B
power (e.g. 20W or 40W) and control channel usage
• With available power has big impact for cell range, similarly
penetration losses impact a lot
• Next graph shows cell range with different cell edge
throughputs and powers (assume that 30 % goes for control
etc. and 70% available for user at cell edge)
Release 5 HSDPA Downlink HS-PDSCH link budget
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HS-SCCH LINK BUDGET
• HS-SCCH makes use of power control based upon
HS-DPCCH CQI and ACK/NACK
• Usual to assume 500 mW of transmit power
although a greater power can be assigned for UE at
cell edge

0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
0
4
0
8
0
1
2
0
1
6
0
2
0
0
2
4
0
2
8
0
3
2
0
3
6
0
4
0
0
4
4
0
4
8
0
5
2
0
5
6
0
6
0
0
6
4
0
6
8
0
7
2
0
7
6
0
8
0
0
HS-SCCH Transmit Power (mW)
O
c
c
u
r
a
n
c
e
s
HSDPA Tx Power = 30 dBm
HSDPA Tx Power = 35 dBm
HSDPA Tx Power = 40 dBm
• HS-SCCH does not enter soft handover

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Release 5 HSDPA
• Uplink
• Downlink
Release 6 HSUPA
• Uplink
• Downlink
Content – I-HSPA link budgets
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HSUPA Uplink Link Budget
Similar to an HSDPA link budget, one of two approaches
can be adopted
• target uplink bit rate can be specified and link budget
completed from top to bottom to determine the
maximum allowed path loss
• existing maximum allowed path loss can be specified
and link budget completed from bottom to top to
determine the achievable uplink bit rate at cell edge
Majority of uplink link budget is similar to that of a R99
DCH
HSUPA uplink link budget makes use of Eb/No figures
rather than SINR figures

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Cell Edge Throughput
Target BLER (fixed 10%)
Propagation Channel

used to index the Eb/No
look-up table and determine
an appropriate Eb/No figure
as well as calculate
processing gain
HSUPA Uplink Link Budget (II)
Eb/No look-up tables
• Eb/No values are included for
• Bit rates 32 kbps to 1920 kbps
• Target BLER 10 %
• Propagation channels Vehicular A 30 km/hr and Pedestrian A 3 km/hr
• Eb/No values include E-DPDCH, E-DPCCH and DPCCH (no HS-DPCCH)
• I-HSPA case the UL handover gain is 1 dB as there is no soft
handover, but there is SHO for control and also softer HO. (Iur
doesn‟t support SHO in HSUPA)
• Similarly I-HSPA can support different HO strategies which might impact
on these values
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HSUPA Uplink Link Budget (III)
• Transmit section of link budget is identical to that of a HSDPA
associated R99 DPCH link budget.
• Transmit antenna gain and body loss can be configured for
either a data card or mobile terminal. Thus the gain can be 2
dBi
• HS-DPCCH overhead is slightly different as in DPCH. Next
table shows the overhead values for SHO and non-SHO
case:
• Interference floor = Thermal noise + Noise Figure + Interference
Margin - Own Connection Interference
• Interference Margin = -10*LOG(1- Uplink Load/100)
• The own connection interference factor reduces the uplink
interference floor by the UE‟s own contribution to the uplink
interference, i.e. by the desired uplink signal power
• Usually ignored in R99 DCH, but included in HSUPA link budget
because uplink bit rates can be high and the uplink interference
contribution from each UE can be more significant
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HSUPA Uplink Link Budget (IV)
• The receiver sensitivity calculation is the same as that for a R99
DCH link budget
• Receiver Sensitivity = Interference floor +
Eb/No - Processing Gain
• Receiver RF parameters, gains and margins are the same as
for a R99 DCH link budget
• same fast fade margin due to same inner loop power
control
• In I-HSPA there is a bit lower HO gain than in normal HSPA,
but without major influence on system performance
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HSUPA Uplink Link Budget (IV)
Major effect on
cell radius
Effects on cell radius,
can be 40-80%
Cell edge
throughput
• In the HSUPA the cell range can be
defined with using different cell edge
throughputs
• The load is affecting on the cell radius,
thus the Rel 5 HSDPA associated UL
DPCH load needs to be noted. Load is
set from 50-70%
• In I-HSPA the handover gain is bit
lower thus it has some effect on the
coverage.
• Still main impacts are generated by
indoor requirements

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Release 5 HSDPA
• Uplink
• Downlink
Release 6 HSUPA
• Uplink
• Downlink
Content – I-HSPA link budgets
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HSUPA Downlink Link Budget
HSUPA connections make use of HSDPA in the
downlink direction

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Air interface capacity
I-HSPA capacity
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Customer confidential
Capacity Dimensioning Introduction
R99 DCH
In normal HSPA and I-HSPA also R99 DCH needs to be dimensioned, but
there is slight difference
• I-HSPA
– Only uplink capacity - uplink load equation used to calculate the number of
connections which generate the maximum planned increase in uplink
interference. UL load generated by DCH effect directly to the HSUPA
capacity
• HSPA
– Uplink as previously
– Also downlink capacity - a combination of the downlink load equation and
downlink link budgets calculate the number of connections which consume
the downlink transmit power capability. DL power used to derive the HSDPA
capacity

HSDPA
• uplink capacity – same approach as for R99 above
• downlink capacity – average HSDPA cell throughput calculated from
HSDPA transmit power allocation and distribution of cell geometry factor

HSUPA
• uplink capacity – uplink load equation used to calculate the average
HSUPA cell throughput from the maximum planned increase in uplink
interference
• downlink capacity – same approach as for R99 above

Supporting tool
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Capacity Dimensioning – Overview
I-HSPA HSPA
DCH capacity
dimensioning
Only UL load from
HSDPA associated
UL DPCH is noticed
Effects on
HSUPA capacity
UL and DL loading
from DCH is noticed
 If shared carrier
effects both HSDPA
and HSUPA capacity
HSDPA
capacity
dimensioning
HSDPA average
throughput
calculated from
Node B power (all
Node B power for
HSDPA)
HSDPA average
throughput calculated
from Node B power
(all Node B power for
HSDPA IF dedicated
carrier)
HSUPA
capacity
dimensioning
HSUPA average
throughput
calculated from
available UL load
(notices UL R99)
Same as in I-HSPA
Not similar
Major similarities
Similar
In normal HSPA and I-HSPA we see slight difference
R99 DCH
• Only HSDPA associated UL DPCH thus 16, 64, 128 and 384
kbps are available
– UL load generated by DCH effect directly to the
HSUPA capacity
– Rel99 is not present in DL thus it will not impact on
HSDPA capacity
• Channel element usage

