Information and Technology for management

Presented By Adarsh Singh Bhakti Varma Dixit Verma Mansi Rastogi Rakesh Yadav M.F.M II

Data and Information
• Data refers to the raw facts that are collected while information refers to processed data that enables us to take decisions.

• Ex. When result of a particular test is declared it
contains data of all students, when you find the marks

you have scored you have the information that lets you
know whether you have passed or failed.

What is data communication?

Data communication– Defined as a subset of telecommunication involving the transmission of data to and from computers and

components of computer systems.
• More specifically data communication is transmitted via mediums such as wires, coaxial cables, fiber optics, or

radiated electromagnetic waves such as broadcast radio,
infrared light, microwaves, and satellites.

Components of Data Communication
• Message: Message is the information to be communicated by the sender to the receiver. • Sender :The sender is any device that is capable of sending the data (message). • Receiver :The receiver is a device that the sender wants to communicate the data (message).

• Transmission Medium :It is the path by which the message travels
from sender to receiver. It can be wired or wireless and many subtypes in both.

Data flow  Devices communicate with each other by sending and receiving data. • Simplex • Half Duplex • Full Duplex . The data can flow between the two devices in the following ways.

Simplex C.P.U Monitor .

Half Duplex Direction of data at time T1 STATION 1 STATION 2 Direction of data at time T2 .

Full duplex Direction of data at all time STATION 1 STATION 2 .

A node/hubs can be any device capable of transmitting or receiving data.  A Compute network should ensure • reliability of the data communication process • security of the data .Computer network  Computer Networks are used for data communications • Definition: A computer network can be defined as a collection of nodes and hubs. The communicating nodes have to be connected by communication links.

Applications of computer networks • • • • • • • • • E-mail Searchable Data (Web Sites) E-Commerce News Groups Internet Telephony (VoIP) Video Conferencing Chat Groups Instant Messengers Internet Radio .

Internet. Intranet and Extranet .

Internet • The internet – A network of networks – The internet transmits data from one computer (called a host) to another • Internet networks – Linked networks that work much the same way -they pass data around in packets. each of which carries the addresses of its sender and receiver .

Internet .

Secure intranets are now the fastest-growing segment of the Internet because they are much less expensive to build and manage than private networks based on proprietary protocols. . accessible only by the organization's members. employees. usually a corporation. An intranet's Web sites look and act just like any other Web sites. but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access. Like the Internet itself. or others with authorization. intranets are used to share information.Intranet A network based on TCP/IP protocols (an internet) belonging to an organization.

an extranet provides various levels of accessibility to outsiders. Whereas an intranet resides behind a firewall and is accessible only to people who are members of the same company or organization. Extranets are becoming a very popular means for business partners to exchange information.Extranet A new buzzword that refers to an intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders. . You can access an extranet only if you have a valid username and password. and your identity determines which parts of the extranet you can view.

It may comprise the entire network in a city like Mumbai. It is larger than LAN but smaller than WAN. The network in the entire state of Maharashtra could be a WAN • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is of size between LAN & WAN. .Categories of Network • Local Area Networks (LAN) is usually limited to a small area. It may be privately owned and could be a network inside an office on one of the floor of a building or a LAN could be a network consisting of the computers in a entire building. • Wide Area Network (WAN) is made of all the networks in a (geographically) large area.


architecture and complexity • Network topology refers to the physical layout of a network. hardware. the way that nodes attach to the communication medium • Network architecture refers to the way in which media.Network topology. and software are integrated to form a network • Network complexity is concerned with extent to which network architectures are simple or diverse in their make .

Basic network Topology • Bus • Ring • Star .

• Each computer communicates to other computers on the network independently this is referred to as PEER-TO-PEER networking .Bus topology • This type of network was widely used in the 1980’s • In this configuration every computer (node) shares the networks total bus capacities. • In this configuration adding more computers will reduce the access speed on the network.

Ring Topology • In Ring topology each node is connected to the two nearest nodes so the entire network forms a circle • Data only travels in one direction on a Ring network .

Star topology HUB • In a Star topology every node is connected through a central device such as a Hub. Switch or Router • Compared to a Ring or Bus topology a Star topology requires that more thought be put into its setup .

the links by which data or voice are transmitted between sending and receiving devices in a network – twisted wires – coaxial cable – fiber-optic cable – wireless • microwave • satellite .Channels • Channels .

Transmission Speeds M ed iu m T w iste dW ire M icrow a ve S a te llite C oa x ia lC a ble F ibe r-O ptic C a ble S p eed 300 bps-10 M bps 256 K bps-100 M bps 256 K bps-100 M bps 56 K bps-200 M bps 500 K bps-10 G bps C o s t Low H igh .

Signals • To be transmitted. • Signals can be of two types:  Analog signals  Digital signals . data must be transformed to electromagnetic signals.

