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THE SUN

1.CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUN

Can you imagine life on earth without the SUN?

Is it true that the SUN is one of our billions of stars in our galaxy?

The answer is yes,


The SUN is a medium-sized yellow star.

Because, a star by definition is a huge celestial mass of hot glowing gas. So, sun is a star and It is the earths nearest star.

There are more than 100 billion of galaxies in the observable universe, and one of them is our galaxy called the MILKY WAY, and the sun is located in the outer part of our galaxy. There are more than 100 billion of stars in the Milky Way.

SUN

MILKY WAY GALAXY

This is our solar system. ( consists of our Earth planet and other planets). The sun is located at the centre of our Solar System.

SUN

Our solar system is located here, in the outer part of our Milky Way galaxy.

Our solar system

The sun revolves (mengelilingi) around the centre of Milky Way. The sun take 250 million Earth years to complete one revolution.

Different parts of the sun rotate at different rates. This is because the sun is a sphere of hot gases.
at the poles (kutub) it is 36 Earth days

The period of rotation at the equator ( garis lintang) is 25 Earth days

Tell me the SUN can you tell me.. No, so lets find out..
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1. DENSITY

The sun density is 1.41 times the density of water and 0.27 times that of the earth.

2. MASS
The sun mass is 1.089 x 1030kg And its relative mass is 333,000 times the earths mass.

3. TEMPERATURE
Surface temperature is 6000 degree Celsius

CORE

Temperature at the core Is 15 million degree Celsius

4. AGE
The sun age is 4.6 billion years. It is estimated that the sun will continue shining for another 5 billion years.

5. DISTANCE FROM EARTH

Sun Distance from the earth is 150 million km.

6. MAIN CONSTITUENTS
SUN is made up: of 75% Hydrogen and 25% of Helium by Mass, 92.10% of hydrogen gases and 7.8% of Helium gases by volume

7. DIAMETER The diameter of the sun is 1.39 km, and 1.3 million earths can fit inside the sun.

Inside the sun, 1. Hydrogen nuclei are crushed together or fused by the enormous pressure and temperature. Thereby creating nuclei of helium.
2. In this process of nuclear fusion, a vast amount of energy is released and lights up the Earth and provides us with heat energy.

Heat and light energy released 2 hydrogen atoms 1 helium atom

2. STRUCTURE OF THE SUN

1. The Suns core forms the centre of the sun.

2. It consists of hydrogen and helium gases.

CORE
3. Nuclear reaction occurs in the core all the time to 4. The cores temperature is generate and release heat and light energy. extremely high about 15 million oC

The Suns atmosphere consists of three parts:


Photosphere

Chromosphere

Corona

SUNS ATMOSPHEREis made up of three gaseous layer-there are:


1. CORONA

2. CHROMOSPHERE

3. PHOTOSPHERE

b) The thickest of all solar atmospheric layers.

a) The outermost layer of gas in the suns atmosphere

d) Only visible during eclipse of the sun

1. CORONA

e) The temperature varies between 500,000oC up to 2000,000oC

2. CHROMOSPHERE

a) Bright red layer of gas below the corona, between 2000km to 3000 km thick.

b) Only visible during eclipse of the sun

c) Temperature varies between 10 000 and 500 000 o C

3. PHOTOSPHERE
a)The thinnest of all solar atmospheric layers, approximately 300 km thick. b) Temperature is about 6000
o

c) This is the only part of the sun that is visible to the human eye. It appears bright yellow during the day. This layer responsible for radiating heat and light from the sun.

REMEMBER THESE!!!!
The photosphere is the thinnest and the coolest of all the solar atmospheric layer, Whereas the corona is the thickest and the hottest.

The photosphere is the only part of the sun that is normally visible to the human eye, whereas the Corona and the Chromosphere are only visible for a short duration during a total solar eclipse.

PHENOMENA THAT OCCUR AT THE SUNS ATMOSPHERE

There are a few phenomena that occur at the suns atmosphere among them are: 1. PROMINENCES 2. SOLAR FLARES 3. SUNSPOTS

Solar wind

Causes by the prominence

Prominence

Solar Flares

Sunspot

1.Prominenceit is an explosion of hot gas that Shoots out from the Suns Chromospheres, With shiny bright light.

2. It can shoot out as far as 300 to 400 thousand km and escape into outer space.

3. But this hot gas is subsequently pulled back to the chromospheres by the gravitational force of the sun .

4. It also emits charged particles and ultraviolet rays into outer space, it also causes a flow of wind Called solar wind. Solar wind consists of charged particles.

1. Solar flares- is a strong explosion of gases that happen suddenly in the suns chromospheres. Occurs for only a few minutes Or a few hours but with so much energy.

2. It occur near sunspots, its activities escalates when the activities of sunspots reach a peak every 11 years.

3. Solar flares release charged particles like protons and electrons into outer space, also the gamma rays and X-rays.

A solar flare is a thunderous explosion that occurs in the solar corona and chromosphere within the atmosphere of the Sun.

The incredible energy level of a solar flare is equivalent to tens of millions of atomic bombs exploding at the same time!

1. Sunspots dark spots on the Surface of the suns photosphere With a strong magnetic field. 2. Usually exist in groups and have Various sizes.

3. The dark spots is black in color because this area has a lower temperature (4000 oC) than its surroundings (6000 oC).

4. This phenomenon occurs for a period of a few hours to several months.

5. The numbers of sunspots reaches a peak every 11 years

The effects of the phenomena on the

surface of the sun on earth.

1. As the result of these phenomena , the sun radiates : ELECTROMAGNETIC RAYS - LIKE ULTRAVIOLET RAYS, X-RAYS, GAMMA RAYS AND COSMIC RAYS THAT ARE DANGEROUS TO LIVING THING ON EARTH.

2. These rays , heat, and light energy from the sun also affect the weather and communication on earth.

3. Charged particles as a result of solar flares reach the North pole or the south pole of the earth and collide with gas molecules in the atmosphere.
4. As a result, colourful lights that consist of green, yellow and red lights are produced.

5. These light that can be seen at night are called aurora.

Auroras (North/South Polar Lights; or aurorae, sing.: aurora) are natural colored light displays in the sky, usually observed at night, particularly in the polar zone.

They typically occur in the ionosphere. Some scientists call them "polar auroras" (or "aurorae polares").

In northern latitudes, the effect is known as the aurora borealis, named after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora, and the Greek name for north wind, Boreas. It often appears as a greenish glow or sometimes a faint red, as if the sun was rising from an unusual direction.

The aurora borealis is also called the northern polar lights, as it is only visible in the North sky from the Northern Hemisphere.
The aurora borealis most often occurs from September to October and from March to April. The Cree call this phenomenon the Dance of the Spirits.

The Aurora Borealis shines above Bear Lake , Alaska

Red and green Aurora in Fairbanks, Alaska

Aurora australis in Antarctica

6. It is believed that the quantity of heat energy received by earth increases when phenomena like prominences, solar flares and sunspots occur. 7. The charged particles and radiation from the sun also influence the weather and climate on earth.

8. The charged particle and radiation from the sun like cosmic rays, S-rays and gamma rays will collide with particles in the earths atmosphere.
9. This causes disturbance to the communications system like television and radio broadcasts, telegraph transmission and telephone calls.