HSPA systems

Contents
      Introduction HSDPA HSUPA Continuous Packet Connectivity I-HSPA Conclusions

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Introduction 3 3 2008 © 2008 Magister Solutions Ltd Ltd © Magister Solutions .

e.High Speed Packet Access (1/3)  There were number of pushing forces to improve the packet data capabilities of WCDMA even further.  Growing interest towards rich calls. mobile-TV and music streaming in the wireless domain  Competitive technologies such as WIMAX    High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) evolution introduced first downlink counterpart of the evolution called High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) in Release 5 Uplink evolution followed later in Release 6 by the name of High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) HSPA was originally designed for non-real time traffic with high transmission rate requirements 4 © 2008 .g.

8 Mbps in the uplink and 14 Mbps in the downlink without Multiple Inputs and Multiple Outputs (MIMO)  Multiple Inputs and Multiple Outputs (MIMO)  Roughly speaking equals to additional transmitter and receiver antennas  Fast scheduling in the Node B  Possibility to take advantage of channel conditions with lower latency 5 © 2008 .  Higher order modulation and coding  Higher throughput and peak data rates  In theory up to 5.High Speed Packet Access (2/3)  HSPA features/properties include e.g.

High Speed Packet Access (3/3)  Link adaptation in downlink  Possibility to adjust the used modulation and coding scheme according to be appropriate for current radio channel conditions  Improved retransmission capabilities  Newly introduced layer one retransmissions called as Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) => reduced delay  Radio Link Control (RLC) level retransmissions still possible  Shorter frame sizes and thus Transmission Time Intervals (TTI)  With HSDPA 2ms and with HSUPA 10ms and 2ms 6 © 2008 .

WCDMA Background and Evolution 3GPP Rel -99 12/99 3GPP Rel 4 03/01 3GPP Rel 5 (HSDPA) 03/02 3GPP Rel 6 (HSUPA) 2H/04 3GPP Rel 7 HSPA+ 06/07 Further Releases. (LTE) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Japan Europe (precommercial) Europe (commercial) HSDPA (commercial) HSUPA (commercial) 7 © 2008 .

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) 8 8 2008 © 2008 Magister Solutions Ltd Ltd © Magister Solutions .

Introduction to HSDPA (1/2)  In Release 99 there basically exists three different methods for downlink packet data operation  DCH.  Forward Access Channel (FACH) and  Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH)  After the introduction of HSDPA in Release 5 some changes to downlink packet data operations occurred  New High Speed DSCH (HS-DSCH) channel was introduced  DSCH was removed due to lack of interest for implementing it in practical networks 9 © 2008 .

Introduction to HSDPA (2/2)  HSDPA Improvements for packet data performance both in terms of capacity and practical bit rates are based on       The use of link adaptation. Higher order modulation. Fast scheduling. and Physical layer retransmission HSDPA does not support DCH features like fast power control or soft handover 10 © 2008 . Shorter frame size (or transmission time interval).

transmission buffers in the Node B are flushed resulting to additional delays from RLC level retransmission or disruption of service  When regarding HSDPA. the user can be connected only to one serving HSDPA Node B at the time  Leading to hard handover when the handover between HSDPA Node Bs is required in contrary to DCH soft handover 11 © 2008 .Mobility with HSDPA (1/4)  Handovers are roughly tradeoff between two issues  When channel conditions are getting worse. handover to better cell should be made so that packets won’t get lost due to poor channel conditions  However. each time when the handover is made.

Serving HSDPA DCH DCH HS-SCCH Node B. Part of DCH active set DCH/HSDPA UE DCH 12 © 2008 .Mobility with HSDPA (2/4)  Even though there is only one serving HS-DSCH cell. the associated DCH itself can be in soft(er) handover and maintain the active set as in Rel’99 Node B.

referred as time-to-trigger  If the condition mentioned above is met then the measurement report is sent from the UE to the Node B.g. the admission control requirements are met the RNC can then give the consent for the UE to make the handover by sending so called Signaling Radio Bearer (SRB) (re)configuration message 13 © 2008 . which forwards it to the RNC  If e.Mobility with HSDPA (3/4)  HSDPA handover procedure includes following steps  Serving HS-DSCH cell change procedure is initiated when a link in (DCH) active set becomes higher in strength and stays stronger for certain period of time.

Mobility with HSDPA (4/4)  In the case of intra Node B handover. with inter Node B handover i.e. between Node Bs. the HARQ processes (transmissions) and Node B buffers can be maintained and thus there is only minimal interruption in data flow  However. the Node B packet buffers are flushed including all unfinished HARQ processes which are belonging to the UE that is handed off 14 © 2008 .