HSDPA
• Average and max HSDPA cell throughput
• Available power for HSDPA
• Features in use 16/48 users, PF/RR, shared scheduler
• Channel element usage is tight to used features

HSUPA
• Average and max HSUPA cell throughput
• Available UL load for HSUPA (noise rise)
• Channel element usage is related to the number of HSUPA
users and throughputs
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Capacity Dimensioning - Methods
1. Use simulation results directly to
estimate average throughput
+ Very simple approach
+ Rough estimation of throughput can be
seen from many studies, which can be
used in estimations
- Link budget needed to be used for
coverage estimation, not co-used with
capacity
- Accurate information about simulation
approach and parameters many times
missing
No possibility to see the effect of
changing parameters

2. Use of Excel dimensioning tool
+ More flexibility to estimate effect of different
DCH effect on HSUPA capacity in UL
+ Possibility to get more accurate estimations
of coverage and capacity with flexible
parameter change
- Requires understanding of the process and
parameters
- User has to verify that the dimensioning
results and set parameters are in line with the
simulation results and according on Nokia
specifications
- There is always limitations when using Excel
tools
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Content – I-HSPA capacity
Air interface capacity
• HSDPA UL DPCH
• HSDPA
• HSUPA
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Uplink Load Equation for DCH Capacity
( ) i a
R W
No E
j
j b
N j
j
j UL
* 1
/
/
1
+ × =
¿
=
=
u q
Simplified uplink load equation can be used to evaluate the uplink DCH capacity
Uplink load
Activity
factor
Chip rate
Bit rate
EbNo
requirement
Rise in intercell
interference ratio
Intercell
interference
ratio
• Eb/No varies along with the service
• Rise in intercell interference ratio dependant upon average UE speed
• Intercell interference ratio depends upon the level of sectorisation
• The UL load effects to the HSUPA capacity and thus if the DCH UL load is very high there
is not much capacity for traffic in HSUPA.
• The uplink load computed from the load equation defines the interference margin to be
included within the uplink link budget.

(
¸
(

¸

÷ × ÷ =
100
1 10 _ _ _
LOAD
LOG NOISE THERMAL IN RISE
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Uplink Load from DCH traffic
60%
80%
• UL is calculated in order to get the information how much load is available for
HSUPA.
• If we consider that the UL DCH to support HSDPA have VoIP and packet traffic
for example 300 kbps per cell and the associated DPCH is 64 kbps bearer. Thus
it generates load of ~29%
• Then if the max UL load, used to define capacity limit and also interference
margin in link budget, is defined to 60% the HSUPA capacity will be 60% - 29%
= 31%
• Figure shows example
1 subscriber/cell
generating traffic (kbps)
and that calculated to
UL load
31% load for HSUPA
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Content – I-HSPA capacity
Air interface capacity
• HSDPA UL DPCH
• HSDPA
• HSUPA
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Dimensioning HSDPA Capacity based upon G-Factor
• DSCH is a shared channel
• Dimensioning involves identifying the Node B configuration required to
achieve a specific throughput performance

• Requirement to achieve minimum HSDPA throughput at cell edge
• Determined from link budget analysis
• Requirement to achieve average HSDPA throughput across the cell
• Determined by mean SINR analysis
Geometry
Factor
Total Transmit
Power
Spreading
Factor
Orthogonality
factor
Transmitted
HS-PDSCH
power
)
1
1 (
16
G
P
SF
SINR
P
tot PDSCH HS
+ ÷ · >
÷
o
80 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
HSDPA power
• HSDPA power varies between TTIs
• Control channels and interference eats HSDPA capacity
• In I-HSPA DL capacity is served only to HSDPA users, no need to
estimate DCH power usage
t
o
t
a
l

t
r
a
n
s
m
i
t
t
e
d

p
o
w
e
r

P
t
x

T
o
t
a
l

[
d
B
m
]

P_WBTSmax
Available HSDPA
power
Estimated control
channel power
100 %
81 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
Customer confidential
P
HSDPA
calculation – G Factor
-20 -10 0
G-factor [dB]
C
u
m
u
l
a
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v
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d
i
s
t
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i
b
u
t
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f
u
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c
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n

[
%
]
10 20 30 40
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Macrocell
(Wallu)
Veh- A/Ped-A
Macrocell
(Vodafone)
Veh- A/Ped-A
Microcell
(Vodafone)
Ped- A

)
1
1 (
16
G
P
SF
SINR
P
tot HSDPA
+ ÷ · > o
other noise
own
I P
I
G
+
=
•G factor distribution used in the Excel
dimensioning tool for HSDPA
•The G Factor reflects the distance between the MS and BS antenna
•A typical range is from-3dB (Cell Edge) to 20dB
Setting a value for G factor means making
assumptions on user location.
Some G factor distributions (CDF) coming from Wallu
simulation tool as well as operator field experience are
represented in the following chart:

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Relation Between avg. SINR and HSDPA Throughput
• The average HS-DSCH throughput is reported
as a function of the average experienced HS-
DSCH SINR by the UE.
• The UE is scheduled in every TTI.
• Notice that these include the effect of fading,
link adaptation with Hybrid ARQ, CQI delays,
etc.
• An average HS-DSCH SINR of 23 dB is
required to achieve the maximum data rate of
3.6 Mbps with 5 HS-PDSCH codes.
• The table on left-hand side shows the table
which is used in Excel tool, those results are
from simulations
• The table shows the throughput for 5, 10 and
15 codes with different SINR
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Content – I-HSPA capacity
Air interface capacity
• HSDPA UL DPCH
• HSDPA
• HSUPA
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Estimating HSUPA Cell Throughput
Capacity estimation
• Ignore the UE transmit power limitation and divide the available uplink load
between all HSUPA UE within the cell
• The available uplink load is defined by the target uplink load minus the R99
DCH uplink load
• In the example below the available uplink load is shared equally between 5
HSUPA UE

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 20 40 60 80 100
Uplink Load (%)
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

I
n
t
e
r
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

(
d
B
)

Example Target
Uplink Load
Uplink Load generated
by R99 DCH
Uplink Load available
for HSUPA UE
Uplink load is translated to uplink C/I using the
uplink load equation