Analog Signal 1 0 Digital Signal 1 1 1 0 0 0 .

• A simple analog signal is a sine wave that cannot be further decomposed into simpler signals . it passes through and includes an infinite number of values along its path as it can be seen in the figure below. • As the wave moves from value A to value B.Analog Signals • An analog signal has infinitely many levels of intensity over a period of time.

a ‗1‘ is represented by a positive voltage and a ‗0‘ is represented by a Zero voltage. • In the signal .Digital Signals • A digital is a signal that has discrete values. • The signal will have value that is not continuous • Information in a digital signal can be represented in the form of voltage levels. .

how it is to be communicated and when it is to be communicated • A Protocol is one of the components of a data communications system. Without protocol communication cannot occur. The sending device cannot just send the data and expect the receiving device to receive and further interpret it correctly .Protocol • A Protocol is defined as a set of rules that governs data communications • A protocol defines what is to be communicated.

Data Communication Frameworks • Two major data communication frameworks have been developed to help ensure that networks meet business and communication requirements: – Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite .

OSI Reference Model in Practice • The OSI reference model is used in many ways: • To provide assistance when troubleshooting network problems • To provide a common terminology and framework for networking technology developers • To facilitate the development of connectivity standards needed for flexible open architectures • To enable the development of protocol stacks that allow network nodes to communicate with one another .

For example. (Ex Word. or computer. this layer may convert ASCII code (what many applications like Word use) to an 8-bit code. This is the level that acknowledges receipt of a transmission as well as sends the message to the network. Excel. LAYER 5 – SESSION This layer keeps track of whose turn it is to receive traffic.PRESENTATION This layer is responsible for converting the visual interface into a code that is then sent through the computer or network.The OSI Model THE OSI MODEL LAYER LAYER LAYER LAYER LAYER LAYER LAYER 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical • LAYER 7– APPLICATION The visual interface level between the user and the network. • • • . Multiplexing and demultiplexing occurs on this layer. Access. LAYER 4 – TRANSPORT All streams of data are received and combined into one single stream so that data may be sent through the network. Email) LAYER 6-. basically it is a dialog control.

formation. LAYER 2– DATA LINK There is where a check of the message occurs. As with the other two layers. If the test is a successful. That is the duration of bits. which is programmed to accept or reject depending if the header is the one used by the network. if this test is successful. the right number of bits. • • . the message is sent up the chain. This is done by a header system. voltage. and wavelength. That is the message is checked for the proper frame. synchronization. the message is sent to the network layer to determine if the message is truly meant for the system. power level. and the right wavelength is checked. LAYER 1– PHYSICAL Where the actual physical makeup of the message is identified.The OSI Model THE OSI MODEL LAYER LAYER LAYER LAYER LAYER LAYER LAYER 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical • • BOTTOM/LOWER LAYERS LAYER 3– NETWORK On this level the router exists to determine if the message is meant for the system or if it needs to be redirected to its final destination.

the TCP/IP suite is layered – Because the protocols found at each layer are independent of those at the other layers.TCP/IP Protocol Suite • The TCP/IP suite provides insights into the inner workings of the Internet • Like the OSI model. a given protocol can be modified without affecting those found at other layers – TCP/IP layers and layer-specific protocols are illustrated in next slide .


Networking and Internetworking Devices .

Connecting Devices Networking Devices Internetworking Devices Repeaters Bridges Routers Gateways .

Connecting Devices Hub .

Repeater • Extend the physical length • No network function has been changed • Location is matter .

Function of repeater Repeater is not exactly as same as Amplifier .

Hub • Actually is a multiport repeater • Star / Tree Topology .

g. congestion) • Regenerate signal + Checking Physical Address and forward only to the specified segment .Bridge • Divide a large network into smaller segment • Isolating and controlling the link problems (e.

Function of a bridge .

" – “Process of discovering. selecting. . and employing paths from one place to another.Routers • Act like stations on a network • Definition (Goal) – “Learning how to get from here to there.

Routers in an internet .

A gateway SNA network (IBM) Netware network (Novell) .

Switches .

Virtual Network .

.  Became popular as more employees worked in remote locations. such as the Internet. instead of leased lines to communicate.What is VPN?  Virtual Private Network is a type of private network that uses public telecommunication.

Private Networks vs. . The Internet is used as the backbone for VPNs Saves cost tremendously from reduction of equipment and maintenance costs. Secured networks. Virtual Private Networks Employees can access the network (Intranet) from remote locations.

. • Teach. • Avoid travels. • Communicate “face to face” where it would otherwise be impossible. • Collaborate. • Build relationships.Video conferencing • Save money and time.

COMPONENTS OF A VIDEO CONFERENCING Camera Codec Display Devices interactive whiteboards Microphone Streaming & Archiving Equipment .