W.

Ryan Geister
CenTraVac Product Manager Vertical Markets

Trane 3600 Pammel Creek Road LaCrosse WI 54601 7599 TEL 608 787 3881 FAX 608 787 2204 rgeister@trane.com
An American Standard Company

Energy First Cost Consumption

Annual Energy Cost Conventional Chilled Water System

Past ...
Chiller 73%

1980

Pumps 18%

Tower 9%

Present ...
Chiller 58%

2000
Pum ps 26%

Tower 16%

Low Flow Chilled Water Plant Design …

A Paradigm Shift - New “Rules of Thumb”

New “rules of thumb”
 

44  41 F chilled water supply 16 F T across the evaporator

that’s at 1.5 gpm/ton

15 F T across the condenser

that’s at 2.0 gpm/ton

Resize the cooling tower accordingly

Low Flow Chilled Water Plant Design …

What are other’s saying???

Kelly and Chan (Vanderweil Engineering)
 

HPAC January 1999: Optimizing Chilled Water Plants” Chilled water T: 18° & Condenser water T: 14.2°F
“With the same cost chillers, at worst, the annual operating cost with lower flows be about equal to “standard” flows but still at a lower first cost”

PG&E: CoolTools™
 

Chilled water T: 12°F to 20 °F Condenser water T: 12°F to 18 °F (multi-stage)
kWh/ton/year
600 400 200 0 41/16 42/14 43/12 44/10 Chilled water pump Chiller

Chilled water supply temperature/DeltaT

EarthWise Chilled Water Systems:

Good for Business...

Offers lower first cost and lower operating cost. Reduced utility generated greenhouse gas emissions.

Good for the Environment:

Reduces pumping costs...

A low flow, low temp, high efficiency system
control s

Leverages today’s technology

Equipment - Chillers, Controls  System options

+$

–$
piping, pumps

+$
chillers

Q= m cp T Fundamental Laws

Mass (capacity) varies directly with flow
>

T = Smaller Pipes & Tower P = Smaller Pumps

Pressure Drop varies with the square of the flow
<

Energy Consumption varies with the cube of the flow
Reduced

Operating Costs!

The Next Step...

How have Chillers Reacted to VPF… Traditionally???
130 1,500.00 120

Capacity Control w/o Water Flow Compensation

1,300.00

110

1,100.00

100
Evaporator Water Flow

900.00

Water Temp [degF]

80

500.00

70

60

Too Fast a change can be a problem

300.00

100.00

Evap Entering Water Temp

50

-100.00

40
Chiller on
Evap Leaving Water Temp

-300.00
Chiller off Chiller off

30 0:00:00

0:10:00

0:20:00

0:30:00

0:40:00

-500.00 0:50:00

Time (hour:min:sec)

Water Flow [gpm]

90

700.00

But Newer Technology Can Eliminate all Concerns
130 1,500.00 120

Capacity Control with Water Flow Compensation

1,300.00

110

1,100.00

100

900.00

Water Temp [degF]

90

Evaporator Water Flow

700.00

80

70

Stable Chiller Response
Evap Entering Water Temp

500.00

300.00

60

100.00

50

-100.00

40
Evap Leaving Water Temp

-300.00

30 0:00:00

0:10:00

0:20:00 0:30:00 Time (hour:min:sec)

0:40:00

-500.00 0:50:00

Water Flow [gpm]

Bottom line: Chiller’s very capable today! & VPF Saves $$$

And... By coupling VPF Systems with SERIES Evaporators, many advantages emerge...

System Examples

Series Chillers & colder water = $ savings!

How???
CHILLED WATER RETURN CHILLED WATER SUPPLY

57 o F

49 o F
105 o F

41 o F

56 o F 64 o F

Assuming 85 Entering and 2 GPM/Ton

Run two chillers at 50% or…..
41 oF

49 oF

Even better...
CHILLED WATER RETURN

Part Load Efficiency
CHILLED WATER SUPPLY

57 o F

57 o F
105 o F

41 o F

….Run your most efficient chiller

64 o F

41 o F

If applicable...
CHILLED WATER RETURN

Chilled Water Temperature Re-Set
CHILLED WATER SUPPLY

57 o F

57 o F
105 o F

44 o F

…And save more $$$’s!

61 o F

44 o F

If applicable...
AFD Chiller
CHILLED WATER RETURN CHILLED WATER SUPPLY

57 o F

57 o F

41 o F

…And save more $$$’s!*
* IF all three justify the initial capital cost of the AFD
1. Extensive hours of operation (~24/7, winter cooling) 2. Access to inexpensive cold condenser water 3. Expensive electricity (high kWh rates)

System Flexibility Options... Absorption Chiller Technology
CHILLED WATER RETURN CHILLED WATER SUPPLY

57 o F

50 o F

41 o F

System Flexibility Options... Screw Chiller Technology
CHILLED WATER RETURN CHILLED WATER SUPPLY

57 o F

50 o F

41 o F

System Flexibility Options... Existing Chiller Assets
CHILLED WATER RETURN CHILLED WATER SUPPLY

57 o F

50 o F

41 o F

Existing Chiller Assets

System Flexibility Options...
Plant Expansion
CHILLED WATER RETURN

Parallel - Primary Secondary (Decoupled)
~50 oF

57 oF

CHILLED WATER SUPPLY

41 oF

System Flexibility Options...
Plant Expansion
Parallel/Series - Variable-Primary
CHILLED WATER SUPPLY

CHILLED WATER RETURN 57 oF

~50 oF

41 oF

EarthWise™ Chilled Water Systems
Exploit technology! • Low flow • Low temperature • High efficiency Leverage: • Optimized Controls • Variable Primary Flow • Series Evaporators

First Operating Cost Cost

always, always,

Always Remember …

W. Ryan Geister
CenTraVac Product Manager Vertical Markets

Trane 3600 Pammel Creek Road LaCrosse WI 54601 7599 TEL 608 787 3881 FAX 608 787 2204 rgeister@trane.com
An American Standard Company