C/I = Eb/No – Processing Gain
C/I is translated to HSUPA bit rate using the
Eb/No values derived from simulations
( ) i a
I C
N j
j
j j
UL
× + ×
+
=
¿
=
=
1
) / (
1
1
1
1
u
q
85 © Nokia Siemens Networks I-HSPA dimensioning guideline / Sakari Sistonen / 21.01.2008
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Estimating HSUPA Cell Throughput
Excel tool can be used to dimension HSUPA connection and total cell throughputs
Simplified dimensioning tool can include look-up tables for
• average path loss to a UE relative to the path loss at cell edge
• Eb/No requirement as a function of bit rate, propagation channel and BLER
Target
• UL associated DPCH loading need to be estimated, which directly impacts on
HSUPA capacity

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HSPA capacity simulations
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Coding rate
1/2
3/4
4/4
1 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF2
2 x SF2 +
2 x SF4
480 kbps 960 kbps 1.92 Mbps 2.88 Mbps
720 kbps 1.46 Mbps 2.88 Mbps 4.32 Mbps
960 kbps 1.92 Mbps 3.84 Mbps 5.76 Mbps
Maximum Bit Rates
Coding rate
QPSK
Coding rate
1/4
2/4
3/4
5 codes 10 codes 15 codes
600 kbps 1.2 Mbps 1.8 Mbps
1.2 Mbps 2.4 Mbps 3.6 Mbps
1.8 Mbps 3.6 Mbps 5.4 Mbps
16QAM
2/4
3/4
4/4
2.4 Mbps 4.8 Mbps 7.2 Mbps
3.6 Mbps 7.2 Mbps 10.7 Mbps
4.8 Mbps 9.6 Mbps 14.4 Mbps
HSDPA
HSUPA
Both HSDPA and HSUPA aim to
increase
• individual connection
throughput
• total cell throughput

Marketed bit rates do not
represent RLC layer throughput


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Content – HSPA capacity simulations
HSPA capacity simulations
• HSDPA
• HSUPA
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HSDPA Cell Throughput in Simulations Cell throughput Vehicular A
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
Rake 1-ant Equalizer 1-ant Rake 2-ant Equalizer 2-ant
k
b
p
s
Round robin 5 codes
Round robin 10 codes
Proportional fair 5 codes
Proportional fair 10 codes
Proportional fair 15 codes
1 Mbps
2 Mbps
4 Mbps
5-code BTS and single antenna UE Rake provides 1 Mbps
10-code BTS and single antenna UE provides 2 Mbps
15-code BTS and dual antenna UE provides 4 Mbps
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Performance for 5, 10, and 15 HS-PDSCH codes
5 Codes 10 Codes 15 Codes
1.2 Mbps
1.3 Mbps
1.7 Mbps
1.8 Mbps
2.0 Mbps
2.2 Mbps
No code-mux
Code-mux (5-code UEs)
HSDPA
only cell
HSDPA
only cell
HSDPA
only cell
HSDPA
only cell
HSDPA
only cell
HSDPA+DCH
cell

900kbps
+
400 kbps
The HSDPA cell capacity is 5-10% smaller if
code-mux is used compared to cases with no
code-mux, assuming that UE supports up to 15
HS-PDSCH codes. This is due to the larger HS-
SCCH overhead and less optimal usage of HS-
PDSCH code resources.
UE HS-PDSCH capability
PF scheduling assumed
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HSDPA Code Multiplexing
Allows sending data to 3 users in parallel, each with 5-code UE
Ideally up to 3 x higher total throughput = 3 x 3.6 Mbps
In practice, the simulations show
• 10-code + code mux gives 35% cell throughput gain over 5-code
• 15-code + code mux gives 70% cell throughput gain over 5-code
Code multiplexing makes sense when number of subscribers increases
User 1 = 5 codes
T
o
t
a
l

1
5

c
o
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p
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N
o
d
e
-
B

User 2 = 5 codes
User 3 = 5 codes
Number of simultaneous users downloading
0 %
10 %
20 %
30 %
40 %
50 %
60 %
70 %
80 %
90 %
100 %
10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 %
No users
1-user
2-user
3 or more
Code multiplexing gain is getting clear
when the probability of 2-3 users
increases. 50% loading is required
before the probability is >20%.
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Content – HSPA capacity simulations
HSPA capacity simulations
• HSDPA
• HSUPA
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1 2 3 7 10 15 20
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
UEs per cell [#]
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[
k
b
p
s
]
FTP Traffic


DCH
E-DCH
Cell Throughput - FTP
• The cell throughput is shown on this
graph
• It can be seen that a significant gain
(140%) is achieved when the number
of users is low
• The gain diminishes with the number
of users though and eventually
becomes a loss (around -17%)
• The HSUPA system clearly offers a
gain for low to moderately loaded
systems
• The loss for the high number of users
can be blamed on the control channel
overhead
Gain relative to DCH:
142% 70% 34% 03% -02% -07% -17%
BLER is 10% for both cases
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0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
UEs per cell [#]
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g
h
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[
k
b
p
s
]
FTP Traffic


DCH
E-DCH
Cell Throughput - FTP
• The cell throughput is shown on this
graph
• It can be seen that a significant gain
(130%) is achieved when the number
of users is low
• The gain diminishes with the number
of users though
• The HSUPA system clearly offers a
gain in all load situations
• The absolute performance decrease
for EDCH in the high load region is
due to the overhead of the control
channel
• The absolute performance decrease
for the DCH is mostly due to
exceeded Noise Rise Target
Gain relative to DCH:
129% 66% 41% ...
This linear decrease is
caused by the linear
increase of the control
channel overhead
This decrease is
mainly caused by an
increase in the noise
rise
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1 2 3 7 10 15 20
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
UEs per cell [#]
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[
k
b
p
s
]
MMS Traffic


DCH
E-DCH
Cell Throughput - bursty type of traffic
The cell throughput as a function of the
number of input users per cell is shown
in this graph
The conclusion are similar than with the
number of completed packet sessions
per UE
The gain is about 250% for low number
of users and decreases to about 70%
for very high load
Gain relative to DCH:
243% 250% 244% 227% 196% 136% 70%
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Cell Throughput – FTP (full buffer)
The cell average throughput is shown on this graph
- Simulation over 21 cells
- 147 users
- Vehicular A 30 km/h
- RSN target is 0,
BLER target 10%
(after 1 transmission)







