Ultrasonic Testing

Overview of Ultrasonic Testing Methods
Contact Testing Through Transmission
Pulse Echo
Immersion Testing Resonance Technique
Normal Probe A Scan
Pulse Echo B Scan
Angle Probe C Scan



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Defect orientation
0 degree Probes
D
e
p
t
h

Metal
Depth
Screen

GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Defect orientation
Angle probes
Range
Range
Depth = Range x Cos (Probe angle)
Screen
A,B & C Scan images













.
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• Ultrasonic Test (UT)
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai







Generation
Piezoelectric materials - presently artificially produced
polarised ceramic transducers - BaTiO3, PZT, Pb meta
niobate etc
- mechanical vibrations to electric pulse
electrical pulse to mechanical vibrations
Magnetostrictive and electrodynamic- not normally used
Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
Ultrasonic waves
- sound waves of frequency more than 20 KHz
- UT frequencies of 0.5 MHz to 15 MHz (25 MHz)
choice of frequency depends on sensitivity required and
attenuation (loss of US wave energy as it propagates)
properties of the material.
Higher the frequency – higher the sensivity
Higher the frequency – higher the attenuation of US waves
with the result it may not be possible to use high
frequency probes with high attenuating materials
settling for low sensitivity.
3. Attenuation - 4. Near field and Far field effect -only indirect effect
Properties:
1. Propagation - most engg. materials allow the
propagation of USW
- elastic property of the material-they allow the
vibration to be transmitted
2. Reflection - Transmission
Propagating US waves get reflected/transmitted at
interfaces.Large acoustic impedance mismatch
between the mediums leads to reflection
similar to light reflection by mirror
Acoustic impedance = density X wave velocity
Reflection energy coefficient R= (Z
2
- Z
1
)
2
/
(Z
2
+Z
1
)
2

R =99% for a crack interface:air interface : R=30- 60%for inclusions
Transmission energy coefficient T = 4 Z1 Z2
(Z
2
+Z
1
)
2

Probe in direct contact with steel :T (BaTiO3-air-steel) = .005%
Probe in contact with couplant:T BaTiO3-any couplant-steel) = 16%
(hence use of couplant is must in UT)
Pulse Echo Technique
Almost entire UT is carried out with this technique
The principle is similar to echo hearing by
bats to locate obstacles or prey
In this method, the elapsed time between
the sending of the waves at the front
surface and receiving of reflected waves is
measured. The time information is
converted into thickness information
through the wave velocity in the material.
The interfaces are identified
Wave velocity in steel is 5900 m/sec. From this it
is evident that that the time of travel Ultrasonic
waves in 100 mm of steel is of the order of
microseconds
To measure time of this order a CRT is used
How interfaces are identified
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Ultrasonic testing
Ultrasonic waves are sent and
Reflected ultrasonic waves are received
and elapsed time is measured. Defect
detected and located
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Ultrasonic wave propagation
Propagation of vibrations or oscillations – ( to
and fro motion)unlike electromagentic
radiation needs a medium for propagation
Wave - disturbance that travels through a
medium, transmitting energy from
one location to another location.
Medium - the material through which the
disturbance is moving – medium is
permanently displaced
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Infrasound - 0-20 Hz

Audible sound - 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz

Ultrasound - >20,000 Hz (or 20 KHz)

Medical ultrasound- 2.5 MHz to 15 MHz
Industrial Ultrasound –0.5MHz –25 MHz-
100 MHz
Wave velocity is a material property dependant on ρand and μ
and not thickness, distance or travel or probe frequency.
Definitions
1. Time period – time for one full oscillation-
secs, microsecs, nanosecs
2. Frequency–no. oscillations/unit time-cycles/sec Hz,
KHz, MHz
US waves above 20 KHz. 0.5 MHz – 15 MHz:25MHz
Time period and frequency are inversely related
3. Wavelength - displacement for one full oscillation
mm, cm, metre
4. Wave velocity– phase velocity – different from
particle velocity velocity with which energy transferred
or the velocity with disturbance travels - C = f/λ
C being constant, ‘λ’ is inversely proportional to ‘f’
Wave velocity (contd)
Wave velocity is a material property determined by
density, Youngs Modulud smf Poisssons’ ratio
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Acoustic impedance (Z)
- ratio of acoustic pressure to particle velocity Z = P/V
-from the above one can get an expression Z
= ρ C
l
or