High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) 15 15 © 2008 Magister Solutions Ltd Ltd © 2008 Magister Solutions .

e. adopt them for the uplink as well  Improvements in HSUPA when compared to Rel’99  Layer 1 Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) i.Introduction to HSUPA (1/2)  Roughly three years later when HSDPA was introduced uplink counterpart of the high speed packet access evolution was introduced in Release 6  In 3GPP original name was not HSUPA but Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH)  The obvious choices for uplink evolution was to investigate the techniques used for HSDPA and. fast retransmissions  Node B based scheduling 16 © 2008 . if possible.

basic mobility procedures (soft handover). etc. 17 © 2008 .Introduction to HSUPA (2/2)  Easier multicode transmissions  Shorter frame size. but requires many of the basic features of the WCDMA Rel’99     Cell selection and synchronization. basic power control loop functions. 10ms mandatory for all HSUPA capable devices and 2 ms as optional feature  HSUPA is not a standalone feature. random access.

Mobility with HSUPA (1/2)   HSUPA supports the soft(er) handover procedure similar to WCDMA Rel’99 The HARQ operation in HSUPA soft handover situation is done in following manor  If any Node B part of the active set sends an ACK. then the information given to the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer is that an ACK has been received and the MAC layer will consider the transmission successful 18 © 2008 .

Mobility with HSUPA (2/2) Packet reordering RNC NodeB Layer 1 ACK/NACK Data NodeB Correctly received packet UE Layer 1 ACK/NACK 19 © 2008 .

Internet HSPA (I-HSPA) 20 20 © 2008 Magister Solutions Ltd Ltd © 2008 Magister Solutions .

I-HSPA (1/3)     Internet-HSPA (I-HSPA) aims to provide competitive mobile internet access with much more simpler network architecture than it is in normal WCDMA systems Deployable with existing WCDMA base stations Utilizes standard 3GPP terminals Simplified architecture brings many benefits such as      Cost-efficient broadband wireless access Improves the delay performance Transmission savings Enables flat rating for the end user Works anywhere (compared to WLAN or WIMAX) 21 © 2008 .

I-HSPA (2/3) NodeB / E-NodeB UE RNC SGSN GGSN Internet / Intranet I-HSPA 22 © 2008 .

I-HSPA (3/3) Release 99 ~200 ms 200 180 Round trip time of 32-Byte packet HSDPA <100 ms HSUPA ~50 ms I-HSPA ~25 ms 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Today Internet Iu + core RNC Iub Node B AI UE HSDPA HSDPA+HSUPA I-HSDPA+ I-HSUPA 23 © 2008 .

Conclusions 24 24 © 2008 Magister Solutions Ltd Ltd © 2008 Magister Solutions .

e. in addition to reduced delays Key technologies with HSPA are Fast Layer 1 retransmissions i. respectively HSPA offers much higher peak data rates. reaching in theory up to 14 Mbps in the downlink and 5.4 Mbps in the uplink.Conclusions (1/2)    High Speed Packet Access evolution for WCDMA was introduced in Release 5 and 6 for downlink and uplink. HARQ Node B scheduling Shorter frame size (2ms in DL and 2/10ms UL) Higher order modulation and coding along with link adaptation in downlink  Real support for multicodes in the uplink     25 © 2008 .

Conclusions (2/2)    HSPA improved also the performance of delay critical low bit rate services like VoIP even though it was not originally designed for it Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) enhancements introduced in Release 7 improved VoIP performance even more I-HSPA was introduced to provide competitive internet access solution  High data rates with low delay  Reduced costs => flat rate could be possible  Femtocells were introduced to improve the mobile convergence and performance in small offices or at home. for instance 26 © 2008 .

HSPA vs DCH (basic WCDMA) Feature Variable spreading factor Multicode transmission Fast power control Soft handover DCH Yes Yes (No in practice) HSUPA Yes Yes Yes Yes HSDPA No Yes No Yes Yes No (associated DCH only) Adaptive modulation BTS based scheduling Fast L1 HARQ No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 27 © 2008 .

6 Mbps # of codes Modulation 5 codes 5 codes 10 codes 15 codes 15 codes QPSK 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM Max data rate 1.8 Mbps 3.6 Mbps 7.46 Mbps # of codes 2 x SF4 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 + 2 x SF4 TTI 2 ms 10 ms 10 ms 2 ms 2 ms Max data rate 1.76 Mbps  Initial capability 1.4 Mbps Uplink HSUPA  Theoretical up to 5.76 Mbps 28 © 2008 .9 Mbps 5.1 Mbps 14.8 – 3.46 Mbps 2.HSPA Peak Data Rates Downlink HSDPA  Theoretical up to 14.2 Mbps 10.4 Mbps  Initial capability 1.0 Mbps 2.

Thank you! kari.aho@magister.fi 29 29 © 2008 Magister Solutions Ltd Ltd © 2008 Magister Solutions .