- Note: With PedA channel 10 – 25% gain due to 0.5 –
1 dB Eb/No differences

1.4 Mbps
50%
Over 2 Mbps
~14% of cells
kbps
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I-HSPA traffic estimation
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Content – I-HSPA traffic estimation
Traffic estimation
• Parameters
• VoIP
• Data services
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QoS-related Inputs for Capacity Dimensioning
Traffic input parameters for dimensioning
• Number of subscribers
• Data volume
• Number of VoIP calls
• VoIP call duration
• Usage of VoIP header compression (ROHC), coming in I-HSPA release 1ED.
Parameters effecting on DSL kind of services:
• Peak User Data Rate
– This is a subscription parameter (e.g. 512 kbps DL and 128kbps UL)
– Typical values for DL are 128K, 256K, 384K, 512K, and 1M
• Overbooking Factor [10-50]
– Defines the number of simultaneous users that share the same capacity resources
– Example: 512 kbps can be shared by 20 users with an average of 25 kbps
(overbooking 20)
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Content – I-HSPA traffic estimation
Traffic estimation
• Parameters
• VoIP
• Data services
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VoIP Today Takes 4 x More Resources than CS Voice
• In I-HSPA VoIP uses IP header compression, but the terminal side
it‟s not known ¬ If terminal doesn‟t support the required radio
bandwidth is approx 30 kbps to carry AMR12.2 kbps
• In I-HSPA uplink VoIP uses either HSDPA associated UL DPCH or
HSUPA. If the UL DPCH is used typically 64 kbps DCH is allocated
to carry 30 kbps data stream (this if the compression is not
possible).
• No overbooking is done in Iub for packet data, but Iub is reserved
for full 64 kbps
• RNC is optimized for relatively low number of high bit rate users
• GGSN is designed for large packets, not for small VoIP packets

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BTS
Compressed headers
Full headers
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Uncompressed Compressed
B
y
t
e
s

p
e
r

2
0
-
m
s

f
r
a
m
e
RLC header
RTP/UDP/IPv4 header
RTP payload AMR12.2 kbps
15.2 kbps
29.6 kbps
Example for 3GPP
VoIP with 20-ms
packets
Adapter
SGSN
GGSN
Uncompressed Compressed
RTP payload AMR12.2 kbps 31 31
RTP/UDP/IPv4 header 40 4
RLC header 3 3
Sum 74 38
Bit rate 29600 15200
Overhead 139% 23%
Traffic estimation – VoIP with ROHC
• IP header compression is part of 3GPP R4
• Header compression runs between I-HSPA
adapter and UE
• 3GPP Robust header compression
(ROHC) is based on IETF RFC3095
• IP headers are compressed from 40 B
down to a few bytes
• Expected in I-HSPA and terminals by 2008
(RU-10)
• The average data rate is further 50% lower
due to voice activity detection in AMR
codec
• Air-Interface is critical VoIP capacity
constraint today

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VoIP over HSPA
Even if VoIP is more efficient than CS voice, it is still clearly less efficient than best effort
data in terms of Mbps, especially in downlink
VoIP throughput = 38 Bytes / 20 ms * 50% activity = 7.5 kbps with RoHC (without 14.8 kbps)
Thus we can assume
• Number of Node Bs = 50
• Number of VoIP users in Busy Hour = 20 000
• Average call duration in BH = 90 seconds
• Average number of calls in BH = 1.4
• Total calls duration in BH = 2520000 sec
 corresponds on 700 calls per second
• Total calls per Node B per second = 14
 per sector = 4.7
• Total VoIP call load per sector = 35.25 kbps

Or we can assume
• Number of simultaneous users per sector = 10
• VoIP throughput = 7.5 kbps
• Total VoIP load per sector = 75 kbps
Basic VoIP estimation
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Content – I-HSPA traffic estimation
Traffic estimation
• Parameters
• VoIP
• Data services
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Data services HSDPA UL DPCH
Throughput factor used to account for re-transmissions and a peak to average
activity
15 % assumed for peak to average activity factor
10 % assumed for re-transmission factor
These figures lead to:
79 . 0
10 . 1 15 . 1
1
_ =
×
= Factor Throughput
Packet switched traffic is divided by this result to increase the number of
simultaneously active connections
For example, if the quantity of busy hour PS traffic is assumed to 100 MByte and
that data is transferred using 384 kbps connections then the number of
simultaneously active connections (ignoring soft handover) is:

(100 * 1024 * 1024 * 8) / (0.79 * 384 000 * 3600) = 0.77

Data load generated is: 100*1024*8 / 3600 = 228 kbps with UL DPCH this
causes around 20% UL load in empty cell.
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Broadband connection over HSPA
Even if VoIP is more efficient than CS voice, it is still clearly less efficient than best effort
data in terms of Mbps, especially in downlink
Thus we can assume:
• DSL service throughputs (UL/DL) = 64/128, 128/384, 256/512, 384/1M
(Note many times the UL direction real throughput is lower than DL, thus DL is seen as a
bottleneck)
• Overbooking factor = 10, 15, 20
Calculating the load
• BH DSL users = 2 000
• Average traffic per user per BH = 5 MB
• Total traffic = 10 GB
• Number of Node Bs = 50
• Total load per Node B = 200 MB
• Total load per sector per BH = 67 MB  67*1024*8/3600 = 152.5 kbps
Or we can assume
• 10 simultaneous 256/512 users per cell with overbooking factor of 10
• Load UL = 25.6 * 10 = 256 kbps
• Load DL = 51.2 * 10 = 512 kbps