Z = ρ C
t
Z is an important property of ultrasonic waves as the entire property
of reflection /transmission is determined the acoustic impedances of
the two mediums Unit of Z
1.the design of ultrasonic transducers.
2.assessing absorption of sound in a medium.
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Pressure, Energy and Intensity: (indicative of amount of X-rays )
Sound pressure: pressure or stress oscillation in a medium with wave
propagation ie o
x
for longitudinal and t
xy
for transverse waves.
Energy density: Intensity :
They are proportional to square of sound pressure. The above three
terms denote the quantity of sound waves in a medium.
I or E o P
2
The sound pressure is the most important in UT since echo height at the
screen is proportional to the sound pressure.
Intensity = Energy /unit area/unit time since the energy/time ratio is
equivalent to the quantity power , intensity is simply the power/area.
Typical units for expressing the intensity of a sound wave are
Watts/meter
2
.

GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Types and modes of vibration
Types of ultrasonic waves : continuous and pulsed
Modes of vibration – the relationship between particle movement
direction and wave propagation direction
Modes of vibration are
1. Longitudinal – compressional
2. Transverse - shear
3. Surface - Rayleigh
5. Plate waves - Lamb
6. Rod waves - Love waves

Guided waves
dispersive
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Coninuous and pulsed waves
Type of waves that could be used in Pulse echo
Through transmission &
Resonance
Modes of vibration (continued)
Topic will be dealt under the following headings
1. Definition 2. Example 3. Mediums of wave propagation
4. Generation 5. Expression for wave velocity
Longitudinal waves
1.Particle movement direction is
parallel to wave propagation
direction
2. Sound in air
3. Longitudinal waves propagate in
all mediums gas, liquid and solid
4.All piezoelectric materials
generate longitudinal waves.
Exception is Y cut quartz
5. Expression for wave velocity
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Transverse waves
1. Particle movement direction is
perpendicular to the wave
propagation direction
2. Rope pulled from one end
3. Propagates only in solid medium
Shear forces cannot be sustained
by fluids
4. No piezoelectric material except Y
cut quartz on its own generate
transverse waves
5. Expression for wave velocity
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Longitudinal and transverse waves
Substitute μ for steel
Cl/Ct = 91/50
Long. 91mm in steel is
equivalent to 50 mm of shear
Meaning of the above
For same frequency of probe in steel,
which mode is sensitive – long or trans
Cl and Ct equations can be solved to get E
& μ
Applications :
1. good for quality control tool
2. material chracterization
μ = C
l
2 —
2

C

t
2

2(

C
l
2 —
C

t
2)
E = ρ C
l
2
2

C
l
2 —
4

C

t
2
C
l
2 —
C

t
2

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Compression waves
• Vibration and propagation in the same
direction
• Travel in solids, liquids and gases
Propagation
Particle vibration
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Shear waves
• Vibration at right angles to direction of
propagation
• Travel in solids only
• Velocity ~ 1/2 compression (same material)
Propagation
Particle vibration
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Surface waves/((Rayleigh waves) x 1-
(

1. The particles move in an
elliptical path
2. Example- Earth quake
3. Only in solids- contains
transverse wave component
4. Oblique incidence of
longitudinal wave: the angle
corresponding to second
critical angle
5. C
0
= 0.9 C
t



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Surface Waves
• Elliptical vibration
• Velocity 8% less than shear
• Penetrate one wavelength deep
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1. Useful depth of penetration is limited to one
wavelength
2. Reflected by sharp corners
3. Propagates along smooth curves
4. Damped by oil, grease & dirt
5. Very good candidates for complicated shapes for
surface defects turbine blades curved and holes below.
Rayleigh waves are useful because they are very
sensitive to surface defects and since they will
follow the surface around, curves can also be used
to inspect areas that other waves might have
difficulty reaching.
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Complicated geometry- turbine blades
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Wave characteristics
Imagine a long rope stretched out straight along the ground. If you
vibrate one end periodically, then a transverse wave will move
along it. A snapshot would look like this:


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Plate, Rod waves - Lamb waves & Love waves (Guided waves)
Plate thickness or dia. of rod Is equal to the wavelength pure
L,T and S cannot exist.
In these cases Plate waves and Rod waves are generated.
•1. Complicated motion of particles : symmetrical and assymetrical
•2.They are dispersive: wave velocity not only depends on µ, E & µ
• but also on frequency and thickness of the material.
•3. Sin u = V
l
/V
P
where V
l
is desired velocity
Frequency & thickness relationship
As these waves involve the entire thickness for the propagation, the
frequency need be so chosen that he wavelength correspond to the
thickness of the plate
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Lamb and Love waves (continued)
Lamb waves are similar to longitudinal waves,
with compression and rarefaction, but they are
bounded by the sheet or plate surface causing a
wave-guide effect.
As the entire thickness is involved, normally these
waves are generated in thin plates and rod.
Velociy need be found out for frequency-thickness
combination and graphs (dispersion curves)are available
Advances in NDE II – Newer UT methods
Guided waves,
Phased array probe,
Backscattering techniques and TOFD
Conventional UT & Guided Waves Testing
Transducer
Conventional ultrasonic testing
Region of inspection
Transducer
Guided wave inspection
Global inspection
Length of coverage
limited to the probe size
Length of coverage high
upto 100 mtrs
Buried pipelines and
insulation coatings pose
problems
Buried structures with
insulation coatings can be
tested
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0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
Distance (m)
Clean Pipe
Generally Corroded Pipe
Reflection –Transmission property
Case I : Normal incidence
Case II : Oblique incidence
Medium 1
Medium 2
P
i
P
r
P
t
Z
1
Z
2
Fig 2 : The schematic representation of the reflection and transmission
of ultrasonic waves between two materials.
Medium 1
Medium 2
Ei
i
Er

Et

Z
1
Z
2
Fig 2 : The schematic representation of the reflection and
transmission of ultrasonic waves between two materials.
Derivation of reflection and transmitted coefficients
P
i
– Incident pressure : P
r
– Reflected pressure
P
t
– Transmitted pressure . Similarly E
i
,E
r
&E
t
are
energies
Z
1,
Z
2
acoustic impedances of the mediums


As the interface is stationary, the following assumptions
can be made
P
r
+ P
i
= P
t
----- 1
V
i
+ V
r
= V
t
------ 2
The acoustic impedance (Z) is given by P/V
From eq. (1).P
r
/P
i
+ 1 =P
t
/P
i
---- 3
From eq.(2) -P
r
/Z
1
+ P
i
/Z
1
= P
t
/Z
2
--- 4
Defining reflection and
pressure coefficients as
R = P
r
/P
i

T = P
t
/P
i

R+1= T -- 5
-R+1 = T z
1
/z
2
-6
5+6: 2 = T + Tz
1
/z
2
T= 2Z
2
Z
2
+Z
1
R= (Z
2
- Z
1
) / (Z
2
+Z
1
)
Reflected and transmitted energy coefficients
R
!
= E
r
/E
i

T
!
= E
t
/E
i

E = P
2
/2Z
R
!
= P
r
2
/2Z
1
P
i
2
/2Z
1

=

R
2
=(Z
2
- Z
1
)
2
/ (Z
2
+Z
1
)
2

Unlike pressure , energy
need be conserved
R
!
+

T
!
= 1
T
!
= 4 Z
1
Z
2

(Z
2
+Z
1
)
2

Hence, it can be observed
that the reflection and
transmission factors
between two semi-infinite
media (ie. not for layered
structures) is only
dependent upon the
acoustic impedance and not
parameters such as
amplitude, frequency, etc
Reflection Pressure coefficient = (Z
2
- Z
1
) / (Z
2
+Z
1
)
Transmission coefficient = 2Z
2 /
Z
2
+Z
1
Reflection energy coefficient = =(Z
2
- Z
1
)
2
/ (Z
2
+Z
1
)
2
Transmission energy coefficient = 4 Z
1
Z
2 /

(Z
2
+Z
1
)
2

Sum of pressure coefficients is not equal to 1
Sum of energy coefficients is equal to 1
Discussion (based on energy coefficients)
Case 1 Z2 = Z1
R =
T =
Two mediums & still
having same acoustic
impedance.Examples
Case 2 Z2 >> Z1
R tends to
T tends to
Case III
In between
In UT Which property is
important T or R
For transmitting from probe to
Material T is important
For defect detection R is
important
Example/illustration
Transmission from transducer/probe to material
Case I : Transducer BaTio3 directly in contact with the
material steel
Interfaces are BaTio3, Air & Steel
US generated at BaTio3 is transmitted to air and from air
to steel
Nature of couplant depends on surface roughness( )
Zc = sq.rt Z1x Z2
Couplant thickness wavelength in couplant /4
T
13


BaTio3 to air - T12
Air to steel - T 23
BaTio3 to steel - T12 X T23
Works out to be 0.005%. Virtually no transmission
Case II – thin layer of couplant between Crystal and steel
Same calculation as above. T works to be 16%, 3000 times
higher
Couplants need be used( water, oil, grease etc)
4. Precision Measurements of Density and Viscosity.
Various applications in the manufacturing industry requires
realtime, online measurement of material properties. Such
applications include oil refineries, polymer industries,
injection molding, glass melting, molten metal processes, etc.
Using the longitudinal wave reflection factor between a solid
and the fluid, techniques have been developed for the
measurement of density of the fluid
2
. Similarly, the shear
wave reflection factors have been employed for the
measurement of viscosity of the melts
2,3
. [KB1]
[KB1]I wonder how the detectability is an issue when we
speak of reflection. Once, detectability is an issue, scattering
and diffraction automatically comes into the picture. BEST
TO AVOID CONTROVERSY.

GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
App. Surface Roughness
Amplitude RMS Microns

Equivalent couplant viscosity

5 – 100

SAE 10

50 – 200

SAE 20

80 – 600

GLYCERIN

100 – 700

SAE 30

250 – 700

SAE 40

OVER 1000

CUP GREASE

GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Now reflection property- when it is important
Flaw detection – a large acoustic impedance
mismatch will result in larger reflection or
better defect detection
Flaw however large with same Z as the medium
cannot be detected - why
Reflection at flaws in test objects
Reflection from air filled flaw – crack - -99.99%
Water filled flaw - 93.7%
Inclusions - 30 to 50 %
Inclusions – why less – why a range of values
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Reflection at oblique incidence - refraction-mode conversion
Simple reflection and refraction
Refraction
When a wave encounters different
medium where the wave speed is
different, the wave will change
directions. This bending of waves
is refraction
This refraction is upward or
downward with respect
original direction
Depends on the --------- of the
two mediums
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Role of velocities illustrated
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Relection-refraction and mode conversion


Other than normal reflection and refraction, there are
reflected shear and refracted shear waves (VS1 and
VS2). This is due to mode conversion. At the interface,
one mode is getting converted into the other mode.
Longitudinal to shear: shear to longitudinal
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Angular relationship between components-
Snells law
2
1
2
1
V
V
Sin
Sin
=
o
o
Convenient expression would be
) mod & (
) mod & (
2
1
2
1
e medium V
e medium V
Sin
Sin
=
o
o
Very generalised- any component to any other
component
Snells law expressions- Normal refll. And
Refr. Mode converted Refl. And Refr.
Also between normal refraction and mode converted refraction
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Mode conversion in UT= angle probe construction
Lucite/perspex to steel–practical significance


Two components in steel: two different flaws
one in the path of longitudinal at a depth of
91mm and other in the path of transverse at a
depth of 50mm : What is the CRT indication




One large flaw having same depth in the path of
long & shear – CRT indication
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
What is the way out- eliminate one –
which one and how
Increase of the incident angle- increase of refr.L and T
At one angle the refr.L crazes the surface- moves along
the surface-CRLW – I critical angle: Lucite steel ?
Further increase II crtical angle – generation of
surface waves–II critical angle for Lucite – steel
Only one mode in steel- between I critical angle
and II critical angle
Calculate I and II critical
angles for water and
steel interface
Second critical angle-
what waves will be
present at the interface
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Construction of angle probe–range of angles
Lucite block–cut a wedge–what is the wedge
angle in relation to incident angle
Why absorbent material – thick block on the
right side
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Can shear wave testing be carried out in immersion testing
Yes and more elegantly – any angle between I & II by
tilting the normal probe to the desired angle
The angles marked in probe is normally for steel. For other
materials, these angles are to be determined as these are
needed in defect evalauation namely projected dstance and
depth of the defect
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Role of liquid couplant in angle beam testing-
does the angle remains same or changed
It can be mathematically established that the
angle does not change because of intervening
liquid couplant
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No transmission- only reflection – relative
intensities of longitudinal and transverse waves
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai




Appearance initial pulse in the normal and
angle beam techniques




Why initial pulse is inside CRT in the angle
beam calibration
References:
1.
2.I
http://www.ndt.net/article/v05n09/berke/berke3.htm
ndt-ed.org/.../CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics

GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
How to get narrow and broad band probe
Damping of the crystal
Choice of probes


Property

Narrow band

Wide band

Pulse strength

High

Not that good for
DGS

Sensitivity

Good

Not that good

Resolution

Not good

Good

Noise

more with coarse
grains

Good penetration
with coarse grains

Near surface res.

