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TEACHING AND LEARNING OF FRACTIONS USING CUISENAIRE ROD

Introducing Fractions Comparing Fractions Equivalent Fractions Addition/Subtraction of Fractions

INTRODUCING FRACTIONS

1 Orange = 2 _____?______

1 Oren = 2 Yellow 1 Yellow = ? rod Oren

1 Yellow =

1 Orange 2 1 2

If one Orange = 1, one rod Yellow = .

1 2

Numerator

Denominator

Find all pairs of rods in which one

1 rod is half the length of the other 2 rod.

What does each pair indicate?

Each pair indicates . 1

How big is

1 2

Fraction is a relationship and not a fixed quantity!

1 Dark Green = 3 ..?

1 Dark Green = 3 Red 1 Red = ? Dark Green

1 Red =

1 Dark Green 3 1 . 3

If one Dark Green = 1, one Red =

Find two pairs of rods that have the same relationship as the pair of rods indicated above.

1 3

How many pairs of rods can you obtain for 1 ? 4

1 4

How many pairs of rods to

1 represent ? 5

1 5

Try to show:

1 1 1 1 1 , , , , 6 7 8 9 10

1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 1 10

Can you show:

2 4 7 3 4 8 , , , , , ? 7 9 8 6 5 10

2 7 4 9 7 8 8 10

3 6

4 5

Write the fraction for each pair of rods;

1.

2.

3. 5.

4.

COMPARING FRACTIONS
Numerator is 1 Numerator is non-1 one of the denominators is a factor of the other denominators are non-factor

NUMERATOR IS 1 Take out 2 Dark Green.

Show

1 1 and by 2 3

using these Dark Green.

1 2 1 3
Which fraction has the bigger value?

Show

1 1 , 2 4

and

1 8

by

using Chocolate rods.

1 2

1 4 1 8

1 2

1 4 1 8

Which fraction has the biggest value?

Smallest value?

1 2

1 4 1 8

1 1 1 2 4 8

Reminder:
Comparison between fractions can only be done if we refer to the same unit (the whole).

1 1 1 , , 2 4 8
To compare the three fractions above, the three fractions must be represented by using the same coloured rod as the unit, that is Chocolate(8cm).

1 2

1 4 1 8

1 1 1 2 4 8

1 1 , 3 9
Which fraction is bigger? Can show or proof by using the appropriate rods?

1 3

1 9
1 1 3 9

1 1 , 5 10
Without using CRods, indicate which fraction is bigger. Check or verify your answer by using CRods.

What conclusion or generalisation can you make when comparing the value of fractions whose numerators are 1?

More than

Less than

1 2 1 3 1 5

> >
>

1 3 1 9 1 10

DENOMINATORS NON-1

Try to compare:

3 5 dan 4 8

Which fraction has the bigger value?

Reminder: we can only compare the value of fractions if they have the same denominator!

DENOMINATORS NON-1
Try comparing:

3 5 and 4 8

Not the same

DENOMINATORS NON-1
Try comparing:

3 5 and 4 8

Not the same

3 5 4 8

Show the two fractions by using the appropriate rods.

3 4 5 8
3 5 4 8

Compare:

2 5 dan 3 6

Which fraction has the bigger value?

2 3 5 6 2 5 3 6

DENOMINATORS ARE NON-FACTORS

Try comparing:

2 3 dan 3 4

Which fraction has the bigger value?


Which rod is appropriate to be used as 1 unit?

2 3 dan 3 4
We need to find the least common multiple (LCM) for both denominators (that is 3 and 4) by using CRods.

2 3 and 3 4
Take out the appropriate rod that represents 3 and 4. Put them side by side with the same starting point. Which rod is shorter? Add another same coloured rod. Continue until both rows of rods are of the same length.

The total length of either row is the Lowest Common Multiple for 3 and 4.

2 3 and 3 4

LCM for 3 and 4 = 12

=12 Use rods for 12 as one unit.

Show

2 and 3

3 . 4

2 3

3 4

2 3 3 4

or

2 3

Same length

3 4

2 3 3 4

Using the same approach, can you compare


2 3 and ? 3 5

2 3 and 3 5

LCM = 15

2 3 3 5

Challenge: can you compare the values of three fractions? a. Using Cuisenaire Rods b. Finding LCM

EQUIVALENT FRACTIONS

Name the fraction represented by the pair of CRods above

1 2
Use Red to represent each rod.

1 2 2 4

1 2 2 4
Use Whites to represent Reds.

1 2 2 4 4 8

1 2 4 2 4 8

EQUIVALENT FRACTIONS

Write down two equivalent fractions for the pair of rods below:

1 3 3 9

Write down two equivalent fractions for the pair of rods below:

2 4 3 6

Write down two equivalent fractions for the pair of rods below:

3 6 5 10

1 3 3 9 2 4 3 6 3 6 5 10

1 2 4 2 4 8
What is the relationship between the numerator and denominator of each equivalent fraction?

Complete:

2 3 6

6 4 8

6 9

1 2 6

Need skills on Addition of Whole Numbers using CRods

ADDITION/SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS ** Peringatan: ingat operasi tambah dengan


nombor bulat?

** Kita telah menggunakan analogi


sambungkan menjadi gerabak! ** Jadi kemahiran ini akan dipindahkan ke operasi dengan pecahan!

ADDITION/SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS Example:

** How do we avoid this misconception?

ADDITION OF FRACTIONS

Ingat: pecahan adalah satu hubungan. Di sini apakah hubungan putih dengan hijau mudah? Satu per tiga. Apakah hubungan putih dengan hijau mudah yang sama? Satu per tiga. Whole yang sama, maka jumlahnya adalah dua pertiga!

ADDITION OF FRACTIONS

Proceed with the same whole . (Penyebut yang sama)


Have more practices.

ADDITION OF FRACTIONS A. One denominator is a factor of the other denominator.


Example:

1 3 2 8

1 3 2 8
The bigger denominator is 8.

Can both fractions be represented by Chocolate)?


Represent both fractions by using Chocolate.

1 4 2 8 3 8

1 3 4 3 7 2 8 8 8 8

Try

2 3 5 10

2 4 5 10 3 10

2 3 4 3 7 10 10 10 5 10

B. Denominators are different and are not multiples


Contoh:

1 1 2 3

Bigger denominator is 3.
Can both fractions be represented by the Dark Green? Which Rod will be appropriate to be used as the whole for both fractions?

LCM for 2 & 3 = 6

1 3 2 6

1 2 3 6
1 1 3 2 1 2 3 6 6 6

Try:

2 1 3 4

= 12

2 1 8 3 5 3 4 12 12 12

C.

Adding and Subtraction of 3 fractions

Try to explain the following using CRods?

1 2 1 2 3 4

1 2 1 2 3 4
(i) Find LCM for 2, 3 & 4

1 2 1 2 3 4
(ii) Representing the above fractions using appropriate CRods.

1 2 2 3 1 4

1 2 1 2 3 4
(iii) Writing the equivalent fractions

1 6 2 12 2 8 3 12 1 3 4 12

(iii) Finding the answer

1 2 1 6 8 3 11 2 3 4 12 12 12 12

Try to explain the following?

2 1 3 3 6 4

2 1 3 3 6 4
(i) Find LCM for 3, 6 & 4

2 1 3 3 6 4
(ii) Representing the above fractions.

(iii) Write the equivalent fractions and calculate the answer.


2 1 3 8 2 9 3 6 4 12 12 12 15 12 3 1 12 1 1 4

Terima Kasih
Thank You