The conversion from Mbytes of volume
for one hour (busy-hour) to kbps
(67 * 1024 * 8) / 3600 = 152.5 kbps
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Traffic estimation – Broadband connection over I-HSPA
Cell capacity 2.5 Mbps
Convert Mbps to GBytes
BH average loading 80%
BH carries 20% of daily traffic
30 days per month
3 sectors per site
/ 8192
x 80%
/ 20%
x 30
x 30 x 3
3600 seconds per hour
x 3600
Total
400 GB/site/month
Ovebookin
g ratio
Max subs per site
Site
capacity
40
Peak user
data rate
1 Mbps 3 x 2.5 Mbps/site
Amount of subs per site
= 3x2.5Mbps/site*40/1Mbps = 300 subs/site
• From simulation cell capacity is 2.5 Mbps
• Maximum HSPA Traffic per Site per Month
• Amount of subs / site
Amount of data per site
Capacity per site: 300 subs @ 1.3 GB/month
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I-HSPA HW capacity
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Content – I-HSPA HW capacity
Flexi Node B Channel Element dimensioning
• SW and HW capacity
• CEs for Control
• CEs for UL R99
• CEs for HSDPA
• CEs for HSUPA
• Example
Adapter Dimensioning
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Flexi WCDMA BTS BB Site Configurations with Rel 1 HW (FSMB)
1 System Module (FSMB):
• Optimized for capacity upgrade
• Support for max. 3 RF Modules
• HW support for max 6 cell CCH
• Max. HW capacity 240 CE
• 32 CEs included in System Module Basic OSW
price
→ max additional 208 CE on license
base (240-32=208)
2 System modules (2 * FSMB):
• Available in Rel.1
• Support for max. 3 RF Modules
• HW support for up to 12 cells CCH
• Max. site HW capacity 480 CE
• 2 * 32 CEs included in System Module Basic OSW
prices
→ max additional 416 CE on license base (480-
64=416)
• 471226A FSKA Flexi System Extension Kit (cable set) is required
• The System Module that acts as a Baseband Extension needs to be
ordered without transport sub-module FTxx. In this case there is a dummy
sub-module included to fulfil IP55 requirements.
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Channel Element dimensioning
Flexi WCDMA BTS HW Capacity Evolution
Rel 1 (RAS06) Rel 2 (RU10 WBTS4.1)

240 CE
Study Item
750 CE*
250 CE
500 CE
Release 1 HW, FSMB
Release 2 HW, FSMC
Release 2 HW, FSMD
Release 2 HW, FSME*
New SM HW introduced
SM chaining *High capacity SM, if market need
Max.
1500 CE
240 CE
240 CE
240 CE
500 CE
500 CE
500 CE
240 CE
750 CE*
750 CE*
750 CE*
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Channel Element dimensioning
Flexi WCDMA BTS SW Capacity evolution

240 CE
240 CE
240 CE
Rel 1 (RAS06) Rel 2 (RU10 WBTS4.1) Study Item High Capacity
Increased capacity
180 CE
All combinations possible
396 CE
396 CE
396 CE
Increased capacity
216 CE
216 CE
* High capacity SM, if market need
All combinations possible
468 CE
468 CE
468 CE
468 CE
720 CE*
720 CE*
720 CE*
240 CE
750 CE*
250 CE
500 CE
Release 1 HW, FSMB
Release 2 HW, FSMC
Release 2 HW, FSMD
Release 2 HW, FSME*
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Channel Element Dimensioning
• Channel element consumption is divided between:
– Control Channels
– HSDPA associated UL DPCH
– HSDPA features,
▪ usage of cell specific scheduler,
▪ proportional fair/round robin scheduling
▪ amount of supported users per cell/site
– HSUPA users and throughput

• In I-HSPA Rel.1, preferred voice mechanism is CS-voice via CS-enabling handover to
WCDMA / GSM-network
• However VoIP implementation can create challenges through limitations on number of
parallel active HSPA users:
– HSUPA limitation 20 per cell or 24 per Node B  HSUPA limiting
– HSDPA limitation 16/48 per cell or per Node B
– HSDPA associated UL DPCH with 64 kbps consumes 4 CEs

• With WCDMA BTS in RU-10 VoIP Air-interface capacity is significantly enhanced, which
is then suitable for quality VoIP-services over HSPA.
– active HSPA user limitation is increased to 60 per Node B
– ROHC is implemented.
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Content – I-HSPA HW capacity
Flexi Node B Channel Element dimensioning
• SW and HW capacity
• CEs for Control
• CEs for UL R99
• CEs for HSDPA
• CEs for HSUPA
• Example
Adapter Dimensioning
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Base Band CE requirements for CCCH and UL associated DPCH
Common channel usage with Release 1 HW
Number of cells Rel.1 Rel.2
1…3 (e.g. 1+1+1) 26 CE 26 CE
4…6 (e.g. 2+2+2) N/A 52 CE
Flexi CCCH consumption
Rel1 HW (FSMB)
User data CE UL/min SF CE DL/min SF
PS 16 kbps 1 / SF64
*)
1 / SF128
**)
PS 64 kbps 4 / SF16 1 / SF128
**)
PS 128 kbps 4 / SF8 1 / SF128
**)
PS 384 kbps 16 / SF4 1 / SF128
**)
Flexi R99 associated UL DPCH consumption
• Note: Soft HOs not included in calculations

*)
In case of SF is 32, then 2 CE is required in UL
**)
1 CE for DL signaling is required per HSDPA user
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WCDMA Flexi BTS Example Base Band Capacity for UL
associated DPCH point of view
Note: Soft HOs not included in calculations
User data CE required
BB Processing Capacity
1 System Module
(FSMB, Rel.1)
240 CE, 26 CE for CCH
BB Processing Capacity
2 System Modules
(FSMB+FSMB, Rel.1)
2* 240 CE, 26 CE for CCH
16kbps 1 214 454
64kbps 4 53 113
128kbps 4 53 113
384kbps 16 13 28
• 1+1+1,common channels included in calculations
• Max.# CE licensed
• Max. # of Simultaneous users on Flexi WCDMA BTS based on Baseband capacity,
excluding Air and Iub Interfaces
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Content – I-HSPA HW capacity
Flexi Node B Channel Element dimensioning
• SW and HW capacity
• CEs for Control
• CEs for UL R99
• CEs for HSDPA
• CEs for HSUPA
• Example
Adapter Dimensioning
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15 codes
QPSK
1/4
Modulation Code rate
2/4
3/4
16
SF
16
16
16QAM
2/4
3/4
16
16
1.2 Mbps
Throughput
(10 codes)
2.4 Mbps
3.6 Mbps
4.8 Mbps
7.2 Mbps
1.8 Mbps
Throughput
(15 codes)
3.6 Mbps
5.3 Mbps
7.2 Mbps
10.8 Mbps
600 kbps
Throughput
(5 codes)
1.2 Mbps
1.8 Mbps
2.4 Mbps
3.6 Mbps
• Average cell HSDPA throughput increased
• Cell peak rate up to 14.4 Mbit/s (10 Mbit/s per user)
Increased cell peak data rate and capacity when
most of the power can be allocated to HSDPA
HSDPA
AMC
Frame Size
H-ARQ
Spreading
& Multip.
4/4 16 9.6 Mbps 14.4 Mbps 4.8 Mbps
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Shared HSDPA Scheduler for Baseband Efficiency
Peak rate of 10.8 Mbps is shared dynamically between sectors
Efficient utilization of resources since the peak rate of 10.8 Mbps is only seldom
available in macro cells due to interference
3.6 Mbps
3.6 Mbps
10.8 Mbps
0 Mbps (no
HSDPA
mobiles)
7.2 Mbps
3.6 Mbps
0 Mbps (no
HSDPA
mobiles)
3.6 Mbps 0 Mbps (no
HSDPA
mobiles)
Throughput shared equally
between all sectors
HSDPA mobiles only in
single sector
Throughput shared
between two sectors
Instantaneous adaptation according to throughput per sector
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Flexi WCDMA BTS BB Example, Rel1 HW
1+1+1, 240 CE, Shared HSDPA Scheduler for BB Efficiency, 15
codes
Common chs:26 CE
available
capacity for traffic