Not that good

Good

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Near and Far field effects
Near zone–Fresnel zone– Zone immediately adjacent to
the probe
Far zone- Fraunhoffer zone- zone after the near field
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1.Description and origin
2. Formula and variables affecting the zones
3. Influence on testing
4.Others
Near Field
Near field is characterised by nearly constant
beam width and shape is same that of the
circular crystal. The pressure or energy or
internsity of US waves are nonuniformly
varying having alternate maxima and
minima. The crystal is having many
microscrystals and emiitting waves.Due to
interference, the energy is varying / The
zone is also known as interference zone
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Formula and variables affecting the near field
N= D
2
/4λ--!!!! N = D
2
f / 4 c
Effective crystal size and frequency influence the near field
As Dia of the crystal increases near field increases
As frequency increases near field increases
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Influence on testing
Defect detection poses no problem as the width of the
defect is very much larger than the width of the
maxima and minima zones. Covered by both energies
Sizing – not possible since DGS principle of sizing is
based on uniform variation in sound pressure, energy or
intensity
Others 1. Near zone and dead zone




Dead zone- immediately adjacent
to the probe- extension of initial
pulse caused by pulse duration
etc. No detection, no thickness
measurement
Near zone only sizing not
possible
Others 2 -Defects in near zone – how to size
Defect position cannot be changed- but defect can be
made to be in the far zone - how
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
1.Description and origin
2. Formula and variables affecting the zones
3. Influence on testing
Far field
Far field- Fraunhoffer zone – Divergence zone
Description and origin : after the last maxima –
characterised by divergent beam – no interference after
certain distance. Sound energy decreases uniformly
4.Others
Formula and variables influencing far field
Sin ψ/2 = K λ/ D : K C/ D f – D and f influence in the
same way. Higher D and f , lower the divergence: low D
and f larger the divergence or beam spread
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Influence on testing: detecting and sizing possible.
This is because the sound pressure varies
uniformaly
Others: the K, constant has values 1.22, 1.08, 0.56 and
0.44 corresponding to intensities 0%, 10%,50% and
70%, with respect to axis taken to be 100% intensity
Determines probe placing intervals and speed of testing
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Side lobes and immersion testing
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai Which will have higher sensitivity and resolution and why
Sensitivity of high frequency probes explained
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Width of the ultrasonic field at any distance from
the probe for any intensity
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Summary
f & D N
f & D
ψ
Penetrability and frequency
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Attenuation of US waves
Attenuation is the loss of ultrasonic wave energy
as it propagates in a material. There are two
main mechanisms of attenuation namely
absorption and scattering in the MHz frequency
range of UT.
o
T
= o
a
+ o
s
where o is the total attenuation coeff.
o
a
is the absorption att.coeff.



o
s
is the scattering att.coeff
The absorption of US energy occurs mainly by the
conversion of mechanical energy (sound) into heat.
As the ultrasound propagates as a result of elastic
motion within the material the alternate heating
(during compression) and cooling (during rarefaction)
of the material take place. (dislocation damping,
internal friction
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Scattering which is reflection in all directions occurs
because most materials are inhomogenous. The
inhomogeneities interact with propagating ultrasound
leading to scattering. The inhomogeneities can be
grain boundaries, minute gas pores, small size
inclusions etc. It can be taken that the scattering takes
place when the obstacle size 10 times or larger than the
wavelength of ultrasound. This essentially means that
when we have large grains scattering sets in or when
the ì is very small compared to the grain size.
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Measurement of attenuation
Attenuation equation I = I
0
e -
o t

where t is the thickness and I and I
0
are the intensities.
A convenient way of comparing the intensities is in terms
decibels (dB)
dB is one tenth of a bel
What is bel : if p
1
and p
2
are acoustic powers, they are said to
differ by n bels if p
1
/ p
2
= 10
n

n = log p
1
/ p
2

dB = 10 log p
1
/ p
2


Acoustic power is proportional to intensity.
dB = 10 log I
1
/ I
2
but I is o to Amplitude
2

dB = 10 log A
1
2
/ A
2
2
or 20 log A
1
/ A
2

It can be found out that if the second amplitude is half of the
first amplitude, the change in dB will be 6 units. Similarly it
can be worked out for other ratios.
Measurement of attenuation db/mm
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai

















GJ, IIT (M), Chennai
Origin of multiple echos, PRF, Pulse length
http://www.ndt.net/article/v05n09/berke/berke3.htm
Nondestructive Material Testing with Ultrasonics
- Introduction to the Basic Principles
NDT.net - September 2000, Vol. 5
l
GJ, IIT (M), Chennai





Calibration to 182 of Long.
Transverse - ?
Keeping the angle probe at
the centre 100 mm arch