134CE
Carrier 1
Common channels
Carrier 1
Carrier 1
Traffic channels
FSMB
HSDPA BLOCK
Shared HSDPA scheduler
80 CE
• Max. capacity 240 CE/FSMB
• 32 CE included in OSW price
• Additional 134 CE licenses activated, based on traffic mix
32CE included
in OSW price
Based on traffic
requirements
activated CE
(208)
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Rel.1: HSDPA BTS Configuration Options for Flexi BTS, Rel1 HW
1. Basic HSDPA
• QPSK/16 QAM
• Max 5 codes per cell
• 16 Users per BTS
• Up to 3.6 Mbps per BTS
• 32 CE from FSMB allocated to HSDPA
scheduler
• 1 scheduler with 1-3 cells per BTS
16 users
16 users
16 users
8 users
4 users
4 users
Example 1:
16 users per
BTS
1*32 CE
Example 2:
16 users per cell
3*32 CE
2. 16 Users per cell
• Up to 3.6 Mbps per cell
• Max 5 codes per cell
• Each HSDPA cell requires 32 CE from FSMB is
allocated to HSDPA
• Max 3 HSDPA schedulers per BTS (rel.2 6)
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Rel.1:HSDPA BTS Configuration Options for Flexi BTS, Rel1 HW
3. Shared HSDPA Scheduler for Baseband
Efficiency
• Up to 10.8 Mbps per BTS
• Max 15 codes per cell, 45 codes for BTS
• Max 48 Users per BTS
• 80 CE from FSMB allocated to HSDPA scheduler
• 1 scheduler per BTS
10 users
16 users 22 users
Example 3:
Shared HSDPA
Scheduler for BB
Efficiency
1*80 CE
48 users
48 users 48 users
Example 4:
48 Users per cell
3*80CE
4. 48 Users per Cell
• Up to 14.4 Mbps per cell (with code
multiplexing)
• Max 15 codes per cell
• 80 CE from FSMB allocated per HSDPA
scheduler (=per cell)
• Max 3 schedulers per BTS (3*80=240CE)
• rel.2 5 possible
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Rel.1: Several ’16 Users per BTS’ Schedulers in BTS by
Tcell grouping
• „16 Users per BTS Scheduler‟ -feature requires
32 CE of processing capacity to be enabled for
one to three cells in the BTS.
• Another 32 CEs can be added so that cell A
(blue) is handled by first 32 CE and cells B
(yellow) and C (yellow) by the second 32 CEs.
• Cells are grouped to each scheduler with Tcell
parameter.
• Max 2 schedulers per BTS in Rel.1 and 4 possible in rel.2

Rules for grouping (max 4 groups):
Group 1: Tcell values 0, 1 and 2
Group 2: Tcell values 3, 4 and 5
Group 3: Tcell values 6, 7 and 8
Group 4: Tcell value 9
Example 1:
1+1+1: 2 x32 CE
f1
f2
2+2+2: 4 x32 CE
16 users
16 users
16 users
16 users
11 users
16 users
5 users
B
A
Tcell = 0
Tcell = 3
Tcell = 4
Tcell = 0
Tcell = 1
Tcell = 2
Tcell = 3
Tcell = 6
Tcell = 9
Rel.2: 2+2+2
4 schedulers (max 5 codes and 16 users):
F1: 3 cells sharing one scheduler
F2: 1 scheduler per cell
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Rel.2: Several ‘Shared HSDPA Schedulers for
Baseband Efficiency’ in BTS by Tcell grouping
• „Shared HSDPA Scheduler for Base Band
Efficiency‟ -feature requires 80 CE capacity
from FSMB to be enabled for two to three cells
in the BTS.
• Another 80 CEs can be reserved from FSMB
so that cell A (blue) is handled by first 80 CE
and cells B (yellow) and C (yellow) by the
second 80 CEs.
• Cells are grouped to each scheduler with Tcell
parameter.
• Max 2 schedulers per BTS in Rel.1 and 4 possible in rel.2

Rules for grouping (max 4 groups):
Group 1: Tcell values 0, 1 and 2
Group 2: Tcell values 3, 4 and 5
Group 3: Tcell values 6, 7 and 8
Group 4: Tcell value 9
25 users
48 users
23 users
1+1+1, 2 x80 CE
B
A
Tcell = 0
Tcell = 3
Tcell = 4
2 schedulers (max 15 codes and 48 users):
F1: 2 cells sharing one scheduler and 1
scheduler in one cell
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Maximum number of HSDPA schedulers simultaneously
active in Rel.1
HSDPA Scheduler
1 System Module
(FSMB)
1 System Modules
(2 * FSMB)
Basic HSDPA, 16 users per BTS 1 (2*) 1 (2*)
16 Users per cell 3 3
Shared HSDPA Scheduler for BB efficiency 1 (2*) 1 (2*)
48 Users per cell 2 3
* Usage of Tcell parameter required
Note that only one type of scheduler can be used in BTS at a time
Following table summarizes what is left for UL Associated DPCH and HSUPA
within different HSDPA features:
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WCDMA Flexi BTS Base Band Dimensioning, Rel1 HW
Example for 1+1+1/ HSDPA activation
• Note that the table describes only BTS Baseband dimensioning. In practice also Iub, Air interface, etc has to be
taken into account. Please see RAS dimensioning guide for more information.
• CEs required for associated HSDPA UL is not included in the table
• Common Channels not included
• 5 code phones assumed to be used in NW. Figures in brackets (by red) assumes 10 code phones and figures in
brackets (by blue) assumes 15 code phones are used in NW
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Content – I-HSPA HW capacity
Flexi Node B Channel Element dimensioning
• SW and HW capacity
• CEs for Control
• CEs for UL R99
• CEs for HSDPA
• CEs for HSUPA
• Example
Adapter Dimensioning
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HSUPA resource steps
Rel1 HW (FSMB)
• HSUPA resources are allocated in steps of Channel Elements (CEs)
• Max 160 CE can be allocated to HSUPA
• Size of each HSUPA resource step in Channel Elements is described below:
HSUPA
Resource step
Flexi BTS
Rel1 HW (FSMB)
1 32 CE
2 24 CE
3 24 CE
4 32 CE
5 24 CE
6 24 CE
1 Flexi BTS submodule
1 Flexi BTS submodule
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HSUPA combined minimum baseband throughput
Flexi BTS Combined minimum baseband L1 throughput of all users
Minimum Number of
HSUPA UE per BTS
0 <1.4 Mbps 1.4 Mbps 2.8 Mbps 4.2 Mbps 5.6 Mbps 7 Mbps 8.4 Mbps
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 – 4 0 1 1 2 3 4 n/a n/a
5 – 8 0 1 2 2 3 4 5 6
9 - 12 0 2 2 3 3 4 5 6
13 - 16 0 2 3 4 4 4 5 6
17 - 20 0 3 3 4 5 5 5 6
21 - 24 0 3 3 4 5 6 6 6
• Number of HSUPA resource steps allocated to get certain combined BTS baseband L1
throughput with certain number of UEs:
• Example: to get 4.2 Mbps combined (of all UEs) L1 throughput with 12 users, 3 HSUPA
resource steps are needed i.e. Resource steps 1-3 (32 CE + 24 CE + 24 CE = 80 CE)
• UEs Peak Throughput depends on how many simultaneous UEs there is in each
HSUPA resource step at a time:
• 1-2 UEs in one HSUPA resource step: 2 Mbps peak rate per UE
• 3-4 UEs in one HSUPA resource step: 1.4 Mbps peak rate per UE
• 5-8 UEs in one HSUPA resource step: 384 kbps - <1.4 Mbps peak rate per UE

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HSUPA Channel Element dimensioning
Flexi BTS Combined minimum baseband L1 throughput of all users
Minimum Number of
HSUPA UE per BTS
0 <1.4 Mbps 1.4 Mbps 2.8 Mbps 4.2 Mbps 5.6 Mbps 7 Mbps 8.4 Mbps
0 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
1 – 4 8 32 CE 32 CE 56 CE 80 CE 112 CE n/a n/a
5 – 8 8 32 CE 56 CE 56 CE 80 CE 112 CE 136 CE 160 CE
9 - 12 8 56 CE 56 CE 80 CE 80 CE 112 CE 136 CE 160 CE
13 - 16 8 56 CE 80 CE 112 CE 112 CE 112 CE 136 CE 160 CE
17 - 20 8 80 CE 80 CE 112 CE 112 CE 136 CE 136 CE 160 CE
21 - 24 8 80 CE 80 CE 112 CE 112 CE 160 CE 160 CE 160 CE
• Amount of Channel Elements (CEs) allocated to get certain combined (of all UEs) BTS
baseband L1 throughput vs. certain number of UEs:
Note! Step1: 32 CE includes 8 CE fixed reservation
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HSUPA
General information
• HSUPA activation requires a "fixed pool" of 8 CE when activating the feature.
• Depending on the total amount of free available CE (#licenses and installed HW
capacity) and the traffic load, BTS Resource Manager can dynamically allocate
additional BB resources for HSUPA.
• A max. of 128 CE in UltraSite and 160 CE in Flexi BTS can be utilized by
HSUPA. In case of conflict with R99 RT or NRT traffic needs, BTS Resource
manager will reduce the amount of BB resources available for HSUPA.
• Each user can reach max 2.0 Mbps
• HSUPA requires HSDPA for DL.
• In addition to the CE consumption for HSDPA and HSUPA activation, 1 CE for
signaling is required per user.
• Flexi BTS Rel2 HW HSUPA dimensioning: to be defined
• Note: Softer HO overhead is included in the CE dimensioning table (Table
3), similarly as with Rel99 DCH
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Example: HSUPA resources reduced due to increasing
DCH traffic
Flexi BTS Combined minimum baseband L1 throughput of all users
Minimum Number of
HSUPA UE per BTS
0 <1.4 Mbps 1.4 Mbps 2.8 Mbps 4.2 Mbps 5.6 Mbps 7 Mbps 8.4 Mbps
0 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
1 – 4 8 32 CE 32 CE 56 CE 80 CE 112 CE n/a n/a
5 – 8 8 32 CE 56 CE 56 CE 80 CE 112 CE 136 CE 160 CE
9 - 12 8 56 CE 56 CE 80 CE 80 CE 112 CE 136 CE 160 CE
13 - 16 8 56 CE 80 CE 112 CE 112 CE 112 CE 136 CE 160 CE
17 - 20 8 80 CE 80 CE 112 CE 112 CE 136 CE 136 CE 160 CE
21 - 24 8 80 CE 80 CE 112 CE 112 CE 160 CE 160 CE 160 CE
1
2
1. As a starting point there is 6 HSUPA users with three allocated HSUPA recourse steps (32 CE + 24 CE + 24 CE = 80 CE in use).
Combined baseband L1 throughput of all users is 4.2 Mbps
2. More UL associated DPCH traffic coming (e.g. 64PS)  HSUPA resources are needed to reduce from 3 HSUPA resource steps
to 2 HSUPA resource steps
3. 2 HSUPA resource steps in use (32 CE + 24 CE = 56 CE). Combined baseband L1 throughput of all users is dropped to 2.8 Mbps
4. Again, more UL associated DPCH traffic coming (e.g. 64PS)  HSUPA resources are needed to reduce from 2 HSUPA resource
steps to 1 HSUPA resource step
5. 1 HSUPA resource step in use (32 CE). Combined baseband L1 throughput of all users is dropped to <1.4 Mbps
4
5 3
Note! Step1: 32 CE includes 8 CE fixed reservation
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Content – I-HSPA HW capacity
Flexi Node B Channel Element dimensioning
• SW and HW capacity
• CEs for Control
• CEs for UL R99
• CEs for HSDPA
• CEs for HSUPA
• Example
Adapter Dimensioning
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Channel Elements estimation example
Channel element estimation:
• Node B type Flexi and 3-sectors
– For CCCH 26 CE
• HSDPA associated UL DPCH is 64 kbps,
 4 CE per traffic channel from UL.
– 6 simultaneous (rel 5.) users 6*4 CE = 24 CE
• HSDPA shared scheduler and 15 codes, 48
users per Node B.
– 80 CE UL/DL.
– 1 CE/user for SRB (rel 5. + rel 6. = 12)
• HSUPA 6 simultaneous users (rel. 6) and 2.8
Mbps (needs 2 resource steps)
– 56 CE UL/DL
– 1 CE/user for SRB, 6*1 = 6 CE

• Thus total:
– Downlink is 26 + 80 + 56 + 12 = 174 CE
– Uplink is 26 + 24 + 80 + 56 + 6 = 192 CE
(extra is the associated UL DPCH which only in UL
as well as minor difference in SRB)

Feature CE required for HSDPA
Ultrasite Flexi
5 codes 32 32
10 codes 64 80
15 codes 64 80
Shared scheduler 48 users 64 80
Shared scheduler 16 users 32 32
Cell specific scheduler 192 240
16 user per Node B 32 32
48 user per Node B 64 80
48 user per cell 192 240
# cells/BTS CE required for CCCH
Ultrasite Flexi
1…3 16 26
4…6 32 52
7…9 48 RAS07
10…12 64 RAS07
# of HSUPA
UE per BTS
0
<1.4
Mbps
1.4
Mbps
2.8
Mbps
0 8 8 8 8
1 – 4 8 32 CE 32 CE 56 CE
5 – 8 8 32 CE 56 CE 56 CE
9 - 12 8 56 CE 56 CE 80 CE
13 - 16 8 56 CE 80 CE 112CE
17 - 20 8 80 CE 80 CE 112CE
21 - 24 8 80 CE 80 CE 112CE
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Channel Element Dimensioning - Example
Common channel CE
R'99 only CE
HSDPA CE
HSUPA only CE
HSUPA / R'99 CE
26 CE
22 CE
0-152 CE
32 CE
Dynamically
shared BB
capacity
between R‟99
and HSUPA
CCH
requirement
R99 UL DCH
only capacity
Fixed reservation of
8 CE to enable
HSUPA in the BTS
Fixed HSDPA
reservation
• Control channel CE usage depends on # of sectors
– 1+1+1 = 26 CE and (rel2) 2+2+2 = 52 CE

• HSDPA Associated UL DPCH CE usage depends on bearer
– 16 kbps = 1 CE, 64/128 = 4 CE and 384 = 16 CE per
each traffic channel

• HSDPA CE usage depends on feature:
– Shared scheduler with 16 user/Node B = 32 CE
▪ 48 users =80CE.
– Cell specific scheduler with 16 users/cell = 96 CE
▪ 48 users =240CE
– 5 codes consume =32 and
▪ 15 codes 80 CE

• HSUPA CE usage depends on two aspects:
– Number of HSUPA users
– BTS combined L1 throughput

One System module can support low to medium HSPA usage
Two System modules can support high HSPA usage
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BTS HW dimensioning
CCCH
R99
HSDPA
HSUPA
Ultra BTS
Select # of cells
Select Node B
1…3 cells = 16 CE 4…6 cells =32 CE
Estimate the R99 CE usage UL&DL
voice or 16kbps = 1CE | 32 = 2 | 64 = 4 |
128 = 4 | 256 = 8 |384 = 16
# of HSDPA users
16 users
Per NodeB =
32CE
Per cell =
192CE
# of HSDPA codes
5 codes
Flexi BTS
Select # of cells
1…3 cells = 26 CE 4…6 cells = 52 CE
Estimate the R99 CE usage UL&DL
voice or 16kbps = 1CE | 32 = 2 | 64 = 4 |
128 = 4 | 256 = 8 |384 = 16
# of HSDPA users
48 users
Per NodeB =
32CE
Per cell =
240CE
Per NodeB =
80CE
# of HSDPA codes
5, 10 or 15 codes
CCCH
R99
HSDPA
HSUPA
Per cell =
96CE
48 users
Per NodeB =
64CE
# of HSDPA codes
5, 10 or 15 codes
# of HSUPA users/Node B
0 = 8CE | 1...4 = 32 | 5…8 =56 | 9…12 = 80 |
13…16 = 112 | 17…20 =136 | 21…24 = 160
16 users
# of HSDPA codes
5 codes
# of HSUPA users/Node B
0 = 8CE | 1...4 = 32 | 5…8 =56 | 9…12 = 80 |
13…16 = 112 | 17…20 =136 | 21…24 = 160
Per cell = 96
CE
Associated UL
DPCH/user
16kbps = 1CE | 64 = 4 |
128 = 4 | 384 = 16
# of simultaneous
HSDPA users
Signaling 1 CE / user
# of simultaneous
HSUPA users
Signaling 1 CE / user
TOTAL CEs TOTAL CEs
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Content – I-HSPA HW capacity
Flexi Node B Channel Element dimensioning
• SW and HW capacity
• CEs for Control
• CEs for UL R99
• CEs for HSDPA
• CEs for HSUPA
• Example
Adapter Dimensioning
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• There are several capacity license steps for the iHSPA
adapters







• Note that throughput limitation is based on software. I-HSPA
adapter hardware has higher capacity and no hardware
change is required when license is upgraded.
Adapter Dimensioning (1/1)
Capacity license steps, release 1 Throughput
Capacity step 1 HSPA 1.8/0.6 Mbps (DL/UL)
Capacity step 2 HSPA 3.6/1.2 Mbps (DL/UL)
Capacity step 3 HSPA 7.2/2.4 Mbps (DL/UL)
Capacity license steps, release 2 Throughput
Capacity step 4 HSPA 14.4/4.8 Mbps (DL/UL)
Capacity step 5 HSPA 28.8/9.6 Mbps (DL/UL)
Capacity step 6 HSPA 50.0/15.0 Mbps (DL